Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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O (O’Connor, Joseph - oxymoron)

(1,181 words)

O’Connor, Joseph Corpus Linguistics O’Connor, Michael Northwest Arabian Arabic, Old Arabic (Epigraphic) oath Andalusi Arabic, Asseverative Particle, Energicus, Exclamation, Modern Standard Arabic, Religion and Language, Ṣila Oba Nigeria Obdeijn, Herman Europe Obeidat, Hussein A. Pronominalization, Pronominalization Obeidat, Nawaf Topicalization object Agent, ʿAmal, Argument, Case Roles, Coherence, Diathesis, Diathesis, Functional Grammar, Functional Grammar, Mafʿūl, Transitivity, Transitivity: Object object → mafʿūl object displacement Transitivity: Obj…
Date: 2018-04-01

Optimality Theory

(4,500 words)

Author(s): Lutz Edzard
  1. Introduction Many phonetic and phonological observations can be conveniently recast in terms of theories of linguistic preference and natural generative phonology (cf. Hooper 1976), notably in terms of the approach of Vennemann (1983, 1988), which was applied to Semitic by Edzard (1991). Optimality Theory, originally proposed by Prince and Smolensky (1993), offers a formal means to capture the ‘ constraint ranking’ that is implicit in the rejection of disallowed forms and the evaluation of competing forms (‘candidates’) of linguistic surface forms. W…
Date: 2018-04-01

Orality

(1,381 words)

Author(s): Elizabeth M. Bergman
Orality refers to the ways in which information is processed and knowledge is transmitted in cultures that do not rely on the written word. The notion of orality derives primarily from work on oral-formulaic techniques of verse composition by Parry (1971) on Homeric Greek poetry and Lord (1960) on Serbo-Croatian verse epics (poetic koine). They describe oral texts as composed of standardized themes associated with formulaic phrases, all of which make up a poetic repertoire upon which the experie…
Date: 2018-04-01

Ottoman Empire

(3,279 words)

Author(s): Gottfried Hagen
Arabic was one of the elsine-i s̲elās̲e ‘the three languages’, which constituted the basis of Ottoman elite culture. Thus, the Ottoman Empire can be described as part of a historical space-time characterized by the use of Arabic as a means of communication, which in analogy to Fragner's concept of ‘Persophonie’ can be named ‘Arabophonia’ (Fragner 1999). In the Ottoman Empire, in addition to its function as an ethnic language in the Arab provinces, Arabic was cultivated as the language of Islam and, mo…
Date: 2018-04-01