Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

Get access Subject: Asian Studies
Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese

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Brill’s Encyclopedia of China Online is based on the originally a thousand-page reference work on China with a clear focus on the modern period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 21st century. Written by the world’s top scholars, Brill’s Encyclopedia of China is the first place to look for reliable information on the history, geography, society, economy, politics, science, and culture of China.

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Alphabetical List of Entries

(4,122 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
A Academies Administrative Law 1. Concept, development and role 2. Administrative procedure and forms of action 3. Administrative controls 4. Administrative process 5. Government liability 6. Civil service law Adult education Advertising Aesthetics Africa Agricultural policy Agricultural Zones 1. Northeastern China 2. Inner Mongolia and the region along the Great Wall 3. Huang-He, Huai-He and Hai-He zone 4. High loess plateau 5. Middle and lower reaches of the Chang Jiang 6. Southwestern China 7. Southern China 8. Gansu-Xinjiang 9. Qinghai-Tibet Agriculture 1. Historical bac…


(1,341 words)

Author(s): Zarrow, Peter
Chinese interest in anarchism originated in the decade leading up to the Revolution of 1911 and peaked during the early Republic. Following the rise of Marxism-Leninism, most radicals turned away from anarchism by the 1930s, but the historical effects of the doctrine are profound. Notions such as mutual aid, work-study, and "laborism" (laodong zhuyi) spread beyond self-avowed anarchists to influence thousands of students, intellectuals, and political activists. Anarchism was the dominant form of radicalism and socialism into the 1920s, and many of…

Ancestor Worship

(958 words)

Author(s): Thompson, Stuart
Ancestor worship has been the lynchpin of Chinese "familism". It correlates with xiao (filial piety), the cardinal Chinese virtue, for ancestor worship minimally involves and invokes proper filial compliance to the needs of deceased parents. It expresses and is importantly constitutive of family and wider kin relationships, tending to confirm patriarchal lines of authority. It is premised on the culturally crucial idea that the living males of the family are merely links in a continuum of patrilineal descen…


(1,300 words)

Author(s): Wanning, Sun
Wan Hefei 105 counties, 22 cities 61.10 million inhabitants 139,800 km² 437 inhabitants/km2 Anhui is an inland province situated in the east of China sharing borders with Shandong to the north, Henan to the northwest, Hubei to the southwest, Jiangxi to the south, Zhejiang to the southeast, and Jiangsu to the northeast. A 400 km long section of the Yangzi which flows through the north of the province, and the Huai River that passes through Anhui in the north, together divide the province's territory into t…

Animal Husbandry

(727 words)

Author(s): Crook, Frederick
China's farmers domesticated animals many centuries before our common era, using both confined feeding techniques and managing grazing animals such as sheep and cattle on their extensive grasslands. Modern feeding and breeding techniques were introduced in the 20th century, but even at the end of the century most of China's pork, poultry, and eggs were produced by individual farm households using a mixture of traditional and modern husbandry techniques. Rural reforms initiated in the early 1980s…

Anti-Imperialist Movements

(1,676 words)

Author(s): Osterhammel, Jürgen
Ever since China "opened up" to the outside world, it was perceived by the great powers as having a population from which a particularly high degree of resistance to imperialistic advances had to be expected. This permanent willingness to protest played its part in making European powers less ready to intervene militarily in China than in other parts of Asia. Anti-imperialism in a form ready to strike developed as early as the Opium Wars with the Sanyuanli Incident of May 1841 when Cantonese mil…