Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

Get access Subject: Asian Studies
Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese

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Brill’s Encyclopedia of China Online is based on the originally a thousand-page reference work on China with a clear focus on the modern period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 21st century. Written by the world’s top scholars, Brill’s Encyclopedia of China is the first place to look for reliable information on the history, geography, society, economy, politics, science, and culture of China.

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(941 words)

Author(s): Linck, Gudula
Allusions to congenital and acquired disabilities are documented in China's earliest written sources, the oracle bones from the 2nd millennium BCE. Throughout history, sources confirm that people in pre-modern China suffered from chronic diseases, problematic dental deformations, impaired vision and hearing, speech impediments, paralysis of the extremities, and physical disfigurations, and that they largely recognized these disabilities in themselves and others. Two contradictory tendencies concerning the treatment of disabled people can be discerned hist…


(1,091 words)

Author(s): Obringer, Frédéric
Similar to the development of Western medical thought, the historical changes in the concept of "disease" in China cannot be reduced to one single term. States of illness in China from antiquity to today can not be defined following one single, unchanging, nonhistorical approach. Apart from the development of the cultural and social depictions of this topic over time, one notices that the rich corpus of medical texts primarily offers insights into diseases from the viewpoint of the educated elit…