Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

Get access Subject: Asian Studies
Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese

Brill’s Encyclopedia of China Online is based on the originally a thousand-page reference work on China with a clear focus on the modern period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 21st century. Written by the world’s top scholars, Brill’s Encyclopedia of China is the first place to look for reliable information on the history, geography, society, economy, politics, science, and culture of China.

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Road Traffic

(1,262 words)

Author(s): Comtois, Claude
In China, road traffic is essentially an urban phenomenon. One of the major problems of the road traffic system is the growing demand for urban passenger transport. This is a result of both population growth and the rising standard of living. But urban construction has an effect on passenger traffic as well. According to the People's Republic's plans for land use, apartments, shops, schools, and workplaces are all in walking or bicycling distance of each other. Because of this density and compac…

Russia

(3,552 words)

Author(s): Dittmer, Lowell
1. Relations before 1949 The relationship between these two vast empires astride the Eurasian heartland has historically been rivalrous, despite certain superficial similarities in size and political-economic structure. The Mongol Golden Horde invaded Russia in the 13th century, burning Moscow and taking Kiev, and they continued to collect tribute for the next 200 years, leaving an historical legacy of dread. Russia would lag China developmentally for the next several centuries, with a population th…