Encyclopedia of Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Editors: Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milič Lochman, John Mbiti, Jaroslav Pelikan and Lukas Vischer

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The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online describes modern-day Christian beliefs and communities in the context of 2000 years of apostolic tradition and Christian history. Based on the third, revised edition of the critically acclaimed German work Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon. The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online includes all 5 volumes of the print edition of 1999-2008 which has become a standard reference work for the study of Christianity past and present. Comprehensive, reflecting the highest standards in scholarship yet intended for a wide range of readers, the The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online also looks outward beyond Christianity, considering other world religions and philosophies as it paints the overall religious and socio-cultural picture in which the Christianity finds itself.

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Jewish Practices

(2,884 words)

Author(s): Langer, Ruth | Paulus, Jael B.
1. Worship With the Roman destruction of the second temple in 70 c.e., the biblically mandated covenantal sacrificial worship ceased. Rabbinic leaders decreed that prayer, along with study of Torah and charitable deeds, fills the void. They consequently developed the mechanisms of a new verbal system of worship. These prayers, while often located in a synagogue, may be recited virtually anywhere. The most important prayers are recited facing the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, and the architectural focus of the synagogue is its Jerusalem-facing wall, which houses the Torah scroll(s). An…

Jewish Theology

(4,957 words)

Author(s): Jacobs, Louis | Dorff, Elliot N.
1. Rabbinic Period The thinking of the biblical authors and of the Talmudic rabbis has rightly been described as organic, that is, responsive to the concrete situations of human life in all its variety. In the Bible, for instance, God is ever present, making demands on his people and on all humanity. He is the Controller and Governor of the universe. But no attempt is made to consider how God is said to create ex nihilo, how divine providence operates in detail. That there is evil in the universe is taken for granted, and there are mighty probings both in the Bible (esp. the Book of Job) and in…
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