Encyclopedia of Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Editors: Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milič Lochman, John Mbiti, Jaroslav Pelikan and Lukas Vischer

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The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online describes modern-day Christian beliefs and communities in the context of 2000 years of apostolic tradition and Christian history. Based on the third, revised edition of the critically acclaimed German work Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon. The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online includes all 5 volumes of the print edition of 1999-2008 which has become a standard reference work for the study of Christianity past and present. Comprehensive, reflecting the highest standards in scholarship yet intended for a wide range of readers, the The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online also looks outward beyond Christianity, considering other world religions and philosophies as it paints the overall religious and socio-cultural picture in which the Christianity finds itself.

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Ave Maria

(154 words)

Author(s): Scherschel, Rainer
Ave Maria (Lat. “Hail, Mary”) is the title of any prayer based on Luke 1:28, 42. These verses were a subject of “meditation,” or repeated recitation, in early monasticism. Those who could not manage the Psalms were permitted in the early Middle Ages to replace 150, 50, or 10 psalms by an equal number of Paternosters and later of Ave Marias as an allotment of penance or of prayer. The use of rosaries developed by addition of phrases pertaining to the life of Jesus. Many important composers have set the Ave Maria to music. See Mary, Devotion to Rainer ScherschelBibliography N. Ayo, The Hail Mary…


(5 words)

See Islamic Philosophy


(4 words)

See Reverence


(227 words)

Author(s): Hubbeling, Hubertus G.
The term “axiom” comes from the Gk. axioō (deem worthy), a verb the Greeks used in many senses. From the time of Aristotle (384–322 b.c.) it became a technical term to denote logical and philosophical principles that one accepts without further proof (Aristotelianism). Conclusions must follow from premises, which must themselves be proved. But since this process could go on forever, we must start with certain basic principles, or axioms, for which one cannot ask for further proof. Traditionally a distinction has been made between axioms, which must be self-evident if th…


(791 words)

Author(s): Editors, The
Azerbaijan is a Transcaucasian republic bordering on the Caspian Sea. Two parts of its territory have been claimed by neighboring Armenia: the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, an exclave to the southwest separated from the rest of Azerbaijan by a strip of ¶ Armenia; and the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region, an area wholly within Azerbaijan populated largely by Armenians. Tensions in Nagorno-Karabakh became violent in February 1988 and continued so until May 1994, when a cease-fire mediated by Russia was signed by the warring parties.…