Encyclopedia of Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Editors: Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milič Lochman, John Mbiti, Jaroslav Pelikan and Lukas Vischer

The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online describes modern-day Christian beliefs and communities in the context of 2000 years of apostolic tradition and Christian history. Based on the third, revised edition of the critically acclaimed German work Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon. The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online includes all 5 volumes of the print edition of 1999-2008 which has become a standard reference work for the study of Christianity past and present. Comprehensive, reflecting the highest standards in scholarship yet intended for a wide range of readers, the The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online also looks outward beyond Christianity, considering other world religions and philosophies as it paints the overall religious and socio-cultural picture in which the Christianity finds itself.

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(3,118 words)

Author(s): Rimbach, Guenther C.
1. Definition Broadly speaking, “expressionism” refers to an artistic style flourishing in Europe in the early 20th century that emphasized subjectivity and expression of the full range of emotions—in every medium. More narrowly, it is often used for German literature ¶ and fine arts, especially in the period 1910–24. It was part of a general European reaction to positivism and naturalism. Parallel movements were futurism (Italy and Russia), vorticism and imagism (England), and Orphism (France). An Italian, E. Marinetti (1876–1944), wa…

Extra calvinisticum

(314 words)

Author(s): Heron, Alasdair I. C.
Lutheran orthodoxy coined the term “extra calvinisticum” for the Calvinist teaching (Calvin’s Theology; Calvinism) that the deity of Christ exists and works outside (extra) the spatial and historical limitations of his humanity (Christology 2.4). As God, he is omnipresent (Ubiquity); as man, however (as against the Lutheran doctrine of ubiquity), he is localized in heaven, even after his ascension to the right hand of the Father (see Calvin Inst.  2.13.4 and Heidelberg Catechism q. 48). The Christological distinction was rooted in the Protestant eucharistic controvers…


(5 words)

See Holy Week

Ezekiel, Book of

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Baltzer, Dieter
1. Book Ezekiel falls into three main parts: judgments against Judah and Jerusalem in chaps. 1–24, pronouncements against foreign nations in 25–32, and announcements of salvation for Israel (§1) in 33–48. In contrast to the other great prophetic books, it thus gives an impression of greater cohesion. Substantive correspondences bracket the sections on judgment and salvation (cf. 2:5 and 33:33; 3:16–21 and 33:1–9; 3:26 and 33:21–22 [cf. 24:25–27]; chap. 6 and 36:1–15; 11:14–21 and 33:23–29; 11:23 and 43:4; 24:1–14 and 37:1–14). The 14 dates mentioned (1:1–2; 3:16; 8:1; 20:1; 24:1; 2…

Ezra and Nehemiah, Books of

(794 words)

Author(s): Bach, Robert
Ezra and Nehemiah form part of the Writings, the third section of the Hebrew OT. In translations they are usually counted as two books and placed among the historical books. Along with the very literal translation of Ezra and Nehemiah, the LXX has an apocryphal 1 Esdras, which the Vg calls 3 Esdras. Apart from the story in 1 Esdras 3–4, this book corresponds essentially to 2 Chronicles 35-Ezra 10 + Neh. 7:72–8:13a; it is not a fragment of an older edition of Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah (without the Nehemiah memoirs) (so K. F. Pohlmann et al.) but an independent revision of the relevan…
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