Encyclopedia of Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Editors: Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milič Lochman, John Mbiti, Jaroslav Pelikan and Lukas Vischer

The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online describes modern-day Christian beliefs and communities in the context of 2000 years of apostolic tradition and Christian history. Based on the third, revised edition of the critically acclaimed German work Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon. The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online includes all 5 volumes of the print edition of 1999-2008 which has become a standard reference work for the study of Christianity past and present. Comprehensive, reflecting the highest standards in scholarship yet intended for a wide range of readers, the The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online also looks outward beyond Christianity, considering other world religions and philosophies as it paints the overall religious and socio-cultural picture in which the Christianity finds itself.

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Twelve, The

(670 words)

Author(s): Wolter, Michael
2. The NT has four lists with the names of the Twelve: in Mark 3:16–19; Matt. 10:2–4; Luke 6:14–16; and Acts 1:13. Mark lists Simon Peter, James and John the sons of Zebedee, Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot. All four lists agree in naming Peter first and Judas the traitor last, which is doubtless intended as a judgment. Acts 1:13 does not mention Judas. He had been banished from the group (1:18; see mention of “the 11 [disciples]” in Matt. 28:16 and Luke 24:9, 33), and by lot his place was taken by …

Two-Kingdoms Doctrine

(5,025 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Robert
The term “doctrine of the two kingdoms” has come to designate a much-controverted and many-faceted complex of ideas regarding one or more of the following relationships: God and evil, God and the world, faith and works, the spiritual or sacred aspects of human life and its earthly or profane aspects, as well as the institutions of church and state. The term arose out of 19th-century discussions of the respective responsibilities of church and state, particularly in Germany, and out of efforts to…


(1,037 words)

Author(s): Mathys, Hans-Peter
1. Term Typology derives from Gk. typtō, “strike.” The typos is what is struck, a seal or mold, which is then used for a model or pattern. As in the case of sealing, also printing or typing, it may refer both to the mold and to the impress. Typology has this basic meaning in view. In the Bible, OT events, institutions, or persons may be patterns or prototypes (typoi) that prefigure the NT events, institutions, or persons that deepen and fulfill them and that are called antitypes (antitypoi). A specific view of salvation history underlies typology. Later typology became a hermeneut…