Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

Get access Subject: History

Executive editor of the English version: Andrew Colin Gow

The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

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(9 words)

See Hacienda | Land ownership, large scale
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,103 words)

Author(s): Stein, Elisabeth | Waquet, Françoise
1. Survey: definition and scopeIn Europe and the territories of European expansionism overseas and in Asia, Latin, the language of the  Imperium Romanum, was the primary, though not exclusive, medium of written communication of a not clearly definable transnational community from late antiquity until well into the 19th century; the members of this community counted on a shared language that transcended ,the ideological alignments of the moment, making it possible for them to communicate about the widest possible ra…
Date: 2019-10-14

Latin American wars of independence

(3,203 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim
1. IntroductionThe Latin American Wars of Independence (1808/10-1826/30) belong to the context of the revolutions and liberation movements of the 18th and 19th centuries [17]. They grew out of an interaction between the growing alienation of members of colonial elites born in the Americas - American Spanish and American Portuguese (the so-called Creoles) - from their ancestral European countries, the development of a patriotism focused on the local region in the colonies rather than on the distant “homeland,” and …
Date: 2019-10-14

Latin school

(1,701 words)

Author(s): Bruning, Jens
1. Definition and varietyThe term  Latin school denotes all non-university schools where – in contrast to the German  Schreib- und Rechenschulen (Elementary school) –  instruction was primarily (though not exclusively) in Latin, so that  “a firm grasp of confessional religion and the language of scholars” [10. vol. 1, 465] was a central goal of instruction. These institutions of secondary education were extremely heterogeneous in size and structure and therefore were also called by a wide variety of names, including particular school, tr…
Date: 2019-10-14

Latin studies

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. SurveyIn the early modern period, Latin was a language in active use in diplomacy, science, and the educational system (Bildung) and was therefore a living language. This circumstance favoured the scholarly study of the language only to a certain extent. Before the 19th century, it was studied less for its own sake than for practical purposes: to be able to write and speak better, to be familiar with the (still obligatory) canon of classical literature, to understand Roman law, which was still in effect, and to share in the greatness of ancient Rome (Antiquity, reception of).Lati…
Date: 2019-10-14


(4 words)

See Cartography
Date: 2019-10-14


(674 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Lothar
1. Concept and developmentThe lauda [spirituale] (from Latin  laudare, “to praise”; plur. laude) is a monophonic or polyphonic sacred song in Italian or Latin. During the 13th century, lay confraternities singing such songs in their devotions were founded with the support of the mendicant orders, particularly in Tuscan towns. The singing of laude was also widespread among the fervently pious lay movement known as the  disciplinati (“flagellants”). Early in the 15th century, it was also introduced in a reformed Benedictine congregation in Venice (Religious…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,248 words)

Author(s): Kern, Mareike
1. Concept and modern theoryViews of laughter and its forms vary by society and period. Laughter has its own codes, rituals, and venues. According to Jacques Le Goff, a phase in which laughter was suppressed and interrupted (4th-10th centuries CE) was followed by an era of liberation and control, running parallel to the development of literature in the vernacular [14]. Mikhail Bakhtin, in his theory of the culture of laughter, distinguished a popular tradition dominated by laughter from an official culture of church and scholarship that depe…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,176 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. GeneralIn the early modern period, how laundry was done varied depending on the social context [6]; [9]; [4]. In the estates of the nobility (Gutsherrschaft) as well as in patrician or upper-class households that had a substantial supply of textiles, a “big wash” was performed several times a year. Sometimes there was a separate laundry room along with a washing area and a drying area; additional washerwomen were hired, whose pay was sometimes specified in schedules of fees [12. 333]. In addition there would be more frequent “small washes.” The household account bo…
Date: 2019-10-14


(10,484 words)

Author(s): Otto, Martin
1. Definition In the Middle Ages, law (Latin ius, French  droit, German  Recht - the German term, like English “right,” is a substantivization of the adjective  reht meaning “right,” “straight,” “correct,” attested since the 8th century) - originally indicating a statute like Latin  lex and French  loi - was a divine disposition [53. 249 f.]. With few exceptions (Municipal law), written legal collections were not viewed as normative. It was rather on account of the influence of the medieval law school at Bologna and the so-called learned …
Date: 2019-10-14

Law and ethics

(966 words)

Author(s): Habermeyer, Helen | Klippel, Diethelm
Both law and ethics formulate cultural behavioral norms. The differentiation or distinction between these areas is thus a fundamental problem of juristic and philosophical thought. Usually, the view is taken that pre-state societies had not yet separated legal, ethical, and religious norms from one another; this did not happen until after the Enlightenment [9. 2 f.].Although the question of the distinction between natural law, ethics, and state law had already been raised in the Middle Ages (by Thomas Aquinas among others), it took on new and, in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Law court

(9 words)

See Court of law; Judiciary (England)
Date: 2019-10-14

Law (discipline)

(4 words)

See Jurisprudence
Date: 2019-10-14

Law, faculty of

(933 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionLaw faculties were the administrative and knowledge-organizing elements (Faculty) of a university that were responsible for the training of jurists. Founded in the Middle Ages, they transformed in the early modern period under the influence of certain religious, political, and cultural movements. Across Europe, these trends led to the founding of numerous universities and, with them, faculties of law. Significant changes in the organization and instruction of law faculties can also be observed.Louis Pahlow2. Confessional and state influencesThe end of fait…
Date: 2019-10-14

Law, history of

(7 words)

See Legal history
Date: 2019-10-14

Law, Islamic

(4 words)

See Sharia
Date: 2019-10-14

Law journal

(5 words)

See Legal literature
Date: 2019-10-14

Law of aliens

(796 words)

Author(s): Hofer, Sibylle
1. DefinitionOf the various criteria for foreignness (e.g. religion, language, origin), one’s community affiliation or citizenship was decisive with respect to the law of aliens. This field of law determined the legal standing of foreigners in the state in which they resided. In Germany during the early modern period, the rights of Germans from another territory were determined by the law of aliens. The legal position of foreigners was determined by numerous regulations from territory to territory as well as by state treaties. It also differed in the various fields of law.Sibylle H…
Date: 2019-10-14

Law of reason

(6 words)

See Natural law
Date: 2019-10-14

Law, public

(5 words)

See Public law
Date: 2019-10-14
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