Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

Get access Subject: History

Executive editor of the English version: Andrew Colin Gow

The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

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Edificatory literature

(2,357 words)

Author(s): Eybl, Franz
1. “Edification” and edificatory literature '’Edification'’ denotes advancement in the Christian faith, both individually and collectively. In the Bible, the architectural and artisanal metaphor of building up already suggests two levels of meaning: the subjective level of individual belief, but also – in the spirit of the community of believers – the social level of the congregation and the church (see 1 Cor 8; 10:23; 14). Both were to be fostered and “built up” by means of appropriate pa…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,294 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gernot Michael
1. Definition and basicsIn the broad sense, for example in the phrase  editio princeps (“first edition”), the term  edition applies to any printed work; in literary usage, it denotes an edition of a manuscript or printed text based on philological criteria, claiming to reproduce it as authentically as possible, that is, in conformity with the author’s intent. Depending on the era of the work being edited, realization of this claim must confront a variety of limits. While the modern editor of works written since t…
Date: 2019-10-14

Editorial team German edition

(83 words)

Dr. Brigitte Egger (editorial manager) Petra Enderle M.A. Florian Freitag M.A. Florian Hoppe Dipl.-Germ. Matthias Knopik M.A. Susanne Mall M.A. Mirjam Neusius M.A. Simone Schäfer M.A. Thomas Stichler M.A. With collaboration of Ruth Becker M.A. Kai Fabian Fürstenberg M.A. Franz Hackenberg M.A. Janina Hecht M.A. Nora Heinzelmann M.A. Patrizia Herdtle Claus R. Kullak M.A. Matthias Noller M.A. Natalia Pfau M.A. Torben Quasdorf Dipl.-Germ Sigrid Roßkopf M.A. Johannes Wespel M.A. Torsten Wiegand M.A. Melanie Wohlfahrt M.A. Sebastian Zimmermann M.A.
Date: 2019-10-14


(5,400 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Becker, Rainald | Putz, Hannelore | Roggenkamp, Antje | Bryner, Erich
1. General See Childhood; Pedagogy; SchoolPeter Walter2. Late medieval religious education and HumanismDuring the Middle Ages, transmission of at least the rudiments of religious teaching and practice was considered primarily the task of the family. Contrary to the assumption of earlier researchers, however, besides their own religious practice and the preaching of the church (Sermon), there do not appear to have been sermons addressed specifically to children [6. 278]). The tools available to parents included brief written guides, which could be acquired an…
Date: 2019-10-14

Educational policy

(2,295 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. DefinitionThe term '’educational policy'’, which did not come into common use until the 1960s, denotes the sphere of cultural policy that involves the educational system: the efforts of the government (Sovereign power) and elite leadership to promote their goals by establishing and favoring institutions of Bildung and instruction and to combat the corresponding institutions of the opposition. In this sense, educational policy was an important area of early modern politics, an essential element…
Date: 2019-10-14

Educational reform

(5 words)

See Educational policy
Date: 2019-10-14

Education, Protestant theory of

(1,670 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
1. Religious rootsThe early modern Protestant theory of education was not specifically bourgeois or political; it was conceived primarily in theological terms. Its development was intimately linked to the lifestyle and worldview of contemporary Christianity, especially Protestantism.The roots of the Protestant theory of education (Ger. Bildung) lay in the area of mystical theology. The Old High German noun  biliden, which already had a connection with  imago (“image”) and  forma (“form”) as well as  imitatio (“imitation”) and  formatio (“process of formation”); in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Ego documents

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Concept and subject Unlike autobiographies, ego documents are not intentionally manufactured testimonies of individuals. They therefore encroach from the conscious tradition into the sphere of what J.G. Droysen called the Überreste (“remains”). The type can include documents created in the context of administrative procedures and legal proceedings (e.g. Supplication, interview records, witness interrogations) as well as products of arts and crafts. Decipherment of the factual “remains” often requires knowledge of the hist…
Date: 2019-10-14

Egyptian religion

(4 words)

See Esoterica
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,550 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Theology and languageModern Egyptology was born on September 27, 1822, when Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) presented his Lettre à M. Dacier to the Paris Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. The document provided the basis for the decipherment of the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs [8]; [9]. European scholars had begun researching the writing, language, and culture of Ancient Egypt from the 15th century, but they had done so mostly from the perspective of the theological problem of the relationship between Egyptian and…
Date: 2019-10-14
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