Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

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Executive editor of the English version: Andrew Colin Gow

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The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

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(1,430 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe
1. Concept and scopeThe term “quack,” short for “quacksalver” (Early New Dutch quacksalver, German  Quacksalber, composed of quacken, “to cry,” “to quack [like a duck],” and  salver/Salber, from the OHG salbari, “physician,” or Latin  salvare, “to heal”; French charlatan, Italian  ciarlatano), generally referred to someone pretending to be a healer and practicing without authority, or sometimes to certified healers who advertised their skills or remedies stridently (Latin circumforaneus, “around the marketplace”) [2]. First attested in English in the 1630s, Quacksalber i…
Date: 2021-03-15

Quadratura (painting)

(5 words)

See Trompe l'œil
Date: 2021-03-15


(4 words)

See Artes liberales
Date: 2021-03-15


(942 words)

Author(s): Martin, Lucinda
1. Concept and doctrineThe Quakers (from “quake”), or “Religious Society of Friends” as they have been known since the 19th century, are a Christian religious group that emerged in northwestern England in the mid-17th century, and that is particularly well established in the English-speaking world and in some Latin American and African countries. The Quakers, Mennonites, and Church of the Brethren comprise the three historic “peace churches.”The founder of this religious movement was the craftsman and lay preacher George Fox, who was attacked and ridiculed…
Date: 2021-03-15

Quality control

(1,837 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Concept and quality problemsThe term “quality” (from Latin  qualitas, “condition,” “nature”) is first attested in English in Chaucer (1370s: “couered qualite of thing”) in the general sense of the “nature of a thing” (particularly in comparison with another thing). The German  Qualität was first current in the healing arts (see Humoralism). Both the English and the German words only became established in the specific context of commercial language in the 17th century under French influence ( qualité). Before this, awareness of quality in production was also express…
Date: 2021-03-15

Quantification and measurement

(2,130 words)

Author(s): Rammer, Gerhard | Steinle, Friedrich
1. Concept Quantification means the apprehension of a defined item in numerical terms. Combined with the indication of a unit of measurement or a scale, the quantification of an item provides the conditions for its measurement. Even in the ancient world, quantification was already central to many aspects of everyday life (lengths, time, weights and measures), crafts and trades, and technology (see also Metrology). The subject under discussion here, however, is quantification and measure…
Date: 2021-03-15

Quantities, theory of

(6 words)

See Arithmetica universalis
Date: 2021-03-15

Quarter (city)

(4 words)

See Segregation
Date: 2021-03-15


(5 words)

See Billeting | Segregation
Date: 2021-03-15


(3,623 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia | Behrends, Jonna
1. Concept and researchThe Old English cwen originally simply meant “woman” or “wife” (compare modern Swedish kvinna, Danish  kvinde), but gradually acquired the specific sense of “wife of a king.” The distinction between queenship by marriage and queenship as authority is expressed by qualification, respectively “queen consort” and “queen regnant.” The focus of the present article is on the latter, and the exercise of female rule.Queens regnant were no rarity in the early modern period, despite the prevailing view in older scholarship that they were, to s…
Date: 2021-03-15

Querelle des anciens et des modernes

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Chihaia, Matei
1. Concept The term Querelle des anciens et des modernes (Dispute of the ancients and moderns) covers a multitude of controversies and polemical writings of the 17th and 18th centuries that compared modern art, literature, scholarship, and science with the accomplishments of Greco-Roman antiquity and claimed superiority for one or the other (see also Antiquity, reception of). The querelle revolved around the classicist question of whether the present was superior to antiquity, and which of the epochs had consequently produced perfect models worthy o…
Date: 2021-03-15

Querelle des femmes

(7 words)

See Querelle des sexes
Date: 2021-03-15

Querelle des sexes

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Margarete
1. ConceptThe word “quarrel” derives from the Latin  querel(l)a (lamentation, [com]plaint) and the Old French querelle (disagreement, [legal] dispute, controversy; from 14th century “point of contention,” “concern [in a legal case]”). The querelle des sexes has multiple meanings: the “quarrel over gender,” the “quarrel of the sexes,” and the “issue of the genders” (Gender roles). The first attestation for  querelle des dames in a historical source is found in Martin Le Franc’s Le champion des dames (1440; “The Champion of Ladies”). The term is rather rare in earl…
Date: 2021-03-15


(1,082 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. IntroductionZedler’s  Universallexikon (1743) offers only biblical quotations on the subject of “quickness” ( Schnelligkeit) – a value in itself in opposition to “slowness” since the late modern period in such areas as working life, communications, or sport. The article on “speed” ( Geschwindigkeit; 1735), meanwhile, was written by a physicist who defined his subject by means of the formula  v= s/t, citing the example of the motion of two messengers, one of whom covered one (German) mile in one hour, the other in two. Even in the early modern period…
Date: 2021-03-15


(727 words)

Author(s): Matthias, Markus
1. ConceptQuietism (from the Latin  quies, “repose,” “stillness,” “inaction”) was originally the polemical name given in Italy to a theological and spiritual religious tendency within Roman Catholicism in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the most spectacular feature of which was the wordless “prayer of quiet” (Italian  orazione di quiete). Deriving from this, any religious or philosophical attitude of ethical or political passivity has tended to incur the accusation of quietism.The original quietism was a form of mystical piety (Mysticism) that rejected …
Date: 2021-03-15


(1,889 words)

Author(s): Bobzin, Hartmut
1. Composition and transmissionAccording to the overwhelmingly prevalent view among Muslims even today, the Quran (Arabic  qur’ān, “reading,” “lecture”) is the revelation of God, written in Arabic, given to the Prophet (Tradition) Mohammed (Arabic  Muḥammad) by the Angel Gabriel (Arabic Ǧibrā’īl or  Ǧibrīl) between 610 and 632 CE, the year of Mohammed’s death. The first editorial version of the written text (Arabic rasm) is said to have been made under the Fourth Caliph, Osman (Arabic  ῾Uṭmān; 644-656). Immediately following this, several styles of recitation (Arabic  qirā…
Date: 2021-03-15

Quran school

(4 words)

See School
Date: 2021-03-15