Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

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Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman

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The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online (EJIW) is the first cohesive and discreet reference work which covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material. 

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C (Cairo Geniza - Capitulations agreements (Ottoman Empire) with European powers: and protection of Ottoman population groups by foreign powers)

(1,889 words)

Cairo Geniza, Cairo Geniza, Cairo Geniza, Manuscripts and manuscript collections, Ben Ezra Synagogue, Ben Ezra Synagogue amulets in, Jaén discovery of, Cairo Geniza, Fustat documents/texts, Cairo Geniza, Cairo Geniza  on Abiathar, Abiathar ben Elijah ha-Kohen  al-Fāsī’s code, al-Fāsī, Isaac ben Jacob  al-Fāsī’s poems, Solomon ben Judah  on alluf title, Alluf  on Almohad persecutions of Jews, Almohads  on anti-Judaism in Islamic world, Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism  in Arabic language, Cairo Geniza  in Arabic script, Cairo Geniza  on astrology, …

C (Caprotti, Giuseppe - cemeteries: non-Muslim)

(1,356 words)

Caprotti, Giuseppe, Manuscripts and manuscript collectionsCapsali, Elijah, Greece (pre-1824), Music, Sambari, Joseph ben Isaac, Capsali, Elijah, Crete, Vital, David Ben Solomon Ha-RofeCapsali, Moses ben Elijah (1420–1495), Anatolia, Millet, Ottoman Empire, Romaniots (Bene Romania), Sephardim/Sephardi Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Capsali, Elijah, Capsali, Moses ben Elijah, Crete, Rav Akçesi (Rabbi's Tax), Saporta, ḤanokhCapsali family, Greece (pre-1824)captives  ransoming of, Algeria, Charity, Charitable Institutions and Societies in the Medieval Peri…

C (Cenival, Pierre de - Christiani, Pablo (Jacob ben Eli of Carcassonne))

(1,188 words)

Cenival, Pierre de, Ibn Mishʿal, Aaroncensorship  in Europe, Printing and Printers in Jewish communities, Salonica, Printing and Printers in Ottoman Empire, Journalism, Printing and Printers Cent Ans d’histoire (André Chouraqui), Chouraqui, AndréCenter for Advanced Judaic Studies (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), Manuscripts and manuscript collectionsCenter for Iranian Jewish Oral History (United States), Diaspora CommunitiesCenter for Piyyuṭ and Song (Ashdod), Elmaghribi, Samy (Amzallag)Center for the Young Jews of Iran, Levy, ḤabῑbCentral Asia  anti-…

C (Christianity - clothing: dress codes)

(1,435 words)

Christianity  adopted by rulers of Ethiopia, Yemen baptism in, Romaniots (Bene Romania) conversion of Jews to, Kirmanshah  in Albania, Albania  forced, Demography   in Iran, Tehran   in Serbia, Serbia  in Spain, Calatayud, Saragossa, Valencia conversion of Muslims to, Toledo   see alsoMoriscos influences of   on Islam, Academic Study of Islamicate Jewry  on Jewish literature and thought, Ibn Paqūda, Baḥya (Abū Isḥāq) ben Joseph   Andalusian Jewish culture, Literature, Hebrew Prose (medieval), Literature, Hebrew Prose (medieval)   converso culture, Usque,…

C (Club des Intimes (Salonica) - Le Commerce du Levant (newspaper, Beirut))

(903 words)

Club des Intimes (Salonica), Club des Intimes, Salonica, La Nation (Salonica) opposing Zionist movement, Club des Intimes, Salonica  see alsoCercle des IntimesClub de los Lavoradores (Salonica), BalkansClub National Israélite (Beirut and Damascus), Club National Israélite (Beirut and Damascus)Club Social (Havana), CubaClub Socialista (Salonica), BalkansClub X (Jewish social/cultural club, Istanbul), Yıldırım Sports and Youth ClubCochin (India)  Jewish community in, India  influx of European Jews, India  merchants/businessmen, Long-Distance Trade  migration…

C (commercial networks - contracts: of Zoroastrians to Islam, forced, in Iran)

(1,557 words)

commercial networks  of Jewish peddlers, Peddling  see alsotrade, networksCommittee of Aid and Charity seeComité d’Aide et d’AssistanceCommittee of Officials of Eretz Israel (Istanbul), PalestineCommittee of Officials for Jerusalem (Va‘ad Peqide Yerushalayim be-Qushṭa, Istanbul), Istanbul, Palestine, Navon, Ephraim Ben AaronCommittee of Officials (Safed), Modaʽi, Ḥayyim Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), Balkans, Capitulations, Carasso (Karasu), Emmanuel, Franco (Franko), Milasli Gad, Freemasons (Ottoman Empire and Levant), Le Jeune…

C (conversos - kira)

(1,483 words)

conversos, Duran, Simon ben Ṣemaḥ, Sephardim/Sephardi Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano) arrests and trials by Inquisition of, Almosnino, Isaac in Brazil, Brazil, Brazil culture of, Christian influences on, Usque, Samuel emergence of, Perfet, Isaac ben Sheshet European relations of, Sephardi Impact on Islamicate Jewry in Ferrara (Italy), Usque, Samuel, Usque, Solomon in Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar and Hebrew printing in Islamic world, Printing and Printers intellectuals, Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano) in Izmir, Shabbetay Ṣ…

C (courts of law - Czerniewski, Anton)

(1,034 words)

courts of law  of exilarchs, Exilarch and Exilarchate Muslim   discriminatory rules for non-Muslims in, Ottoman Empire  Jews making use of    in Afghanistan, Garjī, Mullah Asher   in Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Empire   for registration of charitable foundations, Heqdesh (Qodesh, Waqf, Ḥabs)   in Yemen, Yemen  see alsorabbinic courts‘couscous literature,’ Francophone Maghrebi Jewish LiteratureCoutinho, Vasco, Arzila (Aṣīla)Covo, Abraham, Covo, Raphael AsherCovo, Asher, Salonica (Thessaloniki; Selanik)Covo, Elias Judah, BalkansCovo, Elijah, Covo Family, Cov…

Celâl Nuri

(239 words)

Author(s): İlker Aytürk
A well-known intellectual, journalist, and statesmanof his times, Celâl Nuri (İleri) (1882–1938) was born into an Ottoman bureaucratic family. He was educated at the Lycée Galatasaray and the Istanbul Law School, graduating from the latter with a doctorate in 1908. Giving up a career in the Ottoman diplomatic corps, Celâl Nuri became an eminent journalist of the late Ottoman era, both as a founder of and contributor to numerous journals and newspapers. One of them, Le Jeune Turc, an Istanbul daily in French, is known to have been secretly funded by the World Zionist Or…

Ceresi, Marcel

(321 words)

Author(s): Adam Guerin
Born in 1913, Marcel Ceresi (also known as Marcel Israel) was a prominent Communist organizer in Egypt and Italy in the twentieth century. Ceresi’s political career began as a youth coordinator of Wafd demonstrations against King Fuad in 1930. In 1936 he volunteered to fight in the Spanish Civil War as a member of the International Brigades but was denied entry into the country. Ceresi traveled extensively and was connected to other Communist parties in the Mediterranean region, maintaining international contacts in Syria, Lebanon and elsewhere.In 1939 Ceresi and Raoul Curiel founde…


(588 words)

Author(s): Rica Amran
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain situated on the North-African side of the Strait of Gibraltar about 61 kilometers (38 miles) northwest of Tetouan. Its population of 75,861 includes Christians, Muslims, and Jews.The name of the town goes back to Roman times, when it was called Septem (Septem Fratres; Lat. the seven neighboring hills [lit. brothers]). It already had been occupied by Carthaginians and then Greeks, and it was Byzantine at the time of the Muslim conquest. The Arabs called the town Sabta. An important port, it w…
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