Encyclopedia of Law and Religion

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Edited by: Gerhard Robbers and W. Cole Durham

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In recent years, issues of freedom of religion or belief and state-religion relations have become increasingly important worldwide. The Encyclopedia of Law and Religion, unique in its breadth and global coverage, provides an important foundational resource for study of these issues. The encyclopedia covers the relation between law and religion in its various aspects, including those related to the role of religion in society, the relations between religion and state institutions, freedom of religion, legal aspects of religious traditions, the interaction between law and religion, and other issues at the junction of law, religion, and state.

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Cocos (Keeling) Islands

(24 words)

Author(s): not-specified
See Australian External Territories (Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos [Keeling] Islands, Norfolk Island). Not Specified Bibliography  


(7,956 words)

Author(s): Vicente Prieto
I. Social Facts The Colombian territory covers 1,140,000 sq. km. and has approximately 45 million inhabitants (75% urban, 25% rural). The Colombian population falls into two major religious groups: the Catholic Church (80-90%) and non-Catholic Christians of various denominations. This second group is not homogeneous, but includes diverse religious communities (differing in number of members, doctrine, structure, etc.). A small minority of Jews and Muslims also reside in Colombia.…


(1,754 words)

Author(s): Bryant T. Hinckley
I. Social Facts The Union of the Comoros is an archipelago off the east coast of Africa and north of Madagascar with a population of about 735,000 people. Sunni Muslims make up 98-99% of the population. Roman Catholicism is the second-largest religious group. An estimated 6,000 Catholics reside in the country, most of whom are immigrants. There are also small numbers of Shia Muslims, Hindus, and Protestant Christians on the archipelago. Some traditional African religious practices as well as folk practices are present among the Sunni Muslim population. Although the laws and the gov…

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

(2,579 words)

Author(s): Grace N. Mburu
 I. Social Facts  The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the third-largest country in Africa, with an estimated total population of  77.4 million people (July 2014 estimate). Roughly 80% of the population professes the Christian faith, with a large percentage of the Christians (up to 50%) being Roman Catholic. Other Christian denominations include Protestant, Orthodox, and Kimbanguist followers. Protestants and Evangelicals make up approximately 40% of the Christian population. The Kimbanguist f…

Cook Islands

(2,795 words)

Author(s): Bill Atkin | Sean K. Brennan
I. Social Facts The Cook Islands consists of 15 islands and atolls spread across 2 million sq. km of the Pacific Ocean and includes many smaller islands. There is only 240 sq. km of land area. As of December 2011 the population of the Cook Islands was just under 15,000. Over 80% of the population is made up of Cook Islands Maori with another 7% being part Cook Islands Maori and the remaining 12% mostly New Zealand European. Since the 1970s there has been a gradual population decline as a result of migration to New Zealand. Some 61,000 Cook Islanders resided in New Zealand as of 2013. …

Coral Sea Islands

(10 words)

Author(s): not-specified
forthcoming Not Specified Bibliography  

Costa Rica

(2,272 words)

Author(s): Annalee Hickman Moser
I. Social Facts Costa Rica has an estimated population of 4.7 million (as of July 2013). Roman Catholicism is the official religion, with 63% of the population identifying themselves as members. The next largest church membership is Protestants, with 23% of the population as members. Pentecostals are the largest subdivision of the Protestants. Baptists, Lutherans (who estimate their membership at 5,500), and others follow in smaller numbers. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reports t…

Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

(4,453 words)

Author(s): Mayeul Alex Lagaud
I. Social Facts Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) is a secular country in which the majority of the population practices some form of religion. An estimated 87% of the population has firm beliefs and practices, while 13% of the population considers itself to be without religion. Islam, Christianity, and animism are the main religions in the country and coexist with a host of movements and Eastern and Western spiritual orders that are increasingly popular. With an estimated 38%…

Council of Europe

(5,494 words)

Author(s): Javier Martínez-Torrón
I. History The Council of Europe (CoE) is an international organization created in 1949 by the Treaty of London, as a result of the movements that emerged after World War II with the aim of attaining unity and cohesion among European countries. In the particular case of the CoE, the emphasis was on the reinforcement and spreading of democracy across Europe, pivoting on the respect for the rule of law and fundamental rights and freedoms. Not by coincidence, its main achievement has been the Europea…


(5,997 words)

Author(s): Ivan Padjen
I. Social Facts The census of March 2011 registered a total population of 4,284,889 in the Republic of Croatia (RC), dividing them by religious affiliation into 3,697,143 (86.28%) Catholics, 190,143 (4.4%) Orthodox Christians, 14,653 (0.34%) Protestants, 12,961 (0.30%) other Christians, 62,977 (1.47%) Muslims, 536 (0.01%) Jews, 2,550 (0.06%) Eastern religions, 2,555 (0.06%) other religions, movements, and life philosophies, 32,518 (0.76%) agnostics and skeptics, 163,375 (3.81%) not religious and atheists, 93,01…


(6,384 words)

Author(s): Mark Hill QC | Thomas Jones
I. Social Facts The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and a cluster of smaller islands, all located in the north of the Caribbean. Cuba has a population of 11.4 million. According to the 2012 Report on International Religious Freedom


(781 words)

Author(s): David Eichert
I. Social Facts Curaçao is an island in the Caribbean that is home to roughly 150,000 people. The majority of the island’s inhabitants are Roman Catholic (73%). There are around 10,000 adherents to Pentecostalism, the island’s second-largest religion (6%). The island is also home to several other small Christian denominations, including various Protestant, Evangelical, Adventist, and Jehovah’s Witness congregations. Charismatic Christian movements have experienc…