Encyclopedia of Law and Religion

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Edited by: Gerhard Robbers and W. Cole Durham

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In recent years, issues of freedom of religion or belief and state-religion relations have become increasingly important worldwide. The Encyclopedia of Law and Religion, unique in its breadth and global coverage, provides an important foundational resource for study of these issues. The encyclopedia covers the relation between law and religion in its various aspects, including those related to the role of religion in society, the relations between religion and state institutions, freedom of religion, legal aspects of religious traditions, the interaction between law and religion, and other issues at the junction of law, religion, and state.

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Index of Religious Traditions

(3,899 words)

Author(s): not-specified
Aboriginal Spirituality Canada Adventism Anguilla; Barbados; Belize; Bolivia; Burundi; Chile; Croatia; Dominican Republic; Finland; Ghana; Hungary; Madagascar; United States Adventists reformists Russia African Inland Church Kenya African Methodist Episcopal Churches Barbados; Namibia African Nazarene denomination Kenya African religions Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Congo, Democratic Republic of the; Jamaica; Kenya; Lesotho; Paraguay; Senegal; Somalia; Swaziland; Tanzania; Zimbabwe African traditional religions See African religions Afrikaans Re…


(12,912 words)

Author(s): Tahir Mahmood
I. Social Facts India is the second most populous country of the world, next to China. In 2013, the population of the country according to authentic sources was about 1.22 billion. The number of men in this gigantic headcount is about 6% more than of women. The society in India has always been and remains a conglomeration of diverse religions of both Indian and non-Indian origin. Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism are the oldest religions of the country, existing since prehistoric times. Christianity …


(7,358 words)

Author(s): Ken Setiawan
I. Social Facts According to the most recent census (2010), Indonesia’s population is approximately 237 million. About 87% of the population is Muslim, 7% Protestant, 3% Roman Catholic, and 1.5% Hindu. Other religious groups, including Buddhism, Confucianism, and traditional indigenous religions, comprise approximately 1.25% of the population. Indonesia’s Muslim population is mostly Sunni. The two most prominent Sunni group organizations are the Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, each of which claims to have around 30 million members. Shiite …


(4,088 words)

Author(s): W. Cole Durham, Jr. | Gerhard Robbers | Donlu Thayer
I. Background  In recent years, issues of freedom of religion or belief and state-religion relations have become increasingly important, in many respects critically important, worldwide. The 236 articles of the five-volume Encyclopedia of Law and Religion provide a comprehensive, succinct account of the state-religion legal systems in virtually all countries of the world and also include accounts of major international organizations that deal with religion-related issues, most notably freedom of religion or belief.  There is in fact no absolutely canonical count of a…