Encyclopedia of Law and Religion

Get access Subject: Law

Edited by: Gerhard Robbers and W. Cole Durham

In recent years, issues of freedom of religion or belief and state-religion relations have become increasingly important worldwide. The Encyclopedia of Law and Religion, unique in its breadth and global coverage, provides an important foundational resource for study of these issues. The encyclopedia covers the relation between law and religion in its various aspects, including those related to the role of religion in society, the relations between religion and state institutions, freedom of religion, legal aspects of religious traditions, the interaction between law and religion, and other issues at the junction of law, religion, and state.

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(2,190 words)

Author(s): Grace N. Mburu
I. Social Facts  Togo, officially known as the Togolese Republic, is a West African country with an estimated population of 7.4 million people. Catholicism, Protestantism, and Islam are recognized as state religions. Approximately 33% of the Togolese exclusively practice African traditional religion. The Roman Catholic Church claims 28% of the population, while 14% of the Togolese people adhere to the Islamic faith. The central and northern regions are home to most Muslims. Protestants and other Ch…


(2,424 words)

Author(s): Bill Atkin | Sean K. Brennan
I. Social Facts Tokelau is made up of three main atolls, around 483 km north of Samoa in the Pacific Ocean. Each atoll consists of a number of islets varying in size, the largest of which is 4.7 sq. km. There is a lack of natural resources which has helped to drive migration from the islands. Nearly 7,200 Tokelauans live in New Zealand. The resident population of Tokelau in 2011 was just over 1,400, virtually all of whom are associated with Christian denominations. Over half of Tokelau’s population belongs to the Ekalehia Fakalapotopotoga Kelihiano Tokel…


(3,276 words)

Author(s): Bill Atkin | Sean K. Brennan
I. Social Facts Tonga is an island archipelago located in the South Pacific Ocean made up of 176 islands with a total land mass of approximately 750 sq. km. Tonga’s population as of the 2011 census totaled 103,036, 75% of whom live on the island of Tongatapu. Almost the entire population is Christian. The largest following belongs to the Free Wesleyan Church with 36,592 members, just over a third of the population. The next largest denomination is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (18,554), followed by the Roman Catholic Church…

Trinidad and Tobago

(2,155 words)

Author(s): Jan Niklas Klein
I. Social Facts The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an island nation located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country with an estimated population of 1.3 million. Because of Spanish colonization and the country’s history of the slave trade, the population is very largely Christian and is comprised of descendants of indentured workers/slaves from India (Indo-Trinidadians) and Africa (Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonians). According to th…


(5,731 words)

Author(s): Branden Kartchner
I. Social Facts In general, the Tunisian government respects individual freedoms of belief, conscience, and religion. However, it is important to note that since the 2011 Jasmine revolution, the landscape of law and religion has been volatile. The Ennahda, a moderate Islamic party also known as the Renaissance Party, quickly became the largest, most well-organized party in Tunisia, holding a parliamentary majority until the elections of October 2014. Ennahda sought to implement more Islamic traditi…


(11,942 words)

Author(s): Emre Öktem
I. Social Facts The population of Turkey is approximately 75 million people. The overwhelming majority is Muslim (99.8%), with non-Muslim minorities mostly comprised of Christians and Jews. The large majority of the Muslim population belongs to the Hanafi School of the Sunni denomination of Islam. The rest of the Muslim population adheres to Alevism, a heterodox version of Islam, whose adherents are estimated to be between 10 and 20 million people, or to Shi’a Islam, numbering between one and two million people living mostly in eastern Turkey and Istanbul. Non-Muslim minorities, pri…


(4,183 words)

Author(s): Michael Wiener
I. Social Facts The population of Turkmenistan is estimated at 5.2 million people in 2014, with about 90% Sunni Muslims and 9% Orthodox Christians. According to the government, 123 religious organizations were registered officially in Turkmenistan in 2010, including 100 organizations following traditional Islam, 13 Orthodox Christian organizations, and 10 other religious organizations, including Bahá’í, Baptist, Evangelical, Krishna, New Apostolic, and Seventh-day Adventist. The former UN Special R…

Turks and Caicos Islands

(770 words)

Author(s): David McClean
I. Historical, Legal, and Social Background The Turks and Caicos Islands lie to the southeast of the Bahamas. After a period of occupation by Bermudans, the islands were placed under the Bahamas but in 1848 became a separate colony or presidency under the oversight of the authorities in Jamaica. A separate colonial administration was abandoned in 1873 and from then until 1963 the Islands were governed from Jamaica, with various forms of local government. Since 1963 the Islands have again formed a sepa…


(1,814 words)

Author(s): Tony Angelo
I. Social Facts Tuvalu is made up of a group of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific, to the north of Fiji. Tuvalu has a population of about 11,000 people, approximately half of whom live on the main island of Funafuti. The Ekalesia a Kelisiano o Tuvalu (Church of Tuvalu) is the state church of Tuvalu by virtue of the State Church (Declaration) Act 1992; 97% of Tuvalu’s population belong to the Church of Tuvalu. Approximately 1.4% belong to the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and approximately 1% are Bahá’í. II. Historical Background The people of Tuvalu are Polynesian. Tuvalu was pre…