Encyclopedia of Public International Law in Asia Online

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General Editor: Seokwoo Lee

Incorporating the work of numerous leading scholars, the Encyclopedia of Public International Law in Asia Online provides a detailed description of the practice and implementation of international law in various Asian states. The Encyclopedia covers the introduction of Western international law and the resulting shift from the older Asian order; the development of modern international law; and the impact that all of this has had on Asian states. Each jurisdiction included in the Encyclopedia follows a standard structure for the broadest comparative advantage and starts with a Country Snapshot (Date of Independence, Date of Admission to the United Nations, Geographical Size, Population, Demographic Information, Form of Government, System of Law), followed by a State Report Overview (Executive summary of state report, Key highlights of unique state practice).

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8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | India

(969 words)

Author(s): Anand, Pushkar
8.1 Establishing Diplomatic and Consular RelationsIndia has had a well-established tradition of diplomacy since the ancient ages. Arthshastra of Kautilya around 300 BCE, was one the most comprehensive documents on diplomatic practice in the ancient India. Apart from delineating different policies to be followed by the states in maintaining their relations with foreign states, Arthshastra provides for the classification of envoys, their duties, the rules concerning diplomatic immunities and privileges…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Indonesia

(1,211 words)

Author(s): Heriyanto, Dodik Setiawan Nur
8.1 Diplomatic & Consular Personnel and ImmunityForeign representatives are allowed to recruit employees to support diplomatic and/or consular agents to carry out their functions in the receiving state. The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961 Diplomatic Convention) has allowed every foreign representative to be able to appoint administrative staff and technical staff. Their employees could be coming from employees who are citizens of the sending state, receiving state, or citizens out…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Japan

(3,461 words)

Author(s): Iwatsuki, Naoki
8.1 Diplomatic Privileges and ImmunitiesJapan’s modern diplomatic relation with the exchange of permanent diplomatic missions was inaugurated in 1858 by the conclusion of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the United States. The first article of the Treaty provided that Japan and the United States may appoint diplomatic agents to reside at the city of Edo, currently Tokyo, and at Washington, respectively, and that the diplomatic agents shall have the right to travel freely in any part of the receiving State. Now, as of January 2019, Japan has rece…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Korea

(5,133 words)

Author(s): Seo, Youngmin
8.1 Establishment of Diplomatic and Consular Relations8.1.1 Korea’s Consular Relations in the late 19th CenturyAfter the signing of the Korea-Japan Treaty in 1876 (Treaty of Ganghwa Island), which was the first modern treaty for Korea, Korea signed a series of agreements with the contemporaneous world powers. After which, in the 1880s, modern diplomatic and consular relations with the outside world began. As a result, diplomatic missions, consular offices, and delegations of various countries came into existe…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Malaysia

(5,070 words)

Author(s): Khalil, Nurhalida Mohamed
8.1 Treatment of Diplomatic & Consular Missions, Premises & Bags Treatment of Diplomatic Immunities, Premises and BagsThe law regarding privileges and immunities of diplomats, their property, premises and communications was excellently described by Vattel in his Le Droit des gens, which is considered as the last of the great classical writings on diplomatic law. According to Vattel, the whole structure of immunities lies on the basis of functional necessity to the conduct of diplomatic relations, which, if it is stated, casts an obli…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Philippines

(2,910 words)

Author(s): Malaya, J. Eduardo | Uy, Marie Anne Cyra H. | Casis, Rommel J. | Mendoza, John Alfred
8.1 Prominent Themes in Philippine Foreign PolicyThe evolution of Philippine diplomacy is to a large extent a product of the development of the Philippines as a nation-state and the continuing process of defining its national identity and destiny. In recent years, the conduct of foreign policy has been known to be premised on the “three pillars of Philippine foreign policy” – the preservation and enhancement of national security, the promotion and attainment of economic security through the mobilizati…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Singapore

(9,195 words)

Author(s): Guo, Yvonne | Wong, Li Ru
At independence, Singapore inherited the Diplomatic Privileges (Commonwealth Countries and Republic of Ireland) Act, which was first promulgated in 1957, and the Consular Conventions Act, which was enacted in 1951. Even before Singapore’s formal accession on 1 April 2005 to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (‘VCDR’) and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (‘VCCR’), Singapore had regarded both Conventions as customary international law, and had closely followed their provision…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Sri Lanka

(7,203 words)

Author(s): Kulatunge, Charitha
8.1 Diplomatic and Consular Relations from Ancient Times8.1.1 Pre-Colonial EraRecorded details of foreign relations of Sri Lanka dates back to 3rd Century BC when venerable Mahinda Thera, the son of Maurya Emperor Dharmashoka, introduced Buddhism to Sri Lanka’s King Devanampiyatissa (BC 250–210). It is also recorded that later on, the Sinhala King Kithsirimevan (301–328 AD) had also sent a mission to the North Indian King Samudragupta, stating that he wished to build a monastery for Buddhist priests and …

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Taiwan

(354 words)

Author(s): Wang, Kuan-Hsiung
8.1 Taiwan Terminated Diplomatic Relations with São Tomé and PríncipeOn 21 December 2016, the ROC Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued the following press release on the termination of diplomatic relations with São Tomé and Príncipe.The Republic of China has terminated diplomatic relations with the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe with immediate effect on 21 December 2016, in order to uphold the dignity of the nation. The ROC will close its embassy in São Tomé and Príncipe, recall its technical mission, and end all bil…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Thailand

(527 words)

Author(s): Jayangakula, Kitti
8.1 Implementation of Diplomatic and Consular Relations in ThailandAs a member of a global society, Thailand is under the obligations to comply with diplomatic and consular legal orders. In accordance with international practices, the privileges and immunities accorded to staff members of the diplomatic missions, consular posts, and international organizations (DCIO) in Thailand are based on the principles of non-discrimination and reciprocity. Thailand is a party to key international conventions regard…

8. Diplomatic & Consular Relations | Viet Nam

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Hai, Trinh Duc
8.1 Consular Law and Practice of Viet NamThe most important and most comprehensive international law basis governing consular relations between Viet Nam and other countries is the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular relations signed on 24 April 1963. Viet Nam joined this Convention on 8 October 1992. This Convention governs consular relations between Viet Nam and other member states. In addition, Viet Nam also signed bilateral consular agreements with 18 countries (as of 1 July 2016). Bilateral consular…