Encyclopedia of Slavic Languages and Linguistics Online

Get access Subject: Language And Linguistics

Edited by: Marc L. Greenberg (editor-in-chief), University of Kansas; Lenore A. Grenoble (general editor), University of Chicago; associate editors: Stephen M. Dickey, University of Kansas, René Genis, University of Amsterdam, Marek Łaziński, University of Warsaw, Mikhail Oslon, Institute of the Polish Language - Cracow, Anita Peti-Stantić, University of Zagreb, Masako Ueda Fidler, Brown University, Mladen Uhlik, University of Ljubljana, Björn Wiemer, University of Mainz, Nadežda V. Zorixina-Nilsson, Stockholm University

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The Encyclopedia of Slavic Languages and Linguistics offers a comprehensive overview of the languages of the Slavic language family and the different ways in which they are and have been studied. It provides authoritative treatment of all important aspects of the Slavic language family from its Indo-European origins to the present day, as well as consideration of interaction of Slavic with other languages.

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Focus Particles

(8,083 words)

Author(s): Kisiel, Anna
Focus particles, i.e., focus-sensitive language units, operate on contextually relevant alternatives. Regardless of their positional flexibility, in most cases they precede a rheme (focus). They impose no grammatical or semantic restriction on a language entity that takes the place of a rheme. The class is traditionally divided into four subgroups: additive ( also  group), scalar ( even  group), restrictive ( only  group), and temporal ( already  group) particles. There are, however, more language units satisfying the conditions of focus particles, such as exactly, rather, and m…
Date: 2023-10-27

Folk Etymology

(2,570 words)

Author(s): Rejzek, Jiří
The article deals with a well-known linguistic phenomenon called folk (or popular) etymology. Being one of the language universals, it is also profusely present in Slavic languages. The present text briefly outlines the history of the research on folk etymology in Indo-European and Slavic linguistics, the linguistic aspects of the phenomenon, and its typology with illustrative examples from individual Slavic languages.Folk (or popular) etymology (hereafter FE) is the process whereby the structure of words is reinterpreted by identifying their opaque elem…
Date: 2023-10-27

Food and Drink

(1,064 words)

Author(s): Sosnowski, Wojciech
The article presents the names of food products, dishes, and drinks with the etymology of words and the application of these names in modern Slavic language. Slavic food and drink have a strong relationship with the climate, culture, and traditions. The influence of climatic and historical factors divides the Slavic areas into two zones in terms of categories of food and drink: northern and southern.Modern Slavic languages have the same etymology and scope of use for the verbs to eat (PSl *ěsti, *ěm ь ‘to eat’, ‘I eat’ [< *ěd-ti, *ědm ь ]) and to drink (PSl *piti, *p ь ‘to drink’, ‘I drink…
Date: 2023-10-27

Formal Semantics (forthcoming)

(3 words)

Author(s): Filip, Hana
forthcomingHana Filip
Date: 2023-10-27

Functional Grammar (Leningrad/Saint Petersburg School)

(6,173 words)

Author(s): Voeikova, Maria D.
Grammar of Semantic Fields and Categorial Situations is the name of a model developed from the late 1970s until the present in St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad) under the guidance of Alexandr V. Bondarko (1930–2016) by his students and followers. The name is derived from one of two core notions of this approach – “the functional-semantic field” and “categorial situation” – used to describe the language system and its realization in utterances. The main distinctive feature of this gram…
Date: 2023-10-27

Functional Operations

(2,417 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Volkmar
Functional operations are rules that can be used to describe synchronic, diachronic, or ontogenetic changes of mainly lexical meaning by applying the processes of morphological derivation, compounding, and semantic derivation (metaphors, metonymies, etc.). They may also be used for borrowings, frozen phrases, and central grammatical derivations like aspect and voice in Slavic.Functional operations (FO) are rules that can be used to describe changes of mainly lexical meaning by applying the processes of morphological derivation, compounding, a…
Date: 2023-10-27

Functional Sentence Perspective

(5,864 words)

Author(s): Hajičová, Eva
Functional sentence perspective refers to language phenomena connected with those aspects of sentence structure that reflect the communicative function of language; these aspects are now commonly subsumed under the term “information structure of the sentence.” Attention is paid to three approaches within the context of the Prague School of Linguistics and their comparison, with additional remarks on some other relevant treatments in literature published outside of this context.There is, as Levinson (1983) has stated, a certain superficial terminological “mish-…
Date: 2023-10-27

Functional Syntax

(2,437 words)

Author(s): Mustajoki, Arto
Functional syntax is a manifestation of the idea of describing a language according to the principle of “from meaning to form.” In concrete terms, it means that a syntax book consists of chapters dedicated to different semantic categories. The aim of the description is to reveal which linguistic tools can be utilized in expressing them in a certain language. The main parts of the syntax are actants, predicates, modificators (speech functions, stages, causation, and authorization), specif…
Date: 2023-10-27

Future Tense Constructions

(8,030 words)

Author(s): Mirić, Mirjana
Although Slavic languages manifest remarkable similarity in their lexicon and morphology due to their shared inheritance, their grammatical (syntactic) structures – including their ways of expressing the future – differ considerably. Common Slavic did not have a dedicated future marker, while Old Church Slavic expressed future-time reference in various ways, such as present-tense forms of perfective and imperfective verbs or analytic constructions combining verbs meaning ‘be(come)’, ‘ha…
Date: 2023-10-27