Religion Past and Present

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Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

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Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(164 words)

Author(s): Bussmann, Claus
[German Version] Capital of the Departamento de Cordillera, Paraguay, 55 km ESE of Asunción. It is the most important place of pilgrimage (III) in the country, where the Virgen de los Milagros (Virgin of Miracles) is venerated. The major festival on Dec 8 (Immaculata Conceptio) and the founding legend suggest that the origins were in the period of the early Franciscan mission, primarily under L. Bolaños (1549–1629). However, the place Caacupé (“behind the woods”)…


(160 words)

Author(s): Hoornaert, Eduardo
[German Version] The Cabanagem uprising, begun in 1832 and bloodily put down in 1849, was a revolt of local caboclos (catechumens) of Indian and African descent against the Portuguese colonial regime, which ruled the entire lower Amazon (Brazil). In the 17th and early 18th centuries, Jesuits and other missionaries had sought to impose a uniform Catholic Indian culture on the diverse peoples of Amazonia and therefore had established Nheengatu or Tupí as the lingua franca. When the missionaries were expelled in 1759, the disastrous results of these policies b…


(201 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The two or perhaps more Cabeiri constitute a nameless group of gods for whom local cults were established in the eastern and northern Aegean. A cult in mainland Greece existed only in Boeotia. Sometimes identified with other cultic groups such as the Curetes, ¶ the Corybants, the Dioscuri or the Daktyloi, they reflect male cultic associations to which admittance was effected through initiation (Rites of passage). The mysteries of Samothrace, in which especially seafaring persons sought to acquire protec…

Cabot, Richard Clarke

(164 words)

Author(s): Evison, Ian
[German Version] (May 21, 1868, Brookline, MA – May 8, 1939, Cambridge, MA), physician in Boston, MA; together with E. Worcester and others, and with the Emmanuel movement, he was concerned with the introduction of methods of group therapy which aimed to combine somatic and psychological treatments. With A Plea for a Clinical Year in the Course of Theological Education (Survey 55 of Dec 1, 1925) Cabot's involvement in the reformation of theological education commenced. He envisioned a general reform moving away from the traditional academi…

Cabrol, Fernand

(159 words)

Author(s): Lurz, Friedrich
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1855, Marseille – Jun 4, 1937, St. Leonard's-on-Sea), a Benedictine liturgist and patristics scholar, was prior of Solesmes and professor of church history at the University of Angers ¶ from 1890 to 1896; in 1896 he moved to Farnborough, England, where he became the first abbot in 1903. As author of numerous works on liturgical and ecclesiastical history, he stood in the Solesmes tradition. Motivated by a problematic idealization of early worship, he left his mark on subsequent liturgical scholarship, above all through the Dictionnaire d’archéologi…

Cadbury, Henry Joel

(158 words)

Author(s): Grant, Robert M.
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1883, Philadelphia – Oct 7, 1974, Bryn Mawr), New Testament scholar. Born a Quaker, Cadbury had to leave Haverford College after publicly denouncing wartime hatred, but was secretary of the Society of Biblical Literature (1916–1933), and even its president (1936). He taught at Bryn Mawr (1926–1934) and Harvard (Hollis Professor of Divinity) (1934 –1954). He also served as chairman of the American Friends Service Committee (1928–1934 and 1944–1960) and played an important part in the editing of the Revised Standard Version of the NT. His books, including The M…


(255 words)

Author(s): Klöckener, Martin
[German Version] Appearing in the 12th century, the Caeremoniale or “Ceremonial” is a book regulating especially the ceremonial shape of papal and episcopal liturgy, and to some extent also of religious orders. It is not a book of celebration and is not used in liturgy itself. The oldest editions are primarily concerned with arranging the external details of papal liturgy, as for example in papal elections (Pope, Election of), papal consecrations and coronations, …


(319 words)

Author(s): Meyers, Eric M.
[German Version] The great port city on the Mediterranean coast on the Sharon plain was named by Herod the Great for Caesar Augustus. It became a Roman colony under Vespasian and a metropolis under Severus Alexander. The name “Caesarea Maritima” was unknown in antiquity, though today it may connote the Roman harbor, which is under water. The Hellenistic town on which the Roman city was built was called “Strato's Tower” and is mentioned in the Zeno papyri. A Jewish population was introduced to the city in c. 100 bce, when Alexander Jannaeus captured it. Herod's Caesarea was h…

Caesarea Philippi

(220 words)

Author(s): Weber, Thomas
[German Version] (modern Baniyas) is located southwest of Mount Hermon on a tributary of the Jordan; it was the site of a battle between the Ptolemies (Ptolemaic dynasty) and the Seleucids in 200 bce. Originally called Paneas, it was renamed Kaisáreia hē Philíppou (Lat. Caesarea Philippi) after the tetrarch Philip rebuilt it and set up a temple of Augustus in 3 bce. For a time the city was called Neronias in honor of the emperor Nero. Its chief deity was the Greek Pan, who was worshiped alongside Zeus (Olybris, Heliopolitanus),…

Caesar, Gaius Julius

(717 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] The word “Caesar” has three senses: (a) a branch of the Julian clan ( gens Julia), which traced its genealogy through Aeneas back to Aphrodite; (b) a title (cf. Mark 12:13–17; Acts 25:11) and the office of supreme ruler (cf. OHG keisar, Russian Tsar); (c) the personification of a modern conception of antique greatness, drive, and genius, which can be interpreted as the antithesis of Christian humility, passivity, and “foolishness” (F. Nietzsche: “Caesar figure,” “Jesus figure”; Gundolf). The best-known representative of the gens Julia is C. Julius Caesar (100–44 bce).…

Caesarius of Arles (Saint)

(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (469/470, Chalon-sur-Saône – Aug 24, 542, Arles). At the age of 20, Caesarius entered the famous island monastery of Lérins in southern Gaul, where he was noted for his particularly ascetic life. Sent to Arles to recover his health, which had suffered from his asceticism, he was ordained priest by Aeonius, the bishop of Arles, made abbot of the monastery of Trinquetaille on an island in the Rhone, and designated as Aeonius's successor. For 40 yea…

Caesarius of Heisterbach

(194 words)

Author(s): Lawo, Mathias
[German Version] (c. 1180 – after 1240) was educated at Cologne (school of St. Andrew, cathedral school); in 1199 he entered the Cistercian monastery at Heisterbach, where he is documented as novice master in 1221 (Neininger). He became prior some time after 1226. An incomplete catalogue ¶ ( Epistola catalogica, c. 1240) of his works, all in Latin, comprises 36 entries (14 previously unknown) – besides lost anti-heretical polemics, a few exegetical works, approx. 200 homilies and sermons interspersed with exempla, but also historical and hagiographic writings: a Continuatio catalog…


(264 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] denotes a combined secular and ecclesiastical government in which the secular ruler, who enjoys a special religious status, exercises authority over the church even in spiritual and internal affairs. Since J.H. Böhmer at the beginning of the 18th century, the term has been applied particularly to the ecclesiastical authority of the emperors from Constantine the Great until the Investiture Controversy, above all for the system in the Eastern Roman…

Cage, John

(301 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Burkhard
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1912, Los Angeles – Aug 12, 1992, New York). As a composer, performance artist, and designer of, among other things, prints (situated on the borderline between musical score and figurative art), John Cage was one of the major driving forces behind the artistic avant-garde of the 20th century. While studying under Arnold Schönberg and Henry Cowell, it had already become apparent that he was not concerned with academically correct musical …


(197 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Caiphas; Aram. Qayafa on an ossuary), in the New Testament always Καϊάφας or Καϊ  ϊφᾶς (manuscripts), in Josephus ( Ant. XIII, 95) ᾽Ιωσήφος ὁ Καϊ  ϊάφας/ Iōsḗphos ho Kaïáphas, where it seems to be an epithet. The Roman prefect Valerius Gratus installed Caiaphas as high priest (III) in 18 ce, and the Syrian governor Vitellius deposed him in 36 ce ( Ant., loc. cit.). The office of high priest had been awarded discretionarily since the Herodians (Herod/Herodian dynasty). Caiaphas achieved this long period in office only through t…

Cain and Abel

(1,259 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Zchomelidse, Nino
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Art History I. Old Testament Cain and Abel, the children of the first human couple Adam and Eve, are the protagonists of one of the characteristic fraternal narratives of the book of Genesis (cf. Jacob and Esau). Their names are semantically associated with the pre- or non-priestly Paradise narrative of Gen 3*: While the meaning “transitoriness” may be discerned in the name Abel (הֶבֶל, Gen 4:2, 4, 8f., 25), the name Cain (קַיִן, Gen 4:1–25, Tubal-Cain Gen 4:22 [a description of metallurgical skills], as a tribal name in Nu…


(69 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] A mainstream church designation for “heretics,” and especially for 2nd century Gnostics who effected a reassessment of the OT and venerated Cain as well as Judas Iscariot (use of the “Gospel of Judas” [ NTApo I, 61990, 309f.]; Iren. Haer. I 31.1f.; Ps.-Tert., Adversus omnes haereses 2.5f.; Epiph. Haer. 38). Roman Hanig Bibliography Sources: W. Foerster, ed., Die Gnosis: Zeugnisse der Kirchenväter, 1995, 57–59 (Ger. trans.)


(7 words)

[German Version] North Africa


(194 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1486, Nadia/Navadvīpa – c. Jul 9, 1533, Puri), commonly known as Viśvambhara Miśra, also as Kṛṣṇa-Caitanya (lit. “one whose consciousness is Kṛṣṇa ”). After a mystical encounter with Kṛṣṇa ¶ (Kṛṣṇa) Caitanya became a leading holy man of (Bengali or Gauḍīya-) Vaiṣṇavism and of bhakti piety. The brahmin Caitanya preached a personal, loving Brahman and a unio mystica with Kṛṣṇa, which is understood to be expressed in his unification with his lover, the cowherd Rādhā. His followers honor him as an avatāra of Kṛṣṇa or as an androgynous …

Cajetan of Tiene, Saint

(128 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Gaietano; 1480, Vicenza – Aug 7, 1547, Naples), founder of the Theatine Order. In 1524, after studying law and serving as a lawyer to the Roman Curia, together with Gian Pietro Carafa (later Pope Paul IV) and others, Cajetan founded the Order of Theatines, a clerical reform community which quickly spread through Italy. Cajetan worked to maintain a strict form of orthodox Roman Catholicism. From 1533 to 1547 he was almost continuously in N…
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