Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(228 words)

Author(s): Weber, Franz
[German Version] socio-religious liberation movement in Bahia (Brazil), founded by Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel (1830–1897). In his popular preaching, Mendes Maciel set the “law of God” against “human law,” which he saw embodied in the agnosticism of the elite of the Republic of Brazil (established 1889). For him, “only God is great.” Mendes Maciel proclaimed God as “the Father of the poor” and Jesus as “poor, simple, suffering.” Mendes Maciel was rejecte…


(561 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert
[German Version] After Buddhism and Catholicism, Caodaism is the third largest religion in Vietnam (practiced by an estimated 3% to 10% of the population). Its name derives from the title of the supreme divinity, Cao Dai (lit. “highest palace”). Caodaism combines Buddhist, Taoist, Confucian and Christian elements with aspects of Vietnam's indigenous religion. Outside Vietnam, Caodaism is practiced almost exclusively by Vietnamese emigrants. The founder of Caodaism was Ngo Van Chieu (1878–1932, also known as Ngo Minh Chieu), a civil servant in the Fre…


(373 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike
[German Version] the power or ability to do something. Plato distinguished between a “capacity to effect something” (δύναμις τού ποιείν/ dýnamis toú poieín) and a “capacity to suffer something” (δύναμις τού πάσχειν/ dýnamis toú páschein; Soph. 247e–248e). Aristotle ¶ adopted this distinction between two types of capacity and expanded upon it by adding the distinction between “capacity” or “possibility” (δύναμις) and “reality” (ἐνέργεια/ enérgeia; act and potency). As an active or passive “principle of change or movement” ( Metaph. V 12, 1019b19–20), a capacity mani…

Capadose, Abraham

(278 words)

Author(s): Vree, Jasper
[German Version] (Aug 22, 1795, Amsterdam – Dec 16, 1874, The Hague) came from a distinguished Sephardic Jewish family. While working as a physician in Amsterdam, he and his friend U. da Costa were baptized in 1822. Shortly thereafter, Capadose began to fiercely oppose any divergence from orthodoxy within the Dutch Reformed Church. He denounced vaccination against smallpox as an attempt to thwart the will of God. From 1833 until his death, he lived as a citizen without office in The Hague, save for a longer stay in Switzerland (1836–1837). Having come under the influence of the Réveil movem…


(227 words)

Author(s): Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] Although sherds from between 3000 and 2000 bce document earlier habitation (no Iron Age remains have been found), Capernaum (Gk Καφαρναούμ/ Kapharnaoúm, Heb. כֶפַּר נַתוּם/kepar naḍûm, Arab. Telḍum) was apparently founded only in the 5th century bce; with the advantages of the long-distance route running through it and the fertility of the area, Capernaum grew steadily. Capernaum reached its floruit in the Byzantine period, when it had approx. 1500 inhabitants; from the 9th century the settlemen…

Cape Town

(607 words)

Author(s): Saunders, Christopher
[German Version] lies on the shores of Table Bay, at the foot of Table Mountain. It was founded in 1652 by the Dutch and originally called De Kaap, later Kaapstad, then Cape Town. With the arrival of the first Anglican bishop, Robert Gray (1809–1872), in 1848, Cape Town attained city status. Because Cape Town was the starting point for the European colonization of South Africa, many white South Africans came to call it “the mother city.” The Dutch commander Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the settlement, originally envisioned Cape Town as a provision station for sh…

Cape Verde,

(474 words)

Author(s): Sigrist, Christian
[German Version] since 1975 República de Cabo Verde, approx. 600 km west of Dakar. Fifteen islands (4,033 km2), of which nine are inhabited, population 50,000, with at least the same number living abroad. The official languages are Portuguese, and the vernacular Crioulo. The Portuguese discovered several of the islands in 1456. Soon afterwards, Portuguese colonists established the first European colony on the “other side” of the Atlantic. On the basis of a feudal means of production d…


(6 words)

[German Version] Philistines


(858 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann
[German Version] I. Few concepts in economics are as slippery as the concept of “capital.” “Capital” can be defined narrowly or broadly, in terms of macro-economics or of business, according to theories of production or distribution; moreover, “capital” means something different to political scientists and sociologists than it does to economists. In a very general economic sense, “capital” may be understood to include anything which alongside unqualified work acts…


(2,041 words)

Author(s): Altvater, Elmar
[German Version] The term capitalism came into use in political economics (Economy) and the social sciences only more than 100 years after the Industrial Revolution (Industrialization), after the formation of capitalist society had largely become established, initially in England and then in continental Western Europe. A. Smith and D. Ricardo did not employ the term, and even in Das Kapital by K. Marx the term can be found only once (in vol. II, ch. 4). W. Sombart was the first to introduce the term capitalism in his epochal analysi…


(598 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] In the narrow sense, Capitol (Lat. caput, “head”) refers to the part of the mons Capitolinus which faces the Tiber; in a broader sense it refers to the whole hill including the arx (“fortress”), which was at one time connected to the Quirinal, and the hollow, known as the Asylum, between the two hilltops. Additionally, the Capitol is the name of the principal temple in Rome and its colonies, the aedes Capitolina of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and for any symbolic place which demonstrates the Roman relationship between religion and power in…

Capito, Wolfgang

(285 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1481 [not 1478] Hagenau – Nov 4, 1541, Strasbourg) studied in Ingolstadt (1501), Heidelberg (1504), Freiburg (1505, 1515 Dr. theol.). In 1512, he became seminary preacher in Bruchsal, in 1515 cathedral preacher and professor in Basel, an eminent Hebraist. Capito was sympathetic to Erasmus and produced the first edition of Luther's collected writings in 1518. In 1520, Capito became cathedral preacher in Electoral Mainz. As counselor to archbishop…


(298 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Frank
[German Version] (Lat. Capitularia Capitula; from division into chapters) were an order of law and life issued by the Frankish kings, with authority of banishment, relating to all the moral, disciplinary, liturgical and educational questions of Christian people. They were divided up as Capitularia per se for the entire realm, Capitularia legibus addenda for particular areas of the realm and to supplement tribal laws, and “missi,” i.e. individual instructions for royal emissaries and counts. The capitularies were issued at imperial a…


(450 words)

Author(s): Mitchell, Stephen
[German Version] A rural area of eastern Asia Minor that extended from Galatia and Lyconia to the Euphrates and functioned as a bridge between the cultures of the Mediterranean and Asia. From the 6th century bce, Cappadocia formed part of the Persian empire (Iran). The Iranian influence on the culture, language and anthroponymy of the population was noticeable until Late Antiquity. During the Hellenistic era, Cappadocia was ruled by kings descended from the Persians, although powerful temple principalities remained independent. In 17 ce, Cappadocia was integrated into the …

Cappadocian Theology

(542 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The monastic theologians and bishops, Basil the Great, his brother Gregory of Nyssa and their friend Gregory of Nazianzus came from the province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor and spent most of their lives there. For this reason, they are often referred to by modern historians and theologians as “the three great Cappadocians.” A cousin of Gregory of Nazianzus and colleague of Basil, Amphilochius of Iconium, is sometimes added to their number. The t…

Cappellus, Louis

(145 words)

Author(s): Bartelmus, Rüdiger
[German Version] (Oct 15 or 16, 1585, St. Elier – Jun 18, 1658, Saumur). With M. Amyraut and J. de la Place, the Reformed theologian and Hebraist taught from 1613 to 1621 and from 1624 to 1658 at the academy in Saumur. Following Elijah Levita and against the arguments of the two Buxtorfs, Cappellus (Capelle) was the first Christian theologian to show scientifically that the vocalization of the Hebrew Bible is later than the consonantal text. In the controversy ov…

Capra, Frank

(300 words)

Author(s): Bauschulte, Manfred
[German Version] (May 19, 1897, Palermo – Sep 3, 1991, La Quinta, CA), the son of Sicilian farm workers, grew up in California; he got into the film industry as a young author and gag writer for the well-known slapstick comedian Harry Langdon. In 1928 he began his career as a director with Columbia Studios, where he made his breakthrough with the screwball comedy It Happened One Night (1934). The theme of the film, in ¶ which a rich young woman and a hard-boiled reporter find themselves on the run together, is the guilt-ridden relationship between the sexes. The film Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936) …


(414 words)

Author(s): Knobloch, Stefan
[German Version] The Capuchins, the third branch of the Franciscan order, after and along with the Minorites and Franciscans, to view Francis of Assisi as the father of their order, owe their origin to a reform movement with the Franciscans at the beginning of the 16th century. In 525, Matthäus of Bascio settled in the region of Ancona, Italy, following the oral permission of pope Clement VII based on his brothers’ support, with the intention of leading a strict …

Caracciolo, Galeazzo

(131 words)

Author(s): Campi, Emidio
[German Version] (Jan 1517, Naples – May 7, 1586, Geneva), count of Vico and nephew of Carafa (Paul IV), came into contact with reformation ideas in the circle around J. de Valdés and especially through his encounter with Peter Martyr Vermigli. In 1551, Caracciolo fled to Geneva, where he was instrumental in the establishment of the Italian refugee community. After 1559, he participated in the politics of the republic as a member of parliament, earning universal regard. Calvin, whose friendship Caracciolo enjoyed, dedicated his commentary on 1 Corinthians to him. Emidio Campi Bibliogra…

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da

(218 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (1572, Caravaggio or Milan – Jul 18, 1610 Porto Ercole) is considered one of the great realists in the history of painting (Realism: IV). In 1672, the Italian art critic Giovanni Pietro Bellori wrote that Caravaggio's unvarnished vision of reality “corrupted the morals of painting.” Besides the realistic objectivity and verisimilitude of his pictures (almost all the models for his female figures were prostitutes), Caravaggio shocked his contemporaries with surprising compositional techniques such as bringing the viewer close in to the scene, as in The Conversion …


(393 words)

Author(s): Binder, Hans-Otto
[German Version] Several legends trace the founding of the Italian secret society of the Carbonari (“Charcoal-burners”) back to antiquity. They made their first historical appearance in southern Italy in the Napoleonic period, c. 1807. Similarities in organization and ritual as well as personal connections suggest that they emerged from the Bons Cousins Charbonniers, an occupational organization established primarily in Burgundy and Franche-Comté. It was an initiatory s…


(285 words)

Author(s): Liverani, Mario
[German Version] The city on the Euphrates (modern Jerablus) was an important kingdom and commercial center during the time of Ebla (24th cent. bce) and Mari (18th cent. bce). From the 16th/14th centuries, Carchemish belonged to the Mitanni; c. 1350, Šuppiluliuma conquered the city. The local Hittite dynasty, then founded by Piyaššili, was entrusted with Syrian affairs, and Carchemish almost became independent (Ini-Tešub, c. 1240–1220) gaining the title “Great Kingdom,” dominating the Euphrates …


(395 words)

Author(s): Krämer, Peter
[German Version] Derived from cardo (hinge, pivot point), the term cardinalate originally referred to an institution of the clergy in the city of Rome. Already in the 11th century, three classifications had formed: cardinal deacons, who were responsible to assist the bishop of Rome in liturgical ministry, care for the poor, and administer property; cardinal priests, who, as the heads of Roman titular churches, were responsible for liturgical ministry in the five patri¶ archal churches; and cardinal bishops, who, as bishops of the dioceses situated around Rome …

Cardinals, Congregation of

(8 words)

[German Version] Congregations

Cardinal Virtues

(7 words)

[German Version] Virtues

Cardoso, Mattheus

(399 words)

Author(s): Hastings, Adrian
[German Version] (1584, Lisbon – 1625, São Salvador, Congo) entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1598. Following his studies, ordination, and a number of years as lecturer in the Jesuit college at Evora, he was sent to Angola in 1617 and taught there at the college of Luanda. In the year 1619, Cordoso spent nine months in the Kongo Kingdom in the company of Friar Duarte Vaz. He drew up plans to open a college in the capital, Mbanza Kongo (São Salvador), and translated a stan…


(24 words)

[German Version] Deaf and Hearing Impaired, Care of the; Dying, Care of the; Poor, Care of the; Sick, Care of the

Carey, William

(390 words)

Author(s): Stanley, Brian
[German Version] (Aug 17, 1761, Paulerspury, England – Jun 9, 1834, Serampore, India) is often regarded as the father of modern Protestant missions. As the principal founder of the Baptist Missionary Society (BMS) he pioneered a movement which led to the formation of similar evangelical missionary societies in Great Britain, Europe, and North America. His own missionary vision was much indebted to the earlier achievements of the Moravians (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren…

Cargo Cults

(356 words)

Author(s): Lindstrom, Lamont
[German Version] The term “cargo cult” first appeared in the November 1945 issue of the colonial news magazine Pacific Islands Monthly. Anthropologists and others seized upon the term to label religious movements that emerged in the post-war years, notably in the southwestern Pacific region of Melanesia during a period of rapid economical and political change. Some observers classified cargo cults as a Pacific variant of the universal millenarian (Millenarianism) movements which t…


(1,395 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] For historical reasons, the Caribbean is described as the region that encompasses the archipelago of the greater and lesser Antilles, Belize and the Guyanas. It comprises a surface area of 599, 276 km2. The population numbers 33,791,000. The majority of the population is black or mulatto, stemming from African slaves who mixed with European conquerors. After the arrival of the Spaniards in 1492, “the great death” affected the original inhabitants of the islands, who fell victim to violence o…

Caribbean Conference of Churches

(164 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] (CCC) was founded in 1973 by 18 churches in Kingston, Jamaica. The CCC became the first ecumenical institution in the world, with the Roman Catholic Church as one of its founding members. The other Churches are: the Anglican Church, Baptists, Methodists, Orthodox Churches, Reformed Churches, Lutherans, Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, Presbyterians, and the Salvation Army. The CCC was the result of a process of closer cooperat…

Carissimi, Giacomo

(163 words)

Author(s): Cassaro, James P.
[German Version] (baptized Apr 18, 1605, Marini, died Jan 12, 1674, Rome), Italian composer, the first major composer of oratorios. In 1628, Carissimi was appointed director of music at Assisi, and soon moved on to Rome as director of music at the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, a position he held for life. He was ordained priest in 1637. Among his students were Alessandro Scarlatti and Marc-Antoine Charpentier. Carissimi's most important oratorios include Jephte, Jonas, Baltazar, and ¶ Judicium extremum. In addition, Carissimi composed hundreds of motets, mass…


(1,551 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. Establishment – II. History – III. Current Situation I. Establishment 1. Founders. The notion of caritas as social assistance to those in need deriving from a sense of Christian responsibility has existed as long as the church itself. However, the organizational unification of such efforts beyond the boundaries of the dioceses and without exclusive ties to the socio-charitable religious orders is a modern phenomenon, which did not emerge within Catholicism until…

Carl, Johann Samuel

(205 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1676?; baptized Aug 16, 1677, Öhringen/county of Hohenlohe – Jun 13, 1757, Meldorf/Holstein), doctor and radical pietist. The son of a pharmacist and already influenced by Pietism in his formative years, he became the doctor in his home town after studying medicine in Halle (pupil of Georg Ernst Stahl) and Strasbourg. Deported because of his radical pietistic activities, Carl found positions as ¶ a personal physician at the courts of pietistic high nobility in Büdingen (1708–1728), Berleburg (1728–1736) and Copenhagen (1736–175…


(7 words)

[German Version] Sremski Karlovci

Carlyle, Thomas

(526 words)

Author(s): Erlebach, Peter
[German Version] (Dec 4, 1795, Ecclefechan, Scotland – Feb 5, 1881, London), critic of contemporary civilization and literary figure of tremendous reputation, the most important representative of idealistic (Idealism) thinking of the 19th century in England, influenced by Puritanism (Puritans/Puritanism), who protested against utilitarianism, materialism, the predatory competition of the industrial age and the general lack of intellectual culture in humank…


(510 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The Carmelite Order goes back to a community of occidental hermits on Mount Carmel, who were granted a rule by the patriarch of Jerusalem in 1210. It obligated them to a strict contemplative life. The spirituality of the community, led by a prior, was marked by anachoretic traditions, the example of the prophet Elijah, and veneration of the Virgin Mary. In 1240, the Carmelites fled before the growing threat of the Saracens into their European homelands, where …

Carmel Mission

(91 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Klaus
[German Version] A missionary society founded in 1904 by J. Seitz in Palestine to evangelize German emigrants, Jews, and Muslims. The mission to Muslims soon predominated, and today it characterizes the work of the Carmel Mission. It is based on an evangelically oriented theology of mission: it is active in many countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, in which evangelistic and diaconal missionary programs are implemented. The society's headquarters is in Schondorf, Württemberg (Germany). Klaus Schäfer Bibliography Journal: Mission in der Welt des Islam, 1912ff. (bi-month…

Carmel, Mount

(281 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar
[German Version] (Heb. כַּרְמֶל, “fruit garden, orchard”), limestone and chalk mountain range in northern Palestine, up to 552m high, to the south of the tribe of Asher (Josh 19:26; Tribes of Israel). The OT praises the mountain's beauty (Isa 35:2). In the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce, it is referred to in Egyptian sources as “nose of a gazelle,” and later as “holy head,” probably alluding to a sanctuary. On the Carmel, the Canaanite-Phoenician ¶ god Baal was worshiped, who is equated with Zeus in Ps.-Skylax, Periplus 104 (4th cent. bce), according to Tacitus Hist. 78.3 and Suet. Vesp. 5.6 call…

Carnap, Rudolf

(169 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus
[German Version] (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf – Sep 14, 1970, Santa Monica, CA), a major proponent of the philosophy of logical positivism or empiricism. After studying physics, mathematics, and philosophy (1910–1914), he earned his doctorate from Jena in 1921 with a philosophical dissertation on space. In 1926 he joined the Vienna Circle, a group seeking to use the tools of modern logic to formulate a “scientific world view” based on empiricism. Metaphysics and religion were rejected as empirically untestable and hence meaningless. In 1928 Carnap published his magnum opus, Der logische …


(387 words)

Author(s): Mezger, Werner
[German Version] The word carnival (see also Shrove Tuesday/Mardi Gras) derives from Lat. carnislevamen or carnem levare, “take away meat,” which became vernacular carnevale, carnovale, carnaval, and carnival. A simplified popular etymology derives it from Ital. carne vale, “farewell, meat.” The German equivalent is Fastnacht. It is a celebration preceding the 40-day pre-Easter fast (Fasting: III) that begins on Ash Wednesday, during which consumption of meat and dairy products was forbidden. Pre-Reformation and Counter-Refo…

Caroline Divines

(549 words)

Author(s): Bray, Gerald
[German Version] A group of anti-Puritan/anti-Calvinist theologians from the 17th century. The name is derived from Charles I of England. Its most prominent representatives were L. Andrewes, W. Laud, and Jeremy Taylor. The anti-Calvinist movement in the Church of England possibly began with a sermon held by the then bishop of London, R. Bancroft, on Feb 9, 1589 at Paul's Cross in front of St. Paul's Cathedral. In this sermon, Bancroft lashed out at the Puritans and claimed that the bishops of the Church of England could legitimate their position and authority on the basis of divine right ( iu…


(1,529 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] I. History – II. Carolingian Reforms (Church and Educational Reform) – III. Carolingian Art I. History This family, named, since the 12th century, after its most important representative, Charlemagne, stems from the Maas-Mosel region. The first known Carolingian was bishop Arnulf of Metz (died 640), venerated as a saint. His contemporary was Pippin the Elder (died 640), the majordomo of the king of Austrasia in 624/625. His daughter Begga married Arnulf's son, Ansegisel. The …

Carpaccio, Vittore

(211 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1465, Venice – 1525 or 1526, Venice). With G. Bellini, the Italian painter Vittore Carpaccio was a dominant figure in Venetian painting between 1490 and 1510. In 1511 he called himself pittore di stato. The nucleus of his work consists of cycles for the assembly rooms of several Venetian confraternities. The large-scale canvasses incorporate vivid details of everyday life but also the concern of the republic and its leading families in the face of the danger posed by the Turks. In 1490 Car…

Carpentier, Alejo

(226 words)

Author(s): Hagel, Doris
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1904, Havanna – Apr 24, 1980, Paris), a major 20th-century novelist and musicologist of Franco-Russian extraction. His oeuvre consists of several essays, novellas and six novels, and may be seen as a historiography of European culture in the Ibero-American context, as well as of its decline in the wake of the liberation movements of the 18th and 19th centuries. It is dominated by political themes such as the revolution, its lack of authe…

Carpocrates and Carpocratians

(294 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] The origins of the Christian Gnostic community (Gnosis/Gnosticism: II, 2) of the Carpocratians reach back before 150 ce. According to Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. III 5.2f.), it was founded by Epiphanes son of Carpocrates, who died at the age of 17 and was allegedly venerated as a god in Same on the island of Cephallenia. In his work De iustitia (CPG 1123), Epiphanes understood justice as an original equality of all, polemicized against the lawgiver, and advocated a community of goods and women (Clem. Strom. III 5.1–11. 2). According to the teaching of th…

Carpov, Jakob

(151 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1699, Goslar – Jun 6, 1768, Weimar) gained his M.A. in Jena in 1725, became a Gymnasium teacher in 1737, becoming director in Weimar in 1745. The first of the theological Wolffians (C. Wolff) to do so, Carpov developed his entire dogmatics in a strictly mathematical and demonstrative manner. While in material respects he held fast to orthodox doctrine by explicitly confessing the symbolic books, he wanted to assure the academic standing of theology by applying the methodus scientifica. With the aid of a rational theory of revelation, he sought…

Carpus, Papylus, and Agathonice

(178 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (feast: Apr 13); Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 15.48 relates that the hypomnemata of the martyrdom of these two clergymen and of Agathonice, the sister of Papylus, were still extant in Pergamon. The rich and divergent hagiological tradition, which includes an epic version, attributes various origins and ecclesial ranks to the martyrs and emphasizes that it was the woman who urged the others to accept martyrdom. According to Eusebius, their martyrdom took place in the reign …


(518 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Brigitte
[German Version] An extraordinarily influential academic family of jurists active primarily in Saxony between 1550 and 1800 1. Benedikt I (Oct 22, 1565 – Nov 26, 1624), jurist; 1592 University of Wittenberg, 1594 chancellor in Reinstein/Blankenburg, 1602 in Colditz/Dresden, and counselor at the Dresden court of appeal. His sons: 2. Konrad (Jul 11, 1593 – Feb 12, 1658), jurist; counselor at the Pomeranian court c. 1620, from 1621 assessor at the royal court in Dresden and professor at the University of Wittenberg, 1636 emissary to t…

Carranza de Miranda, Bartolomé

(170 words)

Author(s): Tellechea Idígoras, J. Ignacio
[German Version] (1503, Miranda de Arga – May 2, 1576, Rome), Dominican. In 1546/1547 and 1552/1553, he participated in the Council of Trent (works include: Summa Conciliorum, 1546, repr. 1993; De necessaria residentia episcoporum, 1547, repr. 1993); involved in the Catholic Restoration in England (1554–1557); in 1557, he became archbishop of Toledo. Because of his relationship with J. de Valdés and the – unfounded – suspicion that his Comentarios sobre el Catecismo Cristiano (1558, repr. 1972, new edn 1999) represented a Lutheran understanding of justificati…

Carroll, John

(130 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jan 19, 1736, Upper Marlboro, MD – Mar 12, 1815, Baltimore, MD), Catholic bishop (1789–1808) and archbishop of Baltimore (1808–1815). As the first Catholic bishop in the United States, Carroll was primarily responsible for organizing the Catholic Church and thereby setting the tone for the participation of Catholicism in the post-revolutionary American society. Though Carroll wrote no systematic treatises on the Enlightenment impulses (e.g. repu…

Carr, Thomas

(155 words)

Author(s): Prentis, Malcolm
[German Version] (baptized May 5, 1839, Moylough, County Galway, Ireland – May 6, 1917, Melbourne, Australia), Roman Catholic archbishop. Carr, who came from a landowning family, studied at Maynooth College and was ordained priest in 1866. In 1883, he was appointed bishop of Galway; in 1887, he came to Victoria as archbishop of Melbourne. He strongly fostered Roman Catholic education in his diocese by, for example, supporting a teacher-training college and a univ…


(534 words)

Author(s): Schütt, Hans-Peter
[German Version] a philosophical trend of late 17th and early 18th-century Europe going back to R. Descartes. Initially, the appellation “Cartesians” was applied to those who had known Descartes personally and either adopted some of his teachings or simply disseminated them. These included, in the Netherlands: Cornelius van Hooghelande (c.1590–1676), Heinri Reniersz (latinized as Reneri, c.1593–1639), Henri le Roy (latinized as Regius, 1598–1679), and Adrian Heereboord …


(2,038 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Names – II. Geography – III. History and Society – IV. Religion and Literature I. Names Even though in ancient literary contexts Carthage was occasionally called Tyre, Tarshish, Kaine Polis, Kadmeia, Oinus, Kaccabe, Afrike, and Byrsa, the official name of the city was, nonetheless, always Qrtḍdšt, “New City.” The city was called “New City” to characterize it as an establishment of the “Old City,” Tyre (in Phoenicia). It shared this name with Phoenician settlem…

Carthage, Synod of

(212 words)

Author(s): Drecoll, Volker Henning
[German Version] On May 1, 418, guided by Augustine and Aurelius of Carthage, more than 200 North African bishops meeting in Carthage passed nine canons against Pelagianism (Pelagius; CChr.SL 149, 69–78; DH, 222–230, misnumbered after canon 2). The canons emphasized inherited original sin ( originale peccatum) on the basis of Rom 5:12, infant baptism (cc. 1–3), grace as the infusion of love (not simply forgiveness, revelation, or relief; cc. 4–6), and the impossibility of a sinless life (canons 7–9). The bishops were reacting…


(559 words)

Author(s): Hogg, James
[German Version] The strictly ascetic and contemplative Carthusian order traces its origins to Bruno the Carthusian, who in 1084 joined with six like-minded companions to establish a monastic community of hermits at Cartusia (La Chartreuse), in the mountains near Grenoble. An order came into being in 1127, when Guigo I, the fifth prior of La Chartreuse, composed a customary ( Consuetudines monasticae ) for the handful of Carthusian communities. The customary, which called for a harmonious blend of eremitic and cenobitic life, w…

Cartwright, Thomas

(305 words)

Author(s): Sheils, William Joseph
[German Version] (c. 1535, Hertfordshire – Dec 27, 1603, Warwick) was the leading intellectual figure of English Presbyterianism (Presbyterians) in the reign of Elizabeth I. In 1570, he became professor of divinity at Cambridge University. His lectures on Acts, in which he expressed presbyterian views on church order, aroused opposition from the authorities. He was dismissed from his post and retired to Geneva. He returned in 1572. His support for Puritan petitions …

Caryophylles, John

(160 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1600, Karyai, Thracia – after 1693, Bucharest), an Orthodox lay theologian, Grand Logothet of the Ecumenical patriarchate (1676–1691), student of the Aristotelian Theophilos Korydaleus, and teacher. Since Caryophylles belonged to the circle surrounding Patriarch Cyril Lucaris, who was suspected of Calvinism, he also was subject to the same suspicion for more than a decade, primarily because, owing to his conservative rejection of a mixture of philosophy and theology and a more spiritual doctrine of the Eucharist ¶ preserving its mystery, he was unwillin…

Casaubonus, Isaac

(177 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1559, Geneva – Jul 12, 1614, London). After study at the Geneva Academy, this son of a Huguenot pastor became professor of Greek there in 1583. He taught in Montpellier (1596–1599) but was called to Paris in 1600 by Henry IV. As royal commissioner he took part in the disputation between P. Duplessis-Mornay and Cardinal Duperron, in which he spoke for the latter, earning him the mistrust of his fellow believers. In 1610 he answered a call…

Caselius, Johannes

(134 words)

Author(s): Mager, Inge
[German Version] (v. Kessel; May 18, 1533, Göttingen – Apr 9, 1613, Helmstedt) came from a Dutch family of refugees. He studied in Wittenberg and Leipzig from 1551 onward, became professor of rhetoric and princely tutor in the service of Mecklenburg in 1563, and earned his doctorate in law in Pisa in 1566. Having no strict confessional attachment, Caselius accepted an appointment as professor of philosophy, rhetoric and ethics at the University of Helmstedt in 1589, whe…

Casel, Odo

(376 words)

Author(s): Schilson, Arno
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1886, Koblenz-Lützel – Mar 28, 1948, Herstelle/Weser), important specialist in Catholic liturgy who, through his mystery theology, left a lasting impression on the Liturgical Movement in Germany as well as on the renewal of Catholic theology in the 20th century. In 1905 he became a Benedictine in the abbey Maria Laach; in 1912 earned his Dr. Theol. in Rome and in 1919 Dr. Phil. in Bonn. From 1921 he was editor of the internationally and interdisciplinarily respected Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft (15 vols., 1921–1941, repr. 1973–1979, index vol. …

Case, Shirley Jackson

(122 words)

Author(s): Baird, William
[German Version] (Sep 28, 1872, New Brunswick, Canada – Dec 5, 1947, Lakeland, FL), New Testament scholar and historian of early Christianity. With a doctorate from Yale (Ph.D. 1907), Case was professor of New Testament and patristics (1908–1938) and dean of the Divinity School (1933–1938) at the University of Chicago. Along with Shailer Mathews (1863–1941), Case is recognized as the major representative of the Chicago School. Employing the socio-historical method, Case made important contributions the understanding of Christian origins ( The Evolution of Early Christianity, 19…

Case, William

(153 words)

Author(s): Goodwin, Daniel
[German Version] (Aug 27, 1780, Swansea Township, MA – Oct 19, 1855, Alderville, Upper Canada), Methodist minister of English descent, who experienced his “rebirth” in 1803. Two years later, the Methodist Epis¶ copal Church appointed him as an itinerant preacher in Upper Canada. He was ordained in 1807. Case participated in the “Canada Fire,” an experientially oriented revival, which later spread to New York and beyond. He was also a missionary to the Mississauga Indians. In Upper Canada, he mediate…

Cassander, Georg

(228 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1513, Pitthem near Bruges – Feb 3, 1566, Cologne), humanist Catholic mediation theologian. He studied in Leuven, Cologne, and Heidelberg and, as a follower of Erasmus, worked literarily and politically, in the spirit of a via media, for reform and the recovery of church unity. His irenic document supporting unity, De officio pii ac publicae tranquillitatis vere amantis viri in hoc religionis dissidio (1561), appeared at the Colloquy of Poissy in 1561. In terms of content, he appealed to the Early Church and to a liturgy …


(395 words)

Author(s): Gödde, Susanne
[German Version] the daughter of King Priam of Troy and Hecuba. Homer and Ibycus extol her beauty. Wishing to marry her, Othryoneus fought on the side of Troy but was slain (Hom. Il. 13.363–393). Like her twin brother Helenus, she was endowed with oracular powers, which she received from Apollo, whose prophet and priestess she became – a relationship with erotic connotations (albeit often mentioned in the negative). Anticleides (140; FGH 2, B1, frag. 17), however, records that brother and sister were endow…

Cassian, John (Saint)

(395 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (360, Dobruja – 430/435, Marseille). Born in a Christian home, Cassian undertook a pilgrimage to Palestine and Egypt, where for more than a decade he was a student of the monastic fathers. During the Origenistic controversies he left Egypt c. 399/400, went to Constantinople and John Chrysostom, went to Rome after the latter's banishment, and ultimately settled in southern Gaul, where in 415 he founded a monastery and a convent. With his writings, in which he reflected on the experiences of ascetic life, he became the teacher of western monasticism (Benedict, Rule of). In D…


(258 words)

Author(s): Curti, Carmelo
[German Version] (full name: Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus; senator) (c. 485 – c. 588) was born ¶ in Squillace (Calabria). His life can be divided into two parts. The first was characterized by lively political involvement during the reign of the Goths, which put him into the highest offices ( quaestor, consul, and magister officiorum under Theodoric, praefectus praetorio under Athalaric). In the second, beginning with his withdrawal from active politics c. 537 and return to his homeland, he devoted himself to study and meditation, and founded a monastery in Vivario, Calabria. Hi…

Cassirer, Ernst

(373 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] (Jul 28, 1874, Breslau – Apr 13, 1945, New York), German philosopher and a student of the Marburg Neo-Kantians H. Cohen and P. Natorp (Neo-Kantianism). In 1919, he accepted an appointment as professor at the newly founded University of Hamburg, but emigrated in March 1993 (England, Sweden). As a Swedish citizen, he was visiting professor at Yale and New York from 1941 onward. Cassirer's oeuvre is dedicated to the ideals of humanism and the…

Castaneda, Carlos

(267 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1931, São Paulo, Brazil, or Dec 25, 1925, Cajamarca, Peru – Apr 27, 1998, Westwood, CA), cultural anthropologist, writer, and father of the American New Age movement – emigrated to the USA in 1951. Little is known of his background and life; throughout his lifetime he shunned publicity. He studied anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles, receiving his Ph.D. in 1973. In 1968 he published his first work, the novel The Teachings of Don Juan; it and the nine works that followed became best-sellers. They dealt with dreams, rites…


(1,741 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Jeyaraj, Daniel | Forrester, Duncan
[German Version] I. India – II. Caste and Christianity (in History) – III. Missiology I. India “Caste” (from Port. casta, “pure, unadulterated, chaste”) is the term used to denote Indian social groups based on criteria of consanguinity and, in part, fictional genealogy; they are distinguished by common occupations, names, and traditions, especially norms governing marriage and diet (Dietary laws: VIII). Traditional Hindu society adopts a hierarchic model of four classes (Skt. varṇa, often mislabeled “castes”) (Hinduism: III, 2). Castes are charact…

Castellio, Sebastian

(252 words)

Author(s): Feld, Helmut
[German Version] (Châteillon; 1515, Saint-Martin-du-Fresne, Savoy – Dec 29, 1563, Basel). After studying at Lyon, c. 1540 Castellio came to Strasbourg, where he made friends with Calvin. In 1540 the Reformer found him an appointment in Geneva as headmaster of the Collège de la Rive, where he wrote the Dialogi sacri, a textbook for Latin instruction, and began work on a new translation of the Bible into Latin and French. Differences over Christ's descent into hell and the Song of Songs led to conflict with Calvin. In …


(6 words)

[German Version] Fortresses

Castor, Saint

(112 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Saint's day: Feb 13). According to a vita from the High Middle Ages, Castor came from Aquitania and was a contemporary of Bishop Maximinus of Trier (died 346). He became priest and lived as a recluse in Karden (Mosel), where his remains were discovered under Bishop Weomad (died 791) and interred in the nearby Paulinus Church (renamed after Castor in ¶ the 10th/11th cent.); in 836, Archbishop Hetti (died 847) transferred some of them to the collegiate church built by him in Koblenz. Franz Xaver Bischof Bibliography ActaSS Febr. II, 1658, 662–666 MGH.SS II, 1829, 603 F. Pauly…

Castro, Matheus de

(296 words)

Author(s): De Souza, Teotonio R.
[German Version] (Matteo di; c. 1594, Divar – 1677, Rome), the first Indian bishop of the Catholic Church, born to the Mahale brahmin family of Divar, across from the city of Goa. The admission of Indians to the clerical ranks was at that time very rare as a result of colonial politics. Matteo de Castro's wish to join the Franciscans was not given any attention. In the company of some Carmelites he came to Rome in 1625. The secretary of the newly established Propaganda…


(1,832 words)

Author(s): Beck, Herman L. | Herrmann, Klaus | Molinski, Waldemar | Herms, Eilert | Krawietz, Birgit
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Judaism – III. Christianity – IV. Islam I. Religious Studies Casuistry (from Lat. casus, “case”) is a method of practical and dialectical reasoning and argumentation in which the formulation of a specific case that is perceived to be problematic is followed by the application of general moral principles, norms, and guidelines to the specific case at hand. The purpose of this method is to arrive, under changed and changing circumstan…


(159 words)

Author(s): Haase, Mareile
[German Version] – Greek κατάβασις (εἰς ῾Αιδου)/ katábasis ( eís Háidou), Lat. descensus/descensio ( ad inferos), descent (to the underworld; cf. also Descent into hell) – is the classical term for elements of certain myths, especially involving Odysseus (not explained in Hom Od. 11, ¶ but cf. 23.252: κατέβην/ katébēn) and Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 6; Hereafter, Concepts of the), as well as Orpheus, Heracles, and Theseus. It is also an element of some divination rituals (oracle of Trophonius: Pausanias 9.39). The reference to pictorial repr…


(2,213 words)

Author(s): Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle
[German Version] I. Jewish Catacombs – II. Christian Catacombs I. Jewish Catacombs 1. In the Second Temple period, Jerusalem was surrounded by an important necropolis composed of both monumental tombs with decorated facades and simple graves; most of them lay to the east, south and north of the city, in the Qidron valley, between the Temple Mount and the Mount of Olives. The earliest is the tomb of the “Bene Chesir,” attributed to the 1st century bce. A Hebrew inscription on the architrave identifies the memorial as “tomb and nefesh” (literally, “soul,” indicating dedication to …


(116 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] also called tumba (tomb), is a mock coffin shrouded in black cloth that was set up in the church nave in front of the sanctuary. This was done at burial masses at which the coffin containing the body could not be brought into the church. At the end of the mass, farewell was bidden to the deceased through incensing and the sprinkling of the catafalque with holy water (absolution). Since the publication of the post-Vatican II burial rite, the farewell ceremony for the deceased may only be performed in the presence of the actual body. Reiner Kaczynski Bibliography Ordo exsequiaru…

Catechesis and Catechetics

(3,702 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen | Schoberth, Ingrid | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Phan, Peter
[German Version] I. History – II. Practical Theology – III. Latin America, Asia, Africa I. History 1. Early Church. The verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein originally denoted the oral transmission of a message in the sense of “tell, inform.” In Paul and early Christian literature it usually means “teach, instruct” (Gal 6:6; Lat. catechizare); in contrast to glossolalia, it refers to intelligible speech (1 Cor 14:19; Luke 1:4) such as instruction in the law (Rom 2:18) or in the teaching (“the way”) of the Lord (Acts 18:25). In t…

Catechetical Sermon

(271 words)

Author(s): Seitz, Manfred
[German Version] Catechetical preaching is the homiletical exposition of portions of the catechism in the form of a sermon or a series of sermons. Although its precise classification within the homiletical genre is difficult to determine, the catechetical sermon belongs to the category of didactic sermons, which may or may not deal additionally with a biblical text. Its purpose is reinforcement of an already lively faith and the imparting of sound knowledge of its …


(3,725 words)

Author(s): Tebartz-van Elst, Franz-Peter | Schulz, Ehrenfried | Hauptmann, Peter | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Catholic Catechisms – III. Orthodox Catechisms – IV. Protestant Catechisms – V. Catechetical Instruction I. Terminology Linguistically and semantically, the word catechism is derived from the Greek verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein, “to echo.” This etymology suggests a semantic connotation, according to which the transmission of the faith is fundamentally seen as a mediation of the content of the faith through personal testimony (cf. the Lat. personare, “to sound through”). Only when used in a transitive sense does κατήχειν acquire the meani…


(366 words)

Author(s): Doyé, Götz
[German Version] A vocational designation (derived from the NT verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein, “give information, instruct”; Catechesis: I) for theologically and pedagogically trained coworkers in the service of the church, especially in instructing and attending children, youth, and families. In Switzerland, Poland, and some German states, for example, catechists also work as church- or state-trained schoolteachers of religious education. The function and scope of catechists differs …


(2,429 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Streck, Danilo | Koschorke, Klaus | Connell, Martin
[German Version] I. General – II. Latin America, Asia and Africa I. General Catechumenate is a term, derived from Gk κατήχειν/ katḗchein as used by Paul (e.g. Gal 6:6), for the institution through which the church, with reference to baptism, forges the necessary link between Christian faith and learning. It is found, after precursors in the scholarly Latin of the 16th and 17th centuries, in the early 19th century as a term for Early Church instruction, but it then quickly became the designation for programs of catechesis and church reform (Henkys). 1. Early Church baptismal catechu…

Categorical Imperative

(704 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] According to I. Kant, the categorical imperative stands for the unconditionally valid moral commandment to heed the general appropriateness of one's actions: “Act only according to that maxim that you could also want to become a universal law” ( Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten [1785], Akademie-Ausgabe [AA] IV, 421; ET: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 1997). As early as the 1760s, Kant had already put forward the idea (crucial for his ethics of autonomy) that the free will of a rational being is subject only …


(1,001 words)

Author(s): Enskat, Rainer
[German Version] I. is a technical term introduced by Aristotle from the border area between grammar, semantics and ontology; it refers to a key aspect under which something that exists can be meaningfully discussed by means of a predicative statement. In textbook form, Aristotle distinguished the category of substance from, at most, nine other categories, linked with explanatory exemplifications: the what, the how large, the kind of nature, t…


(324 words)

Author(s): Hagedorn, Dieter
[German Version] From the 6th century onward, in the areas dominated by the Greek Church (and later also in some of the Eastern Churches), selected excerpts from existing Bible commentaries and other works of distinguished authors were joined together to form new commentaries on the books of the NT and OT; since the Middle Ages, it has become customary to refer to these compilations as catenae. Procopius of Gaza played a major role in the development of the genre, which may have originally been inspired from the scholia (Scholium) on the …


(582 words)

Author(s): Müller, Daniela
[German Version] The term Cathari (from Gk καϑαροί/ katharoí, “pure ones,” hence Ital. Gazari, Ger. Ketzer), first attested in 1163, was hardly used in the Middle Ages; only in the 19th century did it become the usual name for the largest group deviating from the Roman Church. The Cathari of southern France are also called Albigenses. Known to their enemies simply as haeretici, they called themselves “good Christians.” They are to be viewed against the background of the lay movements concerned primarily with poverty, preaching, and cri…


(288 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias
[German Version] the Greek term for “purification,” was employed systematically in Aristotle's poetics ( Poet. 6): by producing pity ( éleos) and fear (   phóbos) in the observer, the action portrayed leads to purification ( kátharsis) from these affects. This assertion reflects the notion that the objectification of besetting emotions makes them manageable, as it were. Similar ideas lie behind the theology and practice of confession, although in the Middle Ages (and in Catholicism still today) they have been…


(185 words)

Author(s): Nicolai, Bernd
[German Version] A cathedral is the main church of a bishop or archbishop ( ecclesia cathedralis); the term is derived from the bishop's seat (cathedra). In the German-speaking area, cathedrals are also called Dom or Münster (minster), although they are not necessarily linked to an episcopal see. Originally, the bishop and canons lived at the cathedral; later, they usually lived in separate buildings on either side (Paris, Reims, Naumburg). The architectural prototype since 312/313 has been the Lateran basili…

Cathedral Chapter

(293 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Heribert
[German Version] A cathedral chapter is a college of priests (known as capitulars) which is attached to a cathedral or collegiate church and assumes the responsibility for the celebration of the solemn liturgies; it is also expected to carry out the tasks assigned to it by canon law or the diocesan bishop ( CIC/1983, c. 503). The cathedral chapters constituted from the clergy (Clergy and laity) of the bishops' churches (Canons) evolved into collegiate bodies with their own legal competence and statutory autonomy, as well as into major insti…

Cathedral Schools

(471 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] were educational originally institutions for training clergy, administered by the episcopal curia. In the Early Church, learned bishops (preeminently Augustine) already gave instruction to their clergy. From the second Council of Toledo (527/531) onward, the Church repeatedly urged the establishment of episcopal schools; in 789, they were ¶ enjoined by Charlemagne, and in 1076 by Gregory VII. Nevertheless, down to the Reformation numerous councils deplored the educational level of the clergy – a sign of the great dispari…

Catherine II,

(143 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] “the Great,” tsarina of Russia (1762–1796; born princess of Anhalt-Zerbst, Apr 21, 1729, ¶ Stettin, died Nov 6, 1796, Carskoe Selo); on her marriage to Peter III (1761–1762), she converted to the Orthodox Church. As a representative of an enlightened absolutism, she practiced religious tolerance so long as state interests were not affected. In the acquired territories of Poland, Courland, the Crimea, and the Black Sea region, both Christian and non-Christian faith co…

Catherine of Alexandria (Saint)

(362 words)

Author(s): Brackmann, Heinzgerd
[German Version] (actually, Αἰκατερίνα/Aikaterína, not Αεικαθαρίνα/Aeikatherína, “forever pure,” a popular etymology) is venerated in the East and West as an early Christian virgin martyr; her historicity is uncertain. Identification of Catherine with an anonymous woman described by Eusebius ( Hist. eccl. VIII 14; par. Rufinus, Hist. VIII 17: Dorothea) or Hypatia of Alexandria remains hypothetical. There is evidence of a regional veneration of Catherine beginning in the first half of the 8th century. The most famous center o…

Catherine of Genoa (Saint)

(205 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (C. Fieschi; 1447, Genoa – Sep 15, 1519, Genoa), a member of the Genoese higher nobility. At the age of 16, she was married to Giuliano Adorno. After living a worldly life for five years, she experienced a spiritual crisis. During the following years, she lived so ascetically that for a long time she did not eat; the Eucharist was sufficient for her survival. She devoted herself to the care of the sick and of abandoned children. Her husband was c…

Catherine of Siena (Saint)

(219 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (c. 1347, Siena – Apr 29, 1380, Rome) was the youngest daughter of a cloth-dyer. She resolutely refused to marry in accordance with her parents' plans and, on reaching the age of 17 or 18, she became a Dominican tertiary (Tertiaries). She was well known in the town for her strict ascetic practices and for her charitable actions. A group of men and women gathered around her, forming a sort of family and calling Catherine their mother. In 1374, …

Catholic Action

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter | Rambo, Arthur B.
[German Version] I. General – II. Latin America I. General Catholic Action is a general term denoting the corporate involvement of Catholic laity in the church and the world. In the context of 19th-century liberation movements, there emerged various Catholic associations, largely independent of the hierarchical structure of the church, that made the voice of Catholics heard on social and political questions – for example Americanism in the USA, the Sillon in France, th…

Catholic Action (Canada)

(325 words)

Author(s): Perin, Roberto
[German Version] A disparate phenomenon with different regional, cultural, and linguistic expressions, Catholic Action encompasses both traditional devotional societies and newly formed social action ones. In English Canada, the journalist Henry Somerville expounded a social philosophy expounding anti-Communism, labor organization, welfare statism, and religious pluralism. Catholic Action also inspired a regional movement of producers, consumers, and credit coope…

Catholic Apostolic Church

(196 words)

Author(s): Binfield, Clyde
[German Version] The Catholic Apostolic Church was a British denomination, founded in London in 1832, combining Adventism (Adventists), charismatic expression, hierarchical structure, and Catholic liturgy. Although the movement's supporters were nicknamed “Irvingites,” derived from Edward Irving (1792–1834), minister of London's Regent Square Scotch Church, the movement owed most to Henry Drummond (1786–1860), who initiated original meetings to research biblical prophec…

Catholic Emancipation Act

(791 words)

Author(s): Machin, Ian
[German Version] The Catholic Emancipation Act, which became law within the United Kingdom on Apr 13, 1829, was the most important step in the hesitant progress of civil and religious equality for Roman Catholics since c. 1770. The act permit¶ ted duly elected Catholics to sit in the Lower House and become members of the Upper House. At the same time, the act confirmed certain restrictions: a Catholic could not become sovereign, lord chancellor of England or Ireland, or lord lieutenant of Ireland. Catholics could …

Catholic Epistles

(652 words)

Author(s): Lührmann, Dicter
[German Version] I. The term “Catholic Epistles” has been in use at least since the time of Eusebius of Caesarea ( Hist. eccl. II 23, 25) as a designation for the second collection of epistles in the NT canon alongside the Pauline Epistles. According to a 5th-century definition (Leontius of Byzantium, De sectis II, 4), the attribute “Catholic” is meant to indicate that these epistles, unlike those of Paul, are addressed to the whole church rather than to individual congregations. Their compilation into a corpus only began after the …
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