Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Calvary

(787 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland | Arnulf, Arwed | Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Name – II. Art and Liturgy – III. Roman Catholic Congregations I. Name The Greek interpretation of the Aramaic Golgotha as Κρανίου Τόπος/ Kraniou Topos, “Skull Place” (Matt 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17; cf. Luke 23:32), is rendered almost uniformly in the Latin versions (Old Latin, Vulgate) as c alvariae locus. The Latin form gave rise to “Calvary” and similar terms in other European languages. It is based on the Latin noun calvaria, “cranium, skull,” which makes its first appearance in the middle of the 1st century ce in medical works (Aurelius Cornelius Celsus,…

Calvinism

(1,241 words)

Author(s): Gerrish, B.A.
[German Version] I. Term – II. The Establishment of Orthodoxy – III. The Revision of Orthodoxy I. Term The word Calvinism was coined in the 16th century by Lutherans who feared the intrusion of Calvin's ideas, especially on the Eucharist (III, 1.b), into Germany. In time, it acquired several meanings: It may refer to the theological system of Calvin himself or to the theology of his pupils from the 16th century to the present; the adjective “Calvinist” is often used interchangeably…

Calvin, John

(10,728 words)

Author(s): Gerrish, B.A.
[German Version] (Jean Cauvin, Jul 10, 1509, Noyon – May 27, 1564, Geneva) I. Life and Work – II. Theology – III. Impact I. Life and Work 1. Development as a Reformer a. Childhood and youth. Calvin's biography until his first stay in Geneva is only partially known (autobiographical foreword to the Commentarius in librum Psalmorum, Geneva 1557). His father, Gérard Cauvin, was a notary in the service of the cathedral chapter of Noyon. In 1521, Calvin received the tonsure and the income from a benefice sine cura to provide for his education. Probably in 1523, during an outbr…

Calvisius, Seth

(223 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1556, Gorsleben, Thüringen – Nov 24, 1615, Leipzig) attended school in Frankenhausen (1569) and Magdeburg (1572), where he may have been a student of Gallus Dressler. He attended the Universities of Helmstedt (1579) and Leipzig (1580). In 1581, he became cantor at the University Church in Leipzig; in 1582, cantor and Hebrew teacher in the Princes' School in Pforta; in 1594, Thomas cantor in Leipzig. The significance of this office is due…

Camaldolese

(470 words)

Author(s): Merz, Birgit
[German Version] The Camaldolese are an offshoot of Benedictine monasticism, combining eremitic and cenobitic styles of life. They wear a white habit; nuns also a black veil. The order originated c. 1000 from the monastic reforms of Romuald of Ravenna (c. 952–1027), put into place at Fonte Avellana (c. 1000; Peter Damian) and Camaldoli (between 1023 and 1026). The constitutions, written between 1045 and 1057 by Peter Damian, followed between 1080 and 1085 …

Câmara, Hélder Pessoa

(289 words)

Author(s): Goldstein, Horst
[German Version] (Feb 7, 1909, Fortaleza – Aug 27, 1999, Recife, Brazil) was ordained priest in 1931; for a short time he was an adherent of the Brazilian Integralistic action (Integralism). From 1936 he served in the Education Department of Guanabara State. In 1952 he became auxiliary bishop of ¶ Rio de Janeiro. In 1964, at the beginning of the military dictatorship, he became archbishop of Olinda and Recife; he retired in 1985. In Rio he was already developing social programs for the slums. In 1952 he founded the Conferência Nac…

Cambodia

(579 words)

Author(s): Gern, Wolfgang
[German Version] The population of Cambodia is 12 million, with a growth rate of 2.5%. Theravada Buddhists (Hĩnayãna) comprise 90% of the population, Muslims2%, Christians 1.5%, adherents of Chinese popular religion and tribal religions 1.5% each, Caodaiists (Caodaism) and Bahā'i 1% each. Of the population, 90% are Khmer, 5% Vietnamese, 1% Chinese, and 2.5% Malay. Catholic missionary work began in 1555 with the arrival of the Dominicans Gaspar da Cruz (died 1570) and Sylvester Azevedo (died 1576) from Malacca (Melaka). Around 1770 P. Levasseu…

Cambridge Platonists

(395 words)

Author(s): Pailin, David Arthur
[German Version] The Cambridge Platonists were a group of independent philosophical theologians influenced by the ideas of Platonism and Neoplatonism, who sought to develop a theology that would eschew both Puritan Calvinism and Laudian (W. Laud) Anglo-Catholicism. Reason was for them “the spirit in man,” which serves as “the cradle of the Lord.” They were unanimous in their conviction that ¶ God acts in harmony with the eternal reason of things, in their rejection of all notions of an absolute, sovereign divine will, and finally in their trust in …

Cambridge Ritualists

(332 words)

Author(s): Ackermann, Robert
[German Version] The “Cambridge Ritual Anthropologists” or “Ritualists” consisted of four classicists, three of them from Cambridge – Jane Ellen Harrison (1850–1928), Arthur Bernard Cook (1868–1952), and Francis Macdonald Cornford (1874–1943) – as well as Gilbert Murray (1866–1957) from Oxford. The period of their activity lay between 1890 and 1920, when they jointly developed a daring irrationalist interpretation of Greek religion, and especially of Greek drama,…

Cambridge University

(762 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] The founding of Cambridge University probably goes back to members of Oxford University who left Oxford in reaction to the closing of schools in 1209 that resulted from disputes between the city and the university. Although instruction resumed in Oxford in 1214, a few scholars remained in Cambridge. Proximity to the episcopal see of Ely favored the establishment of a permanent institution, and Cambridge and Oxford remained the only English univer…

Camerarius, Joachim

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Apr 12, 1500, Bamberg – Apr 17, 1574, Leipzig) began studies in Leipzig in 1512, in Erfurt in 1518 (M.A. 1521), and in Wittenberg in 1521, where he enjoyed a close friendship with Melanchthon. He became professor of rhetoric in 1522, although he often spent long periods in Bamberg and traveling, in 1524 with Melanchthon to Bretten and as Luther's emissary to Erasmus in Basel. In 1525 he became professor of Greek in Wittenberg, in 1526 rector in …

Cameron, John

(283 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1579, Glasgow – Nov 27, 1625, Montauban) went to France around 1600 and was initially active as a teacher in the vicinity of Humaniora. After studying in Paris, Geneva, and Heidelberg, he became pastor in Bordeaux in 1608, professor of theology at the Protestant academy in Saumur in 1618 and in Montauban in 1624. In the disputes with the Arminians, Cameron defended the Calvinist doctrine of predestination, but modified it by emphasizing …

Cameroon

(618 words)

Author(s): Dah, Jonas Nwiyende
[German Version] The name “Cameroon” derives from the Portuguese name of the Wouri River estuary in Douala: Rio dos Camarões, “River of Prawns.” In 1884 the German colonial administration extended the name to the entire land, whose boundaries were fixed in 1910/1911. Cameroon covers an area of 475,441 km2. It comprises rainy and semi-arid tropical regions, including one of the wettest regions of the world around Mount Cameroon, an active volcano (4095 m.). Cameroon is a potpourri of 120 ethnic groups speaking 236 differen…

Camillians

(208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Clerici regulares ministrantes infirmis, MI; Ordo Sancti Camilli, OSC). The Camillians are the only clerical order of the Catholic Church devoted entirely to charitable service. The order was founded in Rome in 1582 by Camillo de Lellis (1550–1614) to renew the ministry of service to the sick (fourth vow: to serve the sick, regardless of mortal danger – hence grave losses during epidemics of the plague and cholera). After the demise of the Order of Servants o…

Camisards

(559 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The Camisards were Protestants in southern France who, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1686 (Huguenots), secretly formed armed bands in the Cévennes region, the “desert,” to fight for the freedom and rights of their suppressed church in the face of harsh persecution. The term “Camisard” probably derives from the camisia (“shirt”) worn over their clothing during night raids, which were therefore called camisades. The movement, which at times appeared fanatical, survived until 1711; especially when its followers were being pu…

Campanella, Tommaso

(456 words)

Author(s): Ernst, Germana
[German Version] (Sep 5, 1568, Stilo, Calabria – May 1, 1639, Paris) attempted to reconcile the Renaissance philosophy of nature with a radical reform of science and society. Born in a small village in southern Italy, he entered the Dominican order as a young man. Campanella read medical works and books on natural science, works of Plato and of Neoplatonism, but the great encounter of his youth was with Bernardino Telesio's natural philosophy. Accor…

Campanus, Johannes

(159 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Maaseik – after 1574). After studying at Cologne and a stay in the duchy of Jülich, Campanus came to Wittenberg c. 1527/1528. His exclusion from the debate at the Colloquy of Marburg (Disputations, Religious: I) marked the beginning of his conflict with the Wittenberg Reformers, which was intensified in 1530 when he disputed the divinity of the Holy Spirit. He soon returned to Jülich, where a warrant for his arrest (at first not executed) was issued in 1532. His Göttlicher und Heiliger Schrift … Restitution (1532) expounded his anti-trinitarian th…

Campbell, Alexander

(294 words)

Author(s): Harrell, David Edwin
[German Version] (Sep 12, 1788, Near Ballymena, Ireland – Mar 4, 1866, Bethany, WV) was one of the founders of the 19th-century American Restoration Movement that gave birth to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Christian Church/Churches of Christ (Independent), and the Churches of Christ. While studying at the University of Glasgow, Campbell had stood under the influence of the primitivist teachings of J. and R. Haldane. He arrived in Virginia in 1808 and found that his…

Campbell, Donald T.

(243 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1916, Grass Lake, MI – May 5, 1996, Bethlehem, PA) was professor of psychology at Northwestern University (1953–1979), Syracuse University (1979–1982), and Lehigh University (1982–1996); he was president of the American Psychological Association in 1975/1976. He won international recognition for his work in social and experimental psychology, especially in the fields of methodology and the philosophy of the social sciences. He made funda…

Campbell, John McLeod

(178 words)

Author(s): Hart, Trevor A.
[German Version] (May 4, 1800, Kilninver – Feb 7, 1872, Roseneath, Scotland). The son of an Argyll¶ shire clerical family, Campbell was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 1821 he obtained a license to preach and was presented to the parish of Rhu in 1825, where he sought to nurture a well-founded and properly orientated piety among his congregation. Initial difficulties were diagnosed by him as the result of a legalistic attitude stemming from Reformed theology …

Campeggio

(324 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] 1. Lorenzo (1474, Milan – Jul 20, 1539, Rome) became professor of law at Bologna in 1500, was ordained priest in 1511, made bishop in 1512 and cardinal in 1517. He achieved fame through his positions as nuncio: in 1511, Julius II sent him to Emperor Maximilian I; Leo X gave him the same assignment (1513–1517). Campeggio established cordial relations with Maximilian and Charles V, as well as with Henry VIII of England. In 1524/1525, Clement VII com…

Campe, Joachim Heinrich

(291 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1746, Deensen/Braunschweig – Oct 22, 1818, Braunschweig). Having received instruction from a private tutor and subsequently attended the local village school as well as the monastery school in Holzminden, Campe began studying Protestant theology at Helmstedt and Halle in 1765. After the completion of his studies, he found employment as a preacher in Potsdam, but also as a tutor in the household of the chamberlain Georg v. Humboldt, whose two so…

Campello, Enrico di

(329 words)

Author(s): Oeyen, Christian
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1831, Spoleto – Jul 2, 1903, Rome) was the most important proponent of Old Catholicism (Old Catholics) in Italy. Count Campello, a member of the Academia dei Nobili who became a priest in 1855 and canon of St. Peter's in 1868, inclined toward Italian nationalism. After 1870 he founded a secret society to demand the popular election of the pope and the bishops. After the liberal press discovered the plan, in 1881 he declared (in the American Methodist Church) a breach with the Vatican and in 1882 established the “Italian Catholic Church” (known ¶ after 1899 as the Ca…

Campenhausen, Hans von

(243 words)

Author(s): Ritter, Adolf Martin
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1903 [Old Style, Dec 3, 1903], Rosenbeck, Livonia – Jan 6, 1989, Heidelberg), doctor of theology, Heidelberg 1926; 5 honorary doctorates in theology; Privatdozent in church history, Marburg, 1928; Göttingen 1930; 1935 temporary professorship in Gießen; 1936 appointed professor in Heidelberg; appointment withdrawn in 1937 on political grounds; 1938 Privatdozent in Greifswald; 1940 temporary professorship in Vienna; ordinary professor in Heidelberg from 1946. With the exception of A. v. Harnack, whose theory …

Camphuysen, Dirck Raphaelszoon

(135 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (1586, Gorinchem – Jul 19, 1627, Dokkum) was deposed as Reformed pastor because of his Arminian views (1619) and banished (1620). He led a beggarly existence, settling nowhere. Inclined toward the newly founded Remonstrantist church (Arminians), he finally felt at home with the Rijnsburger Collegiants. Theologically, he had sympathies with Socinians, and he translated some of F. Sozzini's works into Dutch. He refused a professorship in Raków in 1625. His heartfelt Stichtelycke Rymen (1624, 121658), which revolve around the theme of suffering, wer…

Campion, Edmund, Saint

(210 words)

Author(s): Gilley, Sheridan
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1539/1540, London – Dec 1, 1581, Tyburn), protomartyr of the English Province of the Jesuits. Originally an Anglican, Campion became Junior Fellow at St. John's College, Oxford, in 1557. He moved to Dublin in 1570 and wrote his History of Ireland (1571). Having converted to Catholicism following a crisis of faith, he fled to the University of Douai in Flanders and then to Rome, joined the Austrian Province of the Jesuits, studied in Prague and Brno/Brünn (Moravia), and was ordained priest in 1578. I…

Camus, Albert

(383 words)

Author(s): Kodalle, Klaus-M.
[German Version] (Nov 7, 1913, Mondovi, Algeria – 4 Jan, 1960, in a car accident in Petit-Villeblevin, France) was deeply involved as a journalist and resistance fighter in the conflicts of his age – the Spanish Civil War, the French resistance, the Algerian War of Indepen¶ dence, Soviet occupations, etc. He was honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957. His most important works include short stories ( L'envers et l'endroit, 1937; L'été, 1954; L'exile et le royaume, 1957), novels ( L'étranger, 1942; La peste, 1947), plays ( Caligula, 1945; Les justes, 1949), philosophi…

Cana

(123 words)

Author(s): Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] The village (κώμη/ kōmē, Jos. Vita LXIV, 206) of Κανά (τῆς Γαλιλαίας)/ Kaná ( tēs Galilaías; from Heb. קָנֶה/ qāneh, “reed”?) is to be identified with the site of Ḫirbet Qana and lies on the northern slope of the Bet Netofa Valley. According to Josh 19:28, Cana belonged to the tribe of Asher (Tribes of Israel). The New Testament mentions it only in John 2:1, 11; 4:46; 21:2, while Jewish sources locate the priestly family of Eliashib in Cana. Excavations have uncove…

Canaan

(10 words)

[German Version] Palestina, Syria, Israel and Canaan

Canada

(1,422 words)

Author(s): Goodwin, Daniel
[German Version] After Russia, Canada is the largest country in the world, but one of the most sparsely populated. It covers almost 40% of the land area of North America (9, 970, 610 km2). It borders the Arctic Sea to the north, the Atlantic to the east, twelve states of the USA to the south, and Alaska and the Pacific to the west. Its capital is Ottawa. The greatest population density and the largest cities are along the coast and the border with the USA, where 90% of the Canadian population live. In 2001 it had approx. 30 million inhabitants. Canadian society is multicultural, comprising gro…

Canadian Conference of Bishops

(209 words)

Author(s): Clarke, Brian
[German Version] Founded in 1943 as the Canadian Catholic Conference (renamed the Canadian Conference of Bishops [CCB] in 1977), the CCB is a voluntary association of Canadian bishops for the coordination of their responses to social issues and of internal administrative measures within the church. In the years following Vatican II, the CCC became a truly nation-wide collegial body and played a crucial role in the implementation of the council's liturgical reforms, in the coordination of episcopal reactions to Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vita encyclical on birth control (cf. …

Canadian Council of Churches

(178 words)

Author(s): Gauvreau, Michael
[German Version] The Canadian Council of Churches, the successor organization to the Social Service Council of Canada (SSCC; est. 1914), was founded in 1944 as an umbrella organization for the various social services of the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Anglican churches, and maintained close ties to various women's organizations. Initially concentrating on moral issues such as abstinence, prostitution, and the censorship of pornographic literature, the focus of the SSCC…

Canadian Missions

(211 words)

Author(s): Grant, John Webster
[German Version] Under French rule, only Roman Catholic missionaries were permitted, including the Jesuits, several of whom suffered martyrdom in 1649/1650. In the 19th century, Anglicans of the Church Missionary Society competed with Oblates of Mary Immaculate and Grey Nuns (Grey Brothers and Sisters) for the souls of Native American Indians (II) and Inuit. Among the Protestant churches, the Methodists were the most active, both in Ontario and in northern…

Candle

(292 words)

Author(s): Fechtner, Kristian
[German Version] Candles have been used in Christian liturgy for centuries. To distinguish Christianity from other religions, the cultic use of candles was originally rejected, but candles soon became a standard element of Christian worship even in the Early Church. From the perspective of religious history, candles symbolize the contrast of light and darkness. Their biblical interpretation derives from John 8:12 (Jesus Christ as the “light of the world”). The c…

Candles, Blessing of

(169 words)

Author(s): Maas-Ewerd, Theodor
[German Version] Despite their multi-faceted use in liturgy and popular piety, candles were not originally blessed or “consecrated.” The Easter candle first attested in 384 for Piacenza (PL 30, 182f.) consitutes an exception. Evening light blessings attested since the 2nd century survive in its “consecration.” Only since the 10th century have prayers for the blessing of candles appeared, which were used in processions, first and foremost in the procession …

Candlestick/Candelabrum

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Stefan | Wirtler, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Hebrew Bible and Judaism – II. Christianity I. Hebrew Bible and Judaism According to 1 Kgs 7:49, the furnishings of the First Temple (II) included, in addition to gold and silver candlesticks that belonged the temple treasury but were not otherwise used (1 Chr 28:12, 18; Jer 52:19), “ten candlesticks of pure gold” of which five stood respectively on each side of the holy of holies. Following rabbinic tradition ( b. Men. 28b), the menorah, i.e. the seven-branched (or seven-armed) candelabrum that Moses ¶ had made (Exod 25:31; 37:17) after being shown a mo…

Candomblé

(249 words)

Author(s): Piepke, Joachim
[German Version] represents an Afro-Brazilian mixed religion from African and Christian elements; it is based on the Bantu word candombe (= percussion instrument). Other mixed forms appear under the names Umbanda, Macumba, Catimbó, and Batuque. The center of Candomblé continues to be Salvador da Bahia. The roots of Candomblé trace back principally to West African Yoruba culture which prevailed over Bantu cultures in Brazil. Today, between 20% and 30% of the population sta…

Canisius, Peter (Saint)

(398 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Peter Kanis until c. 1547; May 8, 1521, Nijmegen – Dec 21, 1597, Fribourg, ¶ Switzerland) contributed to the renewal of the Catholic Church after the Reformation. Residing in Cologne from 1535 onward, he became the first German Jesuit in 1543. He turned to Charles V of Germany for support against the reforming attempt of the archbishop of Cologne (Hermann of Wied). After a brief stay at the Council of Trent and the continuation of his Jesuit training in Rome …

Cankov, Stefan

(234 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Zankow; Jul 4, 1881, Gorna Oryakhovitsa – Mar 20, 1965, Sofia). A Bulgarian Orthodox theologian, Cankov earned his Dr. theol. in Chernivtsi (Czernowitz) in 1905, his Dr. jur. in Zürich in 1918, ¶ and received honorary doctorates from Athens (1936), Oxford (1937), Berlin (1940), Sofia (1953), and Budapest (1955). He was professor of canon and matrimonial law and of Christian sociology from 1923 to 1960, rector of the University of Sofia from 1940 to 1941, as well as a member of the Bul…

Cannibalism

(7 words)

[German Version] Ritual Killing

Cano, Melchior

(283 words)

Author(s): Körner, Bernhard
[German Version] (1509, Tarancón or Pastrana – Sep 30, 1560, Toledo), a Dominican friar (1523) and disciple of Francisco de Vitoria. He lectured as professor in Valadolid, Alcala, and Salamanca, and was conciliar theologian at Trent in 1551/1552 (Trent, Council of). His chief work, De locis theologicis libri duodecim (publ. posthumously in 1563; unfinished), exerted a lasting influence on Catholic epistemology and methodology on account of its thorough theological treatment of the subject matter. Cano's philosophical orie…

Canon

(4,367 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Schindler, Alfred | Huizing, Klaas | Troianos, Spyros N. | Felmy, Karl Christian | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Orthodox Law – V. Eastern Poetry – VI. Islam – VII. Buddhism – VIII. Taoism I. History of Religion The canon can be defined as a complex process of selection of documents regarded as authoritative; from the totality of the extant written tradition, documents are set apart according to certain criteria as holy or inspired (Inspiration/Theopneustia). Although the concept of the canon as a normative collection…

Canonesses Regular

(294 words)

Author(s): Auge, Oliver
[German Version] (from Lat. canonicae) first appeared in the Greek church in the 4th century, in the West in the 8th. The term derives from the canon in which these women were registered. Initially, the title was given to all women leading a religious life but not bound by monastic vows. The Aachen Institutiones of 816 defined canonesses as a community under abbatial supervision and following certain rules, albeit enjoying legal and personal privileges such as possession of personal property, having their own curiae, permission to vi…

Canonical Age

(239 words)

Author(s): Becker, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] Like secular law, canon law also distinguishes different stages of life that are of significance for the legal assessment of the legal actions of a natural person, or for access to the stages of ordination and to offices. For tort responsibility, for example, a ¶ person must have completed the 16th year (c. 1323 no. 1 CIC/1983 and c. 1413 §1 CCEO). From this age on, persons who have not yet come of age can also function as godparents (c. 874 §1 no. 2 CIC/1983 and c. 685 §2 CCEO). Admission to the novitiate requires a person to be 17 years old (c. 643 §1 no. 1 CIC/1983 and cc. 450 no. 4…

Canonical Approach

(966 words)

Author(s): Seitz, Christopher R. | Wall, Robert W.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament I. Old Testament “Canonical approach” refers to a primarily synchronic interpretation of the canonized final text of the Bible in the context of all scriptures of the biblical canon (Bible: II, 2; III, 2), which, in view of the various confessional forms of the canon, can and will claim validity only within the boundaries of a faith community. It contrasts with a historical-critical exegesis oriented toward the literary-hi…

Canonical Lists

(349 words)

Author(s): Aland, Barbara
[German Version] are lists of the biblical books of the Old Testament and New Testament (cf. Bible II, 2; III, 2) compiled in the Early Church either by individuals or by synods. They possessed authoritative character, though in practice this was not always evident. The earliest canonical indices are the Muratorian Fragment (see also Canon) from Rome (c. 200) and the index of the Codex Claromontanus (3rd cent.). 1 and 2 Thessalonians along with Philemon are inadvertently omitted here, as is Hebrews, while Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Acts of Paul, and the Apocalypse of Peter are i…

Canonical Provision

(185 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is a technical term in Catholic canon law for all types of sovereign grants through individual administrative decrees (c. 48 CIC/1983; c. 1510 § 2, 1 CCEO; administration: IV, 3). More precisely, it involves the grant of legal capacity (Juridical persons: cc. 114 § 1; 116 § 2 CIC/1983; public Voluntary associations [II, 1.b]: c. 313 CIC/1983), of authorities (Delegation: cc. 131 § 1; 133; 137 CIC/1983; the authority to confirm and hear confession: cc. 882; 969 CIC/1983; delegation of the authority to perform marriages: c. 1111 CIC/1983), of names and titles (cf. cc.…

Canon in Confucianism

(8 words)

[German Version] Confucianism

Canon in Hinduism

(8 words)

[German Version] Vedas

Canonization

(582 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] I. Catholic Church – II. Orthodox Churches (Latin canonisatio, Greek ᾽Αν̆ακῆρυξις/ anakḗryxis, “public proclamation”) refers to the placement in the list (canon) of saints (Saints/Veneration of saints). Such placement includes remembrance in worship, a vita, an icon (Icons; Saints, icons and attributes), the possibility of having an altar or church dedicated to the saint (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication), and the appropriation of the saint's name at ba…

Canon Law/Church Law

(11,049 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Kalb, Herbert | Puza, Richard | Pirson, Dietrich | Engelhardt, Hanns | Et al.
[German Version] I. History – II. The Present – III. Orthodox Church – IV. The Study of Canon Law and Church Law – V. Practical Theology – VI. Oriental Orthodox Canon Law I. History 1. Early Church. The church has had laws ever since Christians recognized the need for a generally recognized authority to regulate the uncertainties, problems, and controversies involving church discipline brought about by the rapid expansion of Christianity. After the death of the initial authority figures (e.g. the fou…

Canon, Muratorian

(8 words)

[German Version] Muratorian Fragment

Canons/Canon Collections

(812 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] Into the 4th century, synods did not call their decisions “canon” or “regula.” In the Greek East, they used the term horos as the older term for ecclesiastical decisions (Ankyra, cc. 6, 19, et passim). In the Latin language sphere, designations including placita, statuta, instituta, decreta, sententiae were drawn from Roman legal language as the specific terminology applicable in such cases. The designation as canons appeared for the first time at the Synod of Antioch c. 330 (cc. 19 etc.) and quickly established itself in the East (Bas. Ep. 188, cc. 4, 10). Th…

Canons Regular

(334 words)

Author(s): Auge, Oliver
[German Version] Members of a chapter (Cathedral chapter) that exists to celebrate liturgical worship in cathedral and college churches under the leadership of the bishop or an archipresbyter. The term, attested in France since 535, derives from inclusion in the list, called the canon, of those clergy of a church entitled to maintenance or obligated to live according to the canons. A specific church regulation, offered in 755 by Chrodegang of Metz on the local, and in 816 by the Insitutiones Aquisgranenses on the general level, distinguishes canons from monasticism. I…

Canons Regular of St. Augustine

(603 words)

Author(s): Crusius, Irene
[German Version] The ideal of a communal life in discipleship to Christ also moved the early medieval clergy of episcopal cities to the vita communis on the example of Augustine. However, only the Gregorian Reform movement (Gregory VII) produced the adoption of strict monastic forms of life for ¶ the clergy, too, so that, alongside the secular collegiate chapters who lived according to the 816 Rule of Aachen, communities of clergy arose who followed the so-called Augustinian Rule ( canonici regulares; Augustine, Rule of). Their way of life between secular clergy and …

Canstein, Karl Hildebrand von

(279 words)

Author(s): Schicketanz, Peter
[German Version] (Baron; Aug 4, 1667, Lindenberg in Mark Brandenburg – Aug 19, 1719, Berlin). The son of the Prussian Kammerpräsident Raban v. Canstein, Canstein studied law in Frankfurt an der Oder, traveled throughout Europe, and took part in a military campaign. While suffering from an illness, he vowed to devote the rest of his life to the service of God, something he accomplished without ever holding public office. On returning to Berlin, he made the acquaintance of P.J. Spen…

Cantata

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] The term cantata now refers especially to the polyphonic church music with multiple movements as specified by J.S. Bach and whose text is based on ¶ the proprium of the Sundays and festival days of the church year. In contrast to the sonata (a “sounding” instrumental piece), the cantata is a choral piece that developed in the 17th century largely in Italy as secular music. Textually, non-strophic, so-called madrigal poetry is used for arias and recitatives. In Germany, ca…

Canterbury

(535 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Seat of a bishopric in the county of Kent, England. Situated at an important road junction during the Roman period, Canterbury became the main settlement of the Cantiani in the first century ce and shows evidence of Christianization from the beginning of the 4th century. The conquest of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons dealt a severe blow to the development of the city. King Ethelbert made it the capital of the kingdom of Kent, while the Roman monk Augustine of Canterbury, a missionary dispatched by Pop…

Canticle

(435 words)

Author(s): Halmo, Joan
[German Version] (from Lat. canticulum, “little song”): poetic prayer or song from the Bible but outside the Psalter. Of the canticles which have been put to liturgical use, most are from the OT (including apocryphal/deuterocanonical literature), for example “Benedicite, omnia opera domini,” or “The Song of Creation,” which comes from the prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Youths in the Fiery Furnace (Daniel, Additions to). Examples of NT canticles are the three from the Gospel of Luke ( Magnificat , 1:46–55, Benedictus , 1:68–79, Nunc dimittis , 2:29–32). Canticles in their …

Cantor

(317 words)

Author(s): Brusniak, Friedhelm
[German Version] From the 4th century, the term cantor (Lat.) refers to a singer, chanter, or leader of church music; from the 10th century it refers also to an office held by a member of the cathedral chapter. In the traditional, pre-reformation understanding, the cantor was distinguished from the trained musicus; this distinction survived well into the 18th century. The Protestant image of the leader of a city Kantorei following the model of Johann Walter in Torgau (1525) combined this post with the duties of an ac…

Canudos,

(228 words)

Author(s): Weber, Franz
[German Version] socio-religious liberation movement in Bahia (Brazil), founded by Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel (1830–1897). In his popular preaching, Mendes Maciel set the “law of God” against “human law,” which he saw embodied in the agnosticism of the elite of the Republic of Brazil (established 1889). For him, “only God is great.” Mendes Maciel proclaimed God as “the Father of the poor” and Jesus as “poor, simple, suffering.” Mendes Maciel was rejecte…

Caodaism

(561 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert
[German Version] After Buddhism and Catholicism, Caodaism is the third largest religion in Vietnam (practiced by an estimated 3% to 10% of the population). Its name derives from the title of the supreme divinity, Cao Dai (lit. “highest palace”). Caodaism combines Buddhist, Taoist, Confucian and Christian elements with aspects of Vietnam's indigenous religion. Outside Vietnam, Caodaism is practiced almost exclusively by Vietnamese emigrants. The founder of Caodaism was Ngo Van Chieu (1878–1932, also known as Ngo Minh Chieu), a civil servant in the Fre…

Capacity,

(373 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike
[German Version] the power or ability to do something. Plato distinguished between a “capacity to effect something” (δύναμις τού ποιείν/ dýnamis toú poieín) and a “capacity to suffer something” (δύναμις τού πάσχειν/ dýnamis toú páschein; Soph. 247e–248e). Aristotle ¶ adopted this distinction between two types of capacity and expanded upon it by adding the distinction between “capacity” or “possibility” (δύναμις) and “reality” (ἐνέργεια/ enérgeia; act and potency). As an active or passive “principle of change or movement” ( Metaph. V 12, 1019b19–20), a capacity mani…

Capadose, Abraham

(278 words)

Author(s): Vree, Jasper
[German Version] (Aug 22, 1795, Amsterdam – Dec 16, 1874, The Hague) came from a distinguished Sephardic Jewish family. While working as a physician in Amsterdam, he and his friend U. da Costa were baptized in 1822. Shortly thereafter, Capadose began to fiercely oppose any divergence from orthodoxy within the Dutch Reformed Church. He denounced vaccination against smallpox as an attempt to thwart the will of God. From 1833 until his death, he lived as a citizen without office in The Hague, save for a longer stay in Switzerland (1836–1837). Having come under the influence of the Réveil movem…

Capernaum

(227 words)

Author(s): Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] Although sherds from between 3000 and 2000 bce document earlier habitation (no Iron Age remains have been found), Capernaum (Gk Καφαρναούμ/ Kapharnaoúm, Heb. כֶפַּר נַתוּם/kepar naḍûm, Arab. Telḍum) was apparently founded only in the 5th century bce; with the advantages of the long-distance route running through it and the fertility of the area, Capernaum grew steadily. Capernaum reached its floruit in the Byzantine period, when it had approx. 1500 inhabitants; from the 9th century the settlemen…

Cape Town

(607 words)

Author(s): Saunders, Christopher
[German Version] lies on the shores of Table Bay, at the foot of Table Mountain. It was founded in 1652 by the Dutch and originally called De Kaap, later Kaapstad, then Cape Town. With the arrival of the first Anglican bishop, Robert Gray (1809–1872), in 1848, Cape Town attained city status. Because Cape Town was the starting point for the European colonization of South Africa, many white South Africans came to call it “the mother city.” The Dutch commander Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the settlement, originally envisioned Cape Town as a provision station for sh…

Cape Verde,

(474 words)

Author(s): Sigrist, Christian
[German Version] since 1975 República de Cabo Verde, approx. 600 km west of Dakar. Fifteen islands (4,033 km2), of which nine are inhabited, population 50,000, with at least the same number living abroad. The official languages are Portuguese, and the vernacular Crioulo. The Portuguese discovered several of the islands in 1456. Soon afterwards, Portuguese colonists established the first European colony on the “other side” of the Atlantic. On the basis of a feudal means of production d…

Caphtor

(6 words)

[German Version] Philistines

Capital

(858 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann
[German Version] I. Few concepts in economics are as slippery as the concept of “capital.” “Capital” can be defined narrowly or broadly, in terms of macro-economics or of business, according to theories of production or distribution; moreover, “capital” means something different to political scientists and sociologists than it does to economists. In a very general economic sense, “capital” may be understood to include anything which alongside unqualified work acts…

Capitalism

(2,041 words)

Author(s): Altvater, Elmar
[German Version] The term capitalism came into use in political economics (Economy) and the social sciences only more than 100 years after the Industrial Revolution (Industrialization), after the formation of capitalist society had largely become established, initially in England and then in continental Western Europe. A. Smith and D. Ricardo did not employ the term, and even in Das Kapital by K. Marx the term can be found only once (in vol. II, ch. 4). W. Sombart was the first to introduce the term capitalism in his epochal analysi…

Capitol

(598 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] In the narrow sense, Capitol (Lat. caput, “head”) refers to the part of the mons Capitolinus which faces the Tiber; in a broader sense it refers to the whole hill including the arx (“fortress”), which was at one time connected to the Quirinal, and the hollow, known as the Asylum, between the two hilltops. Additionally, the Capitol is the name of the principal temple in Rome and its colonies, the aedes Capitolina of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and for any symbolic place which demonstrates the Roman relationship between religion and power in…

Capito, Wolfgang

(285 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1481 [not 1478] Hagenau – Nov 4, 1541, Strasbourg) studied in Ingolstadt (1501), Heidelberg (1504), Freiburg (1505, 1515 Dr. theol.). In 1512, he became seminary preacher in Bruchsal, in 1515 cathedral preacher and professor in Basel, an eminent Hebraist. Capito was sympathetic to Erasmus and produced the first edition of Luther's collected writings in 1518. In 1520, Capito became cathedral preacher in Electoral Mainz. As counselor to archbishop…

Capitularies

(298 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Frank
[German Version] (Lat. Capitularia Capitula; from division into chapters) were an order of law and life issued by the Frankish kings, with authority of banishment, relating to all the moral, disciplinary, liturgical and educational questions of Christian people. They were divided up as Capitularia per se for the entire realm, Capitularia legibus addenda for particular areas of the realm and to supplement tribal laws, and “missi,” i.e. individual instructions for royal emissaries and counts. The capitularies were issued at imperial a…

Cappadocia

(450 words)

Author(s): Mitchell, Stephen
[German Version] A rural area of eastern Asia Minor that extended from Galatia and Lyconia to the Euphrates and functioned as a bridge between the cultures of the Mediterranean and Asia. From the 6th century bce, Cappadocia formed part of the Persian empire (Iran). The Iranian influence on the culture, language and anthroponymy of the population was noticeable until Late Antiquity. During the Hellenistic era, Cappadocia was ruled by kings descended from the Persians, although powerful temple principalities remained independent. In 17 ce, Cappadocia was integrated into the …

Cappadocian Theology

(542 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The monastic theologians and bishops, Basil the Great, his brother Gregory of Nyssa and their friend Gregory of Nazianzus came from the province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor and spent most of their lives there. For this reason, they are often referred to by modern historians and theologians as “the three great Cappadocians.” A cousin of Gregory of Nazianzus and colleague of Basil, Amphilochius of Iconium, is sometimes added to their number. The t…

Cappellus, Louis

(145 words)

Author(s): Bartelmus, Rüdiger
[German Version] (Oct 15 or 16, 1585, St. Elier – Jun 18, 1658, Saumur). With M. Amyraut and J. de la Place, the Reformed theologian and Hebraist taught from 1613 to 1621 and from 1624 to 1658 at the academy in Saumur. Following Elijah Levita and against the arguments of the two Buxtorfs, Cappellus (Capelle) was the first Christian theologian to show scientifically that the vocalization of the Hebrew Bible is later than the consonantal text. In the controversy ov…

Capra, Frank

(300 words)

Author(s): Bauschulte, Manfred
[German Version] (May 19, 1897, Palermo – Sep 3, 1991, La Quinta, CA), the son of Sicilian farm workers, grew up in California; he got into the film industry as a young author and gag writer for the well-known slapstick comedian Harry Langdon. In 1928 he began his career as a director with Columbia Studios, where he made his breakthrough with the screwball comedy It Happened One Night (1934). The theme of the film, in ¶ which a rich young woman and a hard-boiled reporter find themselves on the run together, is the guilt-ridden relationship between the sexes. The film Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936) …

Capuchins

(414 words)

Author(s): Knobloch, Stefan
[German Version] The Capuchins, the third branch of the Franciscan order, after and along with the Minorites and Franciscans, to view Francis of Assisi as the father of their order, owe their origin to a reform movement with the Franciscans at the beginning of the 16th century. In 525, Matthäus of Bascio settled in the region of Ancona, Italy, following the oral permission of pope Clement VII based on his brothers’ support, with the intention of leading a strict …

Caracciolo, Galeazzo

(131 words)

Author(s): Campi, Emidio
[German Version] (Jan 1517, Naples – May 7, 1586, Geneva), count of Vico and nephew of Carafa (Paul IV), came into contact with reformation ideas in the circle around J. de Valdés and especially through his encounter with Peter Martyr Vermigli. In 1551, Caracciolo fled to Geneva, where he was instrumental in the establishment of the Italian refugee community. After 1559, he participated in the politics of the republic as a member of parliament, earning universal regard. Calvin, whose friendship Caracciolo enjoyed, dedicated his commentary on 1 Corinthians to him. Emidio Campi Bibliogra…

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da

(218 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (1572, Caravaggio or Milan – Jul 18, 1610 Porto Ercole) is considered one of the great realists in the history of painting (Realism: IV). In 1672, the Italian art critic Giovanni Pietro Bellori wrote that Caravaggio's unvarnished vision of reality “corrupted the morals of painting.” Besides the realistic objectivity and verisimilitude of his pictures (almost all the models for his female figures were prostitutes), Caravaggio shocked his contemporaries with surprising compositional techniques such as bringing the viewer close in to the scene, as in The Conversion …

Carbonari

(393 words)

Author(s): Binder, Hans-Otto
[German Version] Several legends trace the founding of the Italian secret society of the Carbonari (“Charcoal-burners”) back to antiquity. They made their first historical appearance in southern Italy in the Napoleonic period, c. 1807. Similarities in organization and ritual as well as personal connections suggest that they emerged from the Bons Cousins Charbonniers, an occupational organization established primarily in Burgundy and Franche-Comté. It was an initiatory s…

Carchemish

(285 words)

Author(s): Liverani, Mario
[German Version] The city on the Euphrates (modern Jerablus) was an important kingdom and commercial center during the time of Ebla (24th cent. bce) and Mari (18th cent. bce). From the 16th/14th centuries, Carchemish belonged to the Mitanni; c. 1350, Šuppiluliuma conquered the city. The local Hittite dynasty, then founded by Piyaššili, was entrusted with Syrian affairs, and Carchemish almost became independent (Ini-Tešub, c. 1240–1220) gaining the title “Great Kingdom,” dominating the Euphrates …

Cardinal/Cardinalization

(395 words)

Author(s): Krämer, Peter
[German Version] Derived from cardo (hinge, pivot point), the term cardinalate originally referred to an institution of the clergy in the city of Rome. Already in the 11th century, three classifications had formed: cardinal deacons, who were responsible to assist the bishop of Rome in liturgical ministry, care for the poor, and administer property; cardinal priests, who, as the heads of Roman titular churches, were responsible for liturgical ministry in the five patri¶ archal churches; and cardinal bishops, who, as bishops of the dioceses situated around Rome …

Cardinals, Congregation of

(8 words)

[German Version] Congregations

Cardinal Virtues

(7 words)

[German Version] Virtues

Cardoso, Mattheus

(399 words)

Author(s): Hastings, Adrian
[German Version] (1584, Lisbon – 1625, São Salvador, Congo) entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1598. Following his studies, ordination, and a number of years as lecturer in the Jesuit college at Evora, he was sent to Angola in 1617 and taught there at the college of Luanda. In the year 1619, Cordoso spent nine months in the Kongo Kingdom in the company of Friar Duarte Vaz. He drew up plans to open a college in the capital, Mbanza Kongo (São Salvador), and translated a stan…

Care

(24 words)

[German Version] Deaf and Hearing Impaired, Care of the; Dying, Care of the; Poor, Care of the; Sick, Care of the

Carey, William

(390 words)

Author(s): Stanley, Brian
[German Version] (Aug 17, 1761, Paulerspury, England – Jun 9, 1834, Serampore, India) is often regarded as the father of modern Protestant missions. As the principal founder of the Baptist Missionary Society (BMS) he pioneered a movement which led to the formation of similar evangelical missionary societies in Great Britain, Europe, and North America. His own missionary vision was much indebted to the earlier achievements of the Moravians (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren…

Cargo Cults

(356 words)

Author(s): Lindstrom, Lamont
[German Version] The term “cargo cult” first appeared in the November 1945 issue of the colonial news magazine Pacific Islands Monthly. Anthropologists and others seized upon the term to label religious movements that emerged in the post-war years, notably in the southwestern Pacific region of Melanesia during a period of rapid economical and political change. Some observers classified cargo cults as a Pacific variant of the universal millenarian (Millenarianism) movements which t…

Caribbean

(1,395 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] For historical reasons, the Caribbean is described as the region that encompasses the archipelago of the greater and lesser Antilles, Belize and the Guyanas. It comprises a surface area of 599, 276 km2. The population numbers 33,791,000. The majority of the population is black or mulatto, stemming from African slaves who mixed with European conquerors. After the arrival of the Spaniards in 1492, “the great death” affected the original inhabitants of the islands, who fell victim to violence o…

Caribbean Conference of Churches

(164 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] (CCC) was founded in 1973 by 18 churches in Kingston, Jamaica. The CCC became the first ecumenical institution in the world, with the Roman Catholic Church as one of its founding members. The other Churches are: the Anglican Church, Baptists, Methodists, Orthodox Churches, Reformed Churches, Lutherans, Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, Presbyterians, and the Salvation Army. The CCC was the result of a process of closer cooperat…

Carissimi, Giacomo

(163 words)

Author(s): Cassaro, James P.
[German Version] (baptized Apr 18, 1605, Marini, died Jan 12, 1674, Rome), Italian composer, the first major composer of oratorios. In 1628, Carissimi was appointed director of music at Assisi, and soon moved on to Rome as director of music at the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, a position he held for life. He was ordained priest in 1637. Among his students were Alessandro Scarlatti and Marc-Antoine Charpentier. Carissimi's most important oratorios include Jephte, Jonas, Baltazar, and ¶ Judicium extremum. In addition, Carissimi composed hundreds of motets, mass…

Caritas

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. Establishment – II. History – III. Current Situation I. Establishment 1. Founders. The notion of caritas as social assistance to those in need deriving from a sense of Christian responsibility has existed as long as the church itself. However, the organizational unification of such efforts beyond the boundaries of the dioceses and without exclusive ties to the socio-charitable religious orders is a modern phenomenon, which did not emerge within Catholicism until…

Carl, Johann Samuel

(205 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1676?; baptized Aug 16, 1677, Öhringen/county of Hohenlohe – Jun 13, 1757, Meldorf/Holstein), doctor and radical pietist. The son of a pharmacist and already influenced by Pietism in his formative years, he became the doctor in his home town after studying medicine in Halle (pupil of Georg Ernst Stahl) and Strasbourg. Deported because of his radical pietistic activities, Carl found positions as ¶ a personal physician at the courts of pietistic high nobility in Büdingen (1708–1728), Berleburg (1728–1736) and Copenhagen (1736–175…

Carlowitz

(7 words)

[German Version] Sremski Karlovci

Carlyle, Thomas

(526 words)

Author(s): Erlebach, Peter
[German Version] (Dec 4, 1795, Ecclefechan, Scotland – Feb 5, 1881, London), critic of contemporary civilization and literary figure of tremendous reputation, the most important representative of idealistic (Idealism) thinking of the 19th century in England, influenced by Puritanism (Puritans/Puritanism), who protested against utilitarianism, materialism, the predatory competition of the industrial age and the general lack of intellectual culture in humank…

Carmelites

(510 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The Carmelite Order goes back to a community of occidental hermits on Mount Carmel, who were granted a rule by the patriarch of Jerusalem in 1210. It obligated them to a strict contemplative life. The spirituality of the community, led by a prior, was marked by anachoretic traditions, the example of the prophet Elijah, and veneration of the Virgin Mary. In 1240, the Carmelites fled before the growing threat of the Saracens into their European homelands, where …

Carmel Mission

(91 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Klaus
[German Version] A missionary society founded in 1904 by J. Seitz in Palestine to evangelize German emigrants, Jews, and Muslims. The mission to Muslims soon predominated, and today it characterizes the work of the Carmel Mission. It is based on an evangelically oriented theology of mission: it is active in many countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, in which evangelistic and diaconal missionary programs are implemented. The society's headquarters is in Schondorf, Württemberg (Germany). Klaus Schäfer Bibliography Journal: Mission in der Welt des Islam, 1912ff. (bi-month…

Carmel, Mount

(281 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar
[German Version] (Heb. כַּרְמֶל, “fruit garden, orchard”), limestone and chalk mountain range in northern Palestine, up to 552m high, to the south of the tribe of Asher (Josh 19:26; Tribes of Israel). The OT praises the mountain's beauty (Isa 35:2). In the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce, it is referred to in Egyptian sources as “nose of a gazelle,” and later as “holy head,” probably alluding to a sanctuary. On the Carmel, the Canaanite-Phoenician ¶ god Baal was worshiped, who is equated with Zeus in Ps.-Skylax, Periplus 104 (4th cent. bce), according to Tacitus Hist. 78.3 and Suet. Vesp. 5.6 call…

Carnap, Rudolf

(169 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus
[German Version] (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf – Sep 14, 1970, Santa Monica, CA), a major proponent of the philosophy of logical positivism or empiricism. After studying physics, mathematics, and philosophy (1910–1914), he earned his doctorate from Jena in 1921 with a philosophical dissertation on space. In 1926 he joined the Vienna Circle, a group seeking to use the tools of modern logic to formulate a “scientific world view” based on empiricism. Metaphysics and religion were rejected as empirically untestable and hence meaningless. In 1928 Carnap published his magnum opus, Der logische …
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