Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Cajetan, Thomas de Vio

(305 words)

Author(s): Wicks, Jared
[German Version] (Giacomo de Vio; Feb 20, 1469, Gaeta – Aug 10, 1534, Rome). When Cajetan joined the order of the Dominicans in 1484, he assumed the name Thomas, but was later called “Caietanus” after his place of birth. In Padua in 1494 he defended Thomistic positions against Duns Scotus and the Averroists (Averroism). After treatises on being, essence and analogy, Cajetan's commentary on Aristotle’ De anima (1509) questioned philosophical arguments for the immortality of the soul, while regarding it as revealed – leading some to link Cajetan wi…


(201 words)

Author(s): Schetelich, Maria
[German Version] (Sanskrit “wheel”), in Indian religions, describes dynamic movement and energy in many different forms as well as the self-containment of a system or circle. Thus in Buddhism and Jainism the dharma cakra (Dharma) symbolizes the spread of teachings. In Hinduism cakra is one of the attributes of Viṣṇu as world ruler. Kuṇḍalinī-yoga defines the seven overlapping energy centers in the human body as cakras which have to be set in motion by means of yoga exercises, in order to activate the functions of life and, as energy rises from the lowest to the uppermost cakra, to bring ab…


(191 words)

Author(s): Schetelich, Maria
[German Version] (Sanskrit “wheel-mover”), in all Indian religions a term for the world-conqueror. A cakravartin is marked out as an extraordinary person by marks on his body. His attributes are a wheel and insignia of dominion. He is victorious by virtue of his behavior or his just teaching. The difference between the cakravartin concept in Hinduism and Buddhism/ Jainism lies in the goal of world dominion. In Hinduism the cakravartin removes the disruption of the world by demons and antigods; his central power base is formed by dharma and truth. The embodiment of cakravartin here is …

Calamy, Edmund

(168 words)

Author(s): Watts, Michael R.
[German Version] (Apr 5, 1671, London – Jun 3, 1732, London), nonconformist minister and biographer, and son and grandson of nonconformist ministers of the same name (Dissenters). Following the restoration of the Stuarts and the reinstallation of Charles II to the English throne (1660) English and Welsh clergymen were required by the Act of Uniformity of 1662 to give the Anglican Book of Common Prayer their “unfeigned assent.” The first two Edmund Calamys were among the 2029 clergy and lecturers who were deprived of their posts r…


(148 words)

Author(s): Enders, Markus
[German Version] (Chalcidius), Christian philosopher, whose dates are disputed. Either in the first half or at the end of the 4th century, he composed a Latin translation of the first, cosmological section of Plato's Timaios 17A–53C and a corresponding commentary, in which – with reference to Middle Platonic sources in particular (Numenius) – he drew up a hierarchy of metaphysical entities in which divine Providence was identified with divine Will and Reason and made superior to Fate, which rules all things, including the world soul, though humans, gifted with reason, do not nec¶ essari…

Calderón de la Barca, Pedro

(540 words)

Author(s): Geisler, Eberhard
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1600, Madrid – May 25, 1681, Madrid). Calderón, along with Lope de Vega, is considered the most important Spanish dramatist of the 17th century. Appointed court dramatist in 1635 and ordained priest in 1651, he composed cloak-and-dagger pieces (concerned primarily with the theme of honor), historical, philosophical, mythological, and religious dramas, as well as Corpus Christi pieces ( Autos sacramentales). In what is probably his best-known work, Life is a Dream (1636), the Jesuit student engages the question of the relationship betwe…


(8 words)

[German Version] Tribes of Israel


(3,500 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Meßner, Reinhard | Gerö, Stephen | Nagel, Tilman | Et al.
[German Version] I. General – II. Jewish Calendar – III. Christian Calendar – IV. Islamic Calendar – V. Liturgical Calendar I. General 1. The term calendar derives from the Roman “calendae,” the day on which a new month was proclaimed. It designates the structuring and hence the consequent mediation of time, i.e. records in pictorial and literary media to communicate structures of time. Calendars are concrete translations of chronologies. The performance of activities to be collectiv…

Caligula, Gaius

(238 words)

Author(s): Klein, Richard
[German Version] (Aug 31, 12 ce, Antium – Jan 24, 41, Rome), Roman emperor from 37 to 41 ce. The son of Germanicus and Augustus's granddaughter Agrippina, who received the nickname “Caligula” (soldier's boot) in his father's camp and grew up, following the early death of his parents, at the court of Tiberius, was quickly named Caesar by the people, the army and the Senate after Tiberius's death. After initial reticence, the young ruler, characterized by repeated illnesses, trans…


(589 words)

Author(s): Busse, Heribert
[German Version] Arabic ḫalīfa (“successor” or “deputy”), the leader of the Islamic community (Arab. umma) among the Sunnis (Sunna/Sunnis), and to a degree also among the Shiaites (Šīaa/Shiaites; see also →Islam: II). As prophet (Prophets and prophecy: V), Mu˙ammad could have no successor, for he was the last prophet, the “seal” of the prophets; he could, however, be succeeded as the leader of the community. After the four “rightly-guided caliphs” ( al-ḫulafā' ar-rāšidūn) Abū Bakr, aUmar, aUtmān and aAlī, the Umayyads came to power in Damascus (III) in 661, f…

Calixtus, Georg

(544 words)

Author(s): Mager, Inge
[German Version] (Dec 14, 1586, Medelby, Schleswig – Mar 19, 1656, Helmstedt). The son of the country clergyman Johannes Callisen, a Lutheran controversial theologian, irenicist and adherent of the early Enlightenment, Calixtus spoke out in favor of an ecumenical Christianity. Having grown up without the Formula of Concord or the notion of ubiquity (Omnipresence), he came to Helmstedt in 1603 as a student shaped by the ideas of Melanchthon. Calixtus acquired his knowledge ¶ of theology as an autodidact under the influence of J. Caselius and C. Martini. After receiving his Magister (16…

Callaway, Henry

(162 words)

Author(s): Hexham, Irving
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1817, Lymington, Somerset – Mar 26, 1890, Ottery St Mary, Devon, England), doctor and missionary in South Africa (1855–1886), pioneer in the study of religion, folklore, and linguistics in South Africa. An agnostic, he joined the Quakers in 1837, studied medicine in Aberdeen, Scotland, and converted to Anglicanism in 1853. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts overlooked his lack of theological training an…

Callenberg, Johann Heinrich

(220 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1694, Molschleben near Gotha – Jul 16, 1760, Halle on the Saale). From humble origins, Callenberg was given a pietistic upbringing at the Gotha Gymnasium under G. Vockerodt. He began studying oriental languages and theology at Halle on the Saale in 1715. In the 1720s, he was commissioned by A.H. Francke to author a multivolume church history, in which he gave particular attention to the historical background of Pietism (manuscript…


(605 words)

Author(s): Lauer, Uta
[German Version] I. East Asian Calligraphy – II. Islamic Calligraphy (Greek, English “beautiful writing”) refers to the art of lettering or to the work of artistic lettering produced according to aesthetic and artistic principles, particularly well-developed in East Asia and Islamic culture. I. East Asian Calligraphy In China, calligraphy has long been numbered among the six free arts. An elastic brush is the writing tool. In addition to silk, paper has been used to write on since the 2nd century bce. Indian ink or a similar pigment was already in use in the Shang…


(3,654 words)

Author(s): Hjelde, Sigurd | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Wilhelm Horn, Friedrich | Sparn, Walter | Martin Müller, Hans
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The term calling or “call” refers to a person's experience of being grasped by a divine or other superhuman power and being taken into its service. The concept thus relates closely to that of election; at the same time, a calling can be seen as a kind of initiation that can precede or follow a longer period of instruction and maturation. The early…

Callistus I

(308 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg
[German Version] (217–222), bishop of Rome. His life and teachings are known almost exclusively from the portrayal by his competitor and opponent Hippolytus ( Haer. 9.11f.; 10.27), who depicts him as a social climber and careerist. Born a slave, Callistus was entrusted with the banking affairs of his Christian master. A conflict with Roman Jews (debtors?) led to his condemnation as a Christian and to forced labor in the Sardinian mines. After a pardon, manumission, and a decade-long sojourn in …

Callistus III, Pope

(250 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1455 – Aug 6, 1458). Alfonso De Borja [Borgia] born Dec 31, 1378 at Canals, near Játiva, Valencia. Callistus studied and taught civil and canon law at Lérida (Llerda/Lleida). He entered the service of Alfonso V of Aragon and in 1429 persuaded Pope Clement VIII to abdicate. He was then made bishop of Valencia by Pope Martin V. In 1444 he was made cardinal priest of SS. Quattro Coronati in Rome; on Apr 8, 1455, he was elected pope. One of h…

Callistus II, Pope

(185 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1119 – Dec 13, 1124), birth name Guido, son of the count of Burgundy. As archbishop of Vienne (from 1088), he competed with Arles in his efforts to justify a primatial see for Vienne, a status he confirmed as pope. In 1112 a council convened in Vienne to oppose the right of investiture which the German Emperor Henry V had extorted from Paschal II in 1111. Owing to this conflict, the diplomatically skilled Callistus was elected pope follow…

Callistus I of Constantinople

(244 words)

Author(s): Nikolaou, Theodor
[German Version] , patriarch (born end 13th cent. – died 1363/1364, Serrhai) was a dis¶ ciple of Gregory Sinaites and lived, at least from 1314 onward, as a monk (from c. 1335 as a clerical monk) in the Magoula skete monastery, and from 1342 (?) until 1350 in the Iviron monastery on Mount Athos. As a hesychast (Hesychasm) and a companion of G. Palamas, he signed the Tomos Hagioreitikos in 1340. During the civil war of 1342, Callistus was a member of the peace embassy. Elected patriarch in June 1350, he presided over the synod of 1351 (against the a…

Calovius, Abraham

(668 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg
[German Version] (Kalau; Apr 16, 1612, Mohrungen – Feb 25, 1686, Wittenberg) began his philosophical and theological studies in Königsberg in 1626, and continued them in Rostock from 1634 to 1637. In 1640 he became professor extraordinarius in Königsberg, and in 1643 rector and pastor in Danzig. In 1650 he became professor ordinarius in Wittenberg. He was married six times and fathered 13 children (who all died before 1685). Funeral sermon by J.F. Mayer. As the “second Athanasius” (Mayer), Calovius stood for the integrity of the Lutheran church and theology. He…
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