Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(324 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] 1. Lorenzo (1474, Milan – Jul 20, 1539, Rome) became professor of law at Bologna in 1500, was ordained priest in 1511, made bishop in 1512 and cardinal in 1517. He achieved fame through his positions as nuncio: in 1511, Julius II sent him to Emperor Maximilian I; Leo X gave him the same assignment (1513–1517). Campeggio established cordial relations with Maximilian and Charles V, as well as with Henry VIII of England. In 1524/1525, Clement VII com…

Campe, Joachim Heinrich

(291 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1746, Deensen/Braunschweig – Oct 22, 1818, Braunschweig). Having received instruction from a private tutor and subsequently attended the local village school as well as the monastery school in Holzminden, Campe began studying Protestant theology at Helmstedt and Halle in 1765. After the completion of his studies, he found employment as a preacher in Potsdam, but also as a tutor in the household of the chamberlain Georg v. Humboldt, whose two so…

Campello, Enrico di

(329 words)

Author(s): Oeyen, Christian
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1831, Spoleto – Jul 2, 1903, Rome) was the most important proponent of Old Catholicism (Old Catholics) in Italy. Count Campello, a member of the Academia dei Nobili who became a priest in 1855 and canon of St. Peter's in 1868, inclined toward Italian nationalism. After 1870 he founded a secret society to demand the popular election of the pope and the bishops. After the liberal press discovered the plan, in 1881 he declared (in the American Methodist Church) a breach with the Vatican and in 1882 established the “Italian Catholic Church” (known ¶ after 1899 as the Ca…

Campenhausen, Hans von

(243 words)

Author(s): Ritter, Adolf Martin
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1903 [Old Style, Dec 3, 1903], Rosenbeck, Livonia – Jan 6, 1989, Heidelberg), doctor of theology, Heidelberg 1926; 5 honorary doctorates in theology; Privatdozent in church history, Marburg, 1928; Göttingen 1930; 1935 temporary professorship in Gießen; 1936 appointed professor in Heidelberg; appointment withdrawn in 1937 on political grounds; 1938 Privatdozent in Greifswald; 1940 temporary professorship in Vienna; ordinary professor in Heidelberg from 1946. With the exception of A. v. Harnack, whose theory …

Camphuysen, Dirck Raphaelszoon

(135 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (1586, Gorinchem – Jul 19, 1627, Dokkum) was deposed as Reformed pastor because of his Arminian views (1619) and banished (1620). He led a beggarly existence, settling nowhere. Inclined toward the newly founded Remonstrantist church (Arminians), he finally felt at home with the Rijnsburger Collegiants. Theologically, he had sympathies with Socinians, and he translated some of F. Sozzini's works into Dutch. He refused a professorship in Raków in 1625. His heartfelt Stichtelycke Rymen (1624, 121658), which revolve around the theme of suffering, wer…

Campion, Edmund, Saint

(210 words)

Author(s): Gilley, Sheridan
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1539/1540, London – Dec 1, 1581, Tyburn), protomartyr of the English Province of the Jesuits. Originally an Anglican, Campion became Junior Fellow at St. John's College, Oxford, in 1557. He moved to Dublin in 1570 and wrote his History of Ireland (1571). Having converted to Catholicism following a crisis of faith, he fled to the University of Douai in Flanders and then to Rome, joined the Austrian Province of the Jesuits, studied in Prague and Brno/Brünn (Moravia), and was ordained priest in 1578. I…

Camus, Albert

(383 words)

Author(s): Kodalle, Klaus-M.
[German Version] (Nov 7, 1913, Mondovi, Algeria – 4 Jan, 1960, in a car accident in Petit-Villeblevin, France) was deeply involved as a journalist and resistance fighter in the conflicts of his age – the Spanish Civil War, the French resistance, the Algerian War of Indepen¶ dence, Soviet occupations, etc. He was honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957. His most important works include short stories ( L'envers et l'endroit, 1937; L'été, 1954; L'exile et le royaume, 1957), novels ( L'étranger, 1942; La peste, 1947), plays ( Caligula, 1945; Les justes, 1949), philosophi…


(123 words)

Author(s): Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] The village (κώμη/ kōmē, Jos. Vita LXIV, 206) of Κανά (τῆς Γαλιλαίας)/ Kaná ( tēs Galilaías; from Heb. קָנֶה/ qāneh, “reed”?) is to be identified with the site of Ḫirbet Qana and lies on the northern slope of the Bet Netofa Valley. According to Josh 19:28, Cana belonged to the tribe of Asher (Tribes of Israel). The New Testament mentions it only in John 2:1, 11; 4:46; 21:2, while Jewish sources locate the priestly family of Eliashib in Cana. Excavations have uncove…


(10 words)

[German Version] Palestina, Syria, Israel and Canaan


(1,422 words)

Author(s): Goodwin, Daniel
[German Version] After Russia, Canada is the largest country in the world, but one of the most sparsely populated. It covers almost 40% of the land area of North America (9, 970, 610 km2). It borders the Arctic Sea to the north, the Atlantic to the east, twelve states of the USA to the south, and Alaska and the Pacific to the west. Its capital is Ottawa. The greatest population density and the largest cities are along the coast and the border with the USA, where 90% of the Canadian population live. In 2001 it had approx. 30 million inhabitants. Canadian society is multicultural, comprising gro…

Canadian Conference of Bishops

(209 words)

Author(s): Clarke, Brian
[German Version] Founded in 1943 as the Canadian Catholic Conference (renamed the Canadian Conference of Bishops [CCB] in 1977), the CCB is a voluntary association of Canadian bishops for the coordination of their responses to social issues and of internal administrative measures within the church. In the years following Vatican II, the CCC became a truly nation-wide collegial body and played a crucial role in the implementation of the council's liturgical reforms, in the coordination of episcopal reactions to Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vita encyclical on birth control (cf. …

Canadian Council of Churches

(178 words)

Author(s): Gauvreau, Michael
[German Version] The Canadian Council of Churches, the successor organization to the Social Service Council of Canada (SSCC; est. 1914), was founded in 1944 as an umbrella organization for the various social services of the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Anglican churches, and maintained close ties to various women's organizations. Initially concentrating on moral issues such as abstinence, prostitution, and the censorship of pornographic literature, the focus of the SSCC…

Canadian Missions

(211 words)

Author(s): Grant, John Webster
[German Version] Under French rule, only Roman Catholic missionaries were permitted, including the Jesuits, several of whom suffered martyrdom in 1649/1650. In the 19th century, Anglicans of the Church Missionary Society competed with Oblates of Mary Immaculate and Grey Nuns (Grey Brothers and Sisters) for the souls of Native American Indians (II) and Inuit. Among the Protestant churches, the Methodists were the most active, both in Ontario and in northern…


(292 words)

Author(s): Fechtner, Kristian
[German Version] Candles have been used in Christian liturgy for centuries. To distinguish Christianity from other religions, the cultic use of candles was originally rejected, but candles soon became a standard element of Christian worship even in the Early Church. From the perspective of religious history, candles symbolize the contrast of light and darkness. Their biblical interpretation derives from John 8:12 (Jesus Christ as the “light of the world”). The c…

Candles, Blessing of

(169 words)

Author(s): Maas-Ewerd, Theodor
[German Version] Despite their multi-faceted use in liturgy and popular piety, candles were not originally blessed or “consecrated.” The Easter candle first attested in 384 for Piacenza (PL 30, 182f.) consitutes an exception. Evening light blessings attested since the 2nd century survive in its “consecration.” Only since the 10th century have prayers for the blessing of candles appeared, which were used in processions, first and foremost in the procession …


(1,161 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Stefan | Wirtler, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Hebrew Bible and Judaism – II. Christianity I. Hebrew Bible and Judaism According to 1 Kgs 7:49, the furnishings of the First Temple (II) included, in addition to gold and silver candlesticks that belonged the temple treasury but were not otherwise used (1 Chr 28:12, 18; Jer 52:19), “ten candlesticks of pure gold” of which five stood respectively on each side of the holy of holies. Following rabbinic tradition ( b. Men. 28b), the menorah, i.e. the seven-branched (or seven-armed) candelabrum that Moses ¶ had made (Exod 25:31; 37:17) after being shown a mo…


(249 words)

Author(s): Piepke, Joachim
[German Version] represents an Afro-Brazilian mixed religion from African and Christian elements; it is based on the Bantu word candombe (= percussion instrument). Other mixed forms appear under the names Umbanda, Macumba, Catimbó, and Batuque. The center of Candomblé continues to be Salvador da Bahia. The roots of Candomblé trace back principally to West African Yoruba culture which prevailed over Bantu cultures in Brazil. Today, between 20% and 30% of the population sta…

Canisius, Peter (Saint)

(398 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Peter Kanis until c. 1547; May 8, 1521, Nijmegen – Dec 21, 1597, Fribourg, ¶ Switzerland) contributed to the renewal of the Catholic Church after the Reformation. Residing in Cologne from 1535 onward, he became the first German Jesuit in 1543. He turned to Charles V of Germany for support against the reforming attempt of the archbishop of Cologne (Hermann of Wied). After a brief stay at the Council of Trent and the continuation of his Jesuit training in Rome …

Cankov, Stefan

(234 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Zankow; Jul 4, 1881, Gorna Oryakhovitsa – Mar 20, 1965, Sofia). A Bulgarian Orthodox theologian, Cankov earned his Dr. theol. in Chernivtsi (Czernowitz) in 1905, his Dr. jur. in Zürich in 1918, ¶ and received honorary doctorates from Athens (1936), Oxford (1937), Berlin (1940), Sofia (1953), and Budapest (1955). He was professor of canon and matrimonial law and of Christian sociology from 1923 to 1960, rector of the University of Sofia from 1940 to 1941, as well as a member of the Bul…


(7 words)

[German Version] Ritual Killing
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