Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(164 words)

Author(s): Bussmann, Claus
[German Version] Capital of the Departamento de Cordillera, Paraguay, 55 km ESE of Asunción. It is the most important place of pilgrimage (III) in the country, where the Virgen de los Milagros (Virgin of Miracles) is venerated. The major festival on Dec 8 (Immaculata Conceptio) and the founding legend suggest that the origins were in the period of the early Franciscan mission, primarily under L. Bolaños (1549–1629). However, the place Caacupé (“behind the woods”)…


(160 words)

Author(s): Hoornaert, Eduardo
[German Version] The Cabanagem uprising, begun in 1832 and bloodily put down in 1849, was a revolt of local caboclos (catechumens) of Indian and African descent against the Portuguese colonial regime, which ruled the entire lower Amazon (Brazil). In the 17th and early 18th centuries, Jesuits and other missionaries had sought to impose a uniform Catholic Indian culture on the diverse peoples of Amazonia and therefore had established Nheengatu or Tupí as the lingua franca. When the missionaries were expelled in 1759, the disastrous results of these policies b…


(201 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The two or perhaps more Cabeiri constitute a nameless group of gods for whom local cults were established in the eastern and northern Aegean. A cult in mainland Greece existed only in Boeotia. Sometimes identified with other cultic groups such as the Curetes, ¶ the Corybants, the Dioscuri or the Daktyloi, they reflect male cultic associations to which admittance was effected through initiation (Rites of passage). The mysteries of Samothrace, in which especially seafaring persons sought to acquire protec…

Cabot, Richard Clarke

(164 words)

Author(s): Evison, Ian
[German Version] (May 21, 1868, Brookline, MA – May 8, 1939, Cambridge, MA), physician in Boston, MA; together with E. Worcester and others, and with the Emmanuel movement, he was concerned with the introduction of methods of group therapy which aimed to combine somatic and psychological treatments. With A Plea for a Clinical Year in the Course of Theological Education (Survey 55 of Dec 1, 1925) Cabot's involvement in the reformation of theological education commenced. He envisioned a general reform moving away from the traditional academi…

Cabrol, Fernand

(159 words)

Author(s): Lurz, Friedrich
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1855, Marseille – Jun 4, 1937, St. Leonard's-on-Sea), a Benedictine liturgist and patristics scholar, was prior of Solesmes and professor of church history at the University of Angers ¶ from 1890 to 1896; in 1896 he moved to Farnborough, England, where he became the first abbot in 1903. As author of numerous works on liturgical and ecclesiastical history, he stood in the Solesmes tradition. Motivated by a problematic idealization of early worship, he left his mark on subsequent liturgical scholarship, above all through the Dictionnaire d’archéologi…

Cadbury, Henry Joel

(158 words)

Author(s): Grant, Robert M.
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1883, Philadelphia – Oct 7, 1974, Bryn Mawr), New Testament scholar. Born a Quaker, Cadbury had to leave Haverford College after publicly denouncing wartime hatred, but was secretary of the Society of Biblical Literature (1916–1933), and even its president (1936). He taught at Bryn Mawr (1926–1934) and Harvard (Hollis Professor of Divinity) (1934 –1954). He also served as chairman of the American Friends Service Committee (1928–1934 and 1944–1960) and played an important part in the editing of the Revised Standard Version of the NT. His books, including The M…


(255 words)

Author(s): Klöckener, Martin
[German Version] Appearing in the 12th century, the Caeremoniale or “Ceremonial” is a book regulating especially the ceremonial shape of papal and episcopal liturgy, and to some extent also of religious orders. It is not a book of celebration and is not used in liturgy itself. The oldest editions are primarily concerned with arranging the external details of papal liturgy, as for example in papal elections (Pope, Election of), papal consecrations and coronations, …


(319 words)

Author(s): Meyers, Eric M.
[German Version] The great port city on the Mediterranean coast on the Sharon plain was named by Herod the Great for Caesar Augustus. It became a Roman colony under Vespasian and a metropolis under Severus Alexander. The name “Caesarea Maritima” was unknown in antiquity, though today it may connote the Roman harbor, which is under water. The Hellenistic town on which the Roman city was built was called “Strato's Tower” and is mentioned in the Zeno papyri. A Jewish population was introduced to the city in c. 100 bce, when Alexander Jannaeus captured it. Herod's Caesarea was h…

Caesarea Philippi

(220 words)

Author(s): Weber, Thomas
[German Version] (modern Baniyas) is located southwest of Mount Hermon on a tributary of the Jordan; it was the site of a battle between the Ptolemies (Ptolemaic dynasty) and the Seleucids in 200 bce. Originally called Paneas, it was renamed Kaisáreia hē Philíppou (Lat. Caesarea Philippi) after the tetrarch Philip rebuilt it and set up a temple of Augustus in 3 bce. For a time the city was called Neronias in honor of the emperor Nero. Its chief deity was the Greek Pan, who was worshiped alongside Zeus (Olybris, Heliopolitanus),…

Caesar, Gaius Julius

(717 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] The word “Caesar” has three senses: (a) a branch of the Julian clan ( gens Julia), which traced its genealogy through Aeneas back to Aphrodite; (b) a title (cf. Mark 12:13–17; Acts 25:11) and the office of supreme ruler (cf. OHG keisar, Russian Tsar); (c) the personification of a modern conception of antique greatness, drive, and genius, which can be interpreted as the antithesis of Christian humility, passivity, and “foolishness” (F. Nietzsche: “Caesar figure,” “Jesus figure”; Gundolf). The best-known representative of the gens Julia is C. Julius Caesar (100–44 bce).…

Caesarius of Arles (Saint)

(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (469/470, Chalon-sur-Saône – Aug 24, 542, Arles). At the age of 20, Caesarius entered the famous island monastery of Lérins in southern Gaul, where he was noted for his particularly ascetic life. Sent to Arles to recover his health, which had suffered from his asceticism, he was ordained priest by Aeonius, the bishop of Arles, made abbot of the monastery of Trinquetaille on an island in the Rhone, and designated as Aeonius's successor. For 40 yea…

Caesarius of Heisterbach

(194 words)

Author(s): Lawo, Mathias
[German Version] (c. 1180 – after 1240) was educated at Cologne (school of St. Andrew, cathedral school); in 1199 he entered the Cistercian monastery at Heisterbach, where he is documented as novice master in 1221 (Neininger). He became prior some time after 1226. An incomplete catalogue ¶ ( Epistola catalogica, c. 1240) of his works, all in Latin, comprises 36 entries (14 previously unknown) – besides lost anti-heretical polemics, a few exegetical works, approx. 200 homilies and sermons interspersed with exempla, but also historical and hagiographic writings: a Continuatio catalog…


(264 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] denotes a combined secular and ecclesiastical government in which the secular ruler, who enjoys a special religious status, exercises authority over the church even in spiritual and internal affairs. Since J.H. Böhmer at the beginning of the 18th century, the term has been applied particularly to the ecclesiastical authority of the emperors from Constantine the Great until the Investiture Controversy, above all for the system in the Eastern Roman…

Cage, John

(301 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Burkhard
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1912, Los Angeles – Aug 12, 1992, New York). As a composer, performance artist, and designer of, among other things, prints (situated on the borderline between musical score and figurative art), John Cage was one of the major driving forces behind the artistic avant-garde of the 20th century. While studying under Arnold Schönberg and Henry Cowell, it had already become apparent that he was not concerned with academically correct musical …


(197 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Caiphas; Aram. Qayafa on an ossuary), in the New Testament always Καϊάφας or Καϊ  ϊφᾶς (manuscripts), in Josephus ( Ant. XIII, 95) ᾽Ιωσήφος ὁ Καϊ  ϊάφας/ Iōsḗphos ho Kaïáphas, where it seems to be an epithet. The Roman prefect Valerius Gratus installed Caiaphas as high priest (III) in 18 ce, and the Syrian governor Vitellius deposed him in 36 ce ( Ant., loc. cit.). The office of high priest had been awarded discretionarily since the Herodians (Herod/Herodian dynasty). Caiaphas achieved this long period in office only through t…

Cain and Abel

(1,259 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Zchomelidse, Nino
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Art History I. Old Testament Cain and Abel, the children of the first human couple Adam and Eve, are the protagonists of one of the characteristic fraternal narratives of the book of Genesis (cf. Jacob and Esau). Their names are semantically associated with the pre- or non-priestly Paradise narrative of Gen 3*: While the meaning “transitoriness” may be discerned in the name Abel (הֶבֶל, Gen 4:2, 4, 8f., 25), the name Cain (קַיִן, Gen 4:1–25, Tubal-Cain Gen 4:22 [a description of metallurgical skills], as a tribal name in Nu…


(69 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] A mainstream church designation for “heretics,” and especially for 2nd century Gnostics who effected a reassessment of the OT and venerated Cain as well as Judas Iscariot (use of the “Gospel of Judas” [ NTApo I, 61990, 309f.]; Iren. Haer. I 31.1f.; Ps.-Tert., Adversus omnes haereses 2.5f.; Epiph. Haer. 38). Roman Hanig Bibliography Sources: W. Foerster, ed., Die Gnosis: Zeugnisse der Kirchenväter, 1995, 57–59 (Ger. trans.)


(7 words)

[German Version] North Africa


(194 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1486, Nadia/Navadvīpa – c. Jul 9, 1533, Puri), commonly known as Viśvambhara Miśra, also as Kṛṣṇa-Caitanya (lit. “one whose consciousness is Kṛṣṇa ”). After a mystical encounter with Kṛṣṇa ¶ (Kṛṣṇa) Caitanya became a leading holy man of (Bengali or Gauḍīya-) Vaiṣṇavism and of bhakti piety. The brahmin Caitanya preached a personal, loving Brahman and a unio mystica with Kṛṣṇa, which is understood to be expressed in his unification with his lover, the cowherd Rādhā. His followers honor him as an avatāra of Kṛṣṇa or as an androgynous …

Cajetan of Tiene, Saint

(128 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Gaietano; 1480, Vicenza – Aug 7, 1547, Naples), founder of the Theatine Order. In 1524, after studying law and serving as a lawyer to the Roman Curia, together with Gian Pietro Carafa (later Pope Paul IV) and others, Cajetan founded the Order of Theatines, a clerical reform community which quickly spread through Italy. Cajetan worked to maintain a strict form of orthodox Roman Catholicism. From 1533 to 1547 he was almost continuously in N…

Cajetan, Thomas de Vio

(305 words)

Author(s): Wicks, Jared
[German Version] (Giacomo de Vio; Feb 20, 1469, Gaeta – Aug 10, 1534, Rome). When Cajetan joined the order of the Dominicans in 1484, he assumed the name Thomas, but was later called “Caietanus” after his place of birth. In Padua in 1494 he defended Thomistic positions against Duns Scotus and the Averroists (Averroism). After treatises on being, essence and analogy, Cajetan's commentary on Aristotle’ De anima (1509) questioned philosophical arguments for the immortality of the soul, while regarding it as revealed – leading some to link Cajetan wi…


(201 words)

Author(s): Schetelich, Maria
[German Version] (Sanskrit “wheel”), in Indian religions, describes dynamic movement and energy in many different forms as well as the self-containment of a system or circle. Thus in Buddhism and Jainism the dharma cakra (Dharma) symbolizes the spread of teachings. In Hinduism cakra is one of the attributes of Viṣṇu as world ruler. Kuṇḍalinī-yoga defines the seven overlapping energy centers in the human body as cakras which have to be set in motion by means of yoga exercises, in order to activate the functions of life and, as energy rises from the lowest to the uppermost cakra, to bring ab…


(191 words)

Author(s): Schetelich, Maria
[German Version] (Sanskrit “wheel-mover”), in all Indian religions a term for the world-conqueror. A cakravartin is marked out as an extraordinary person by marks on his body. His attributes are a wheel and insignia of dominion. He is victorious by virtue of his behavior or his just teaching. The difference between the cakravartin concept in Hinduism and Buddhism/ Jainism lies in the goal of world dominion. In Hinduism the cakravartin removes the disruption of the world by demons and antigods; his central power base is formed by dharma and truth. The embodiment of cakravartin here is …

Calamy, Edmund

(168 words)

Author(s): Watts, Michael R.
[German Version] (Apr 5, 1671, London – Jun 3, 1732, London), nonconformist minister and biographer, and son and grandson of nonconformist ministers of the same name (Dissenters). Following the restoration of the Stuarts and the reinstallation of Charles II to the English throne (1660) English and Welsh clergymen were required by the Act of Uniformity of 1662 to give the Anglican Book of Common Prayer their “unfeigned assent.” The first two Edmund Calamys were among the 2029 clergy and lecturers who were deprived of their posts r…


(148 words)

Author(s): Enders, Markus
[German Version] (Chalcidius), Christian philosopher, whose dates are disputed. Either in the first half or at the end of the 4th century, he composed a Latin translation of the first, cosmological section of Plato's Timaios 17A–53C and a corresponding commentary, in which – with reference to Middle Platonic sources in particular (Numenius) – he drew up a hierarchy of metaphysical entities in which divine Providence was identified with divine Will and Reason and made superior to Fate, which rules all things, including the world soul, though humans, gifted with reason, do not nec¶ essari…

Calderón de la Barca, Pedro

(540 words)

Author(s): Geisler, Eberhard
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1600, Madrid – May 25, 1681, Madrid). Calderón, along with Lope de Vega, is considered the most important Spanish dramatist of the 17th century. Appointed court dramatist in 1635 and ordained priest in 1651, he composed cloak-and-dagger pieces (concerned primarily with the theme of honor), historical, philosophical, mythological, and religious dramas, as well as Corpus Christi pieces ( Autos sacramentales). In what is probably his best-known work, Life is a Dream (1636), the Jesuit student engages the question of the relationship betwe…


(8 words)

[German Version] Tribes of Israel


(3,500 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Meßner, Reinhard | Gerö, Stephen | Nagel, Tilman | Et al.
[German Version] I. General – II. Jewish Calendar – III. Christian Calendar – IV. Islamic Calendar – V. Liturgical Calendar I. General 1. The term calendar derives from the Roman “calendae,” the day on which a new month was proclaimed. It designates the structuring and hence the consequent mediation of time, i.e. records in pictorial and literary media to communicate structures of time. Calendars are concrete translations of chronologies. The performance of activities to be collectiv…

Caligula, Gaius

(238 words)

Author(s): Klein, Richard
[German Version] (Aug 31, 12 ce, Antium – Jan 24, 41, Rome), Roman emperor from 37 to 41 ce. The son of Germanicus and Augustus's granddaughter Agrippina, who received the nickname “Caligula” (soldier's boot) in his father's camp and grew up, following the early death of his parents, at the court of Tiberius, was quickly named Caesar by the people, the army and the Senate after Tiberius's death. After initial reticence, the young ruler, characterized by repeated illnesses, trans…


(589 words)

Author(s): Busse, Heribert
[German Version] Arabic ḫalīfa (“successor” or “deputy”), the leader of the Islamic community (Arab. umma) among the Sunnis (Sunna/Sunnis), and to a degree also among the Shiaites (Šīaa/Shiaites; see also →Islam: II). As prophet (Prophets and prophecy: V), Mu˙ammad could have no successor, for he was the last prophet, the “seal” of the prophets; he could, however, be succeeded as the leader of the community. After the four “rightly-guided caliphs” ( al-ḫulafā' ar-rāšidūn) Abū Bakr, aUmar, aUtmān and aAlī, the Umayyads came to power in Damascus (III) in 661, f…

Calixtus, Georg

(544 words)

Author(s): Mager, Inge
[German Version] (Dec 14, 1586, Medelby, Schleswig – Mar 19, 1656, Helmstedt). The son of the country clergyman Johannes Callisen, a Lutheran controversial theologian, irenicist and adherent of the early Enlightenment, Calixtus spoke out in favor of an ecumenical Christianity. Having grown up without the Formula of Concord or the notion of ubiquity (Omnipresence), he came to Helmstedt in 1603 as a student shaped by the ideas of Melanchthon. Calixtus acquired his knowledge ¶ of theology as an autodidact under the influence of J. Caselius and C. Martini. After receiving his Magister (16…

Callaway, Henry

(162 words)

Author(s): Hexham, Irving
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1817, Lymington, Somerset – Mar 26, 1890, Ottery St Mary, Devon, England), doctor and missionary in South Africa (1855–1886), pioneer in the study of religion, folklore, and linguistics in South Africa. An agnostic, he joined the Quakers in 1837, studied medicine in Aberdeen, Scotland, and converted to Anglicanism in 1853. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts overlooked his lack of theological training an…

Callenberg, Johann Heinrich

(220 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1694, Molschleben near Gotha – Jul 16, 1760, Halle on the Saale). From humble origins, Callenberg was given a pietistic upbringing at the Gotha Gymnasium under G. Vockerodt. He began studying oriental languages and theology at Halle on the Saale in 1715. In the 1720s, he was commissioned by A.H. Francke to author a multivolume church history, in which he gave particular attention to the historical background of Pietism (manuscript…


(605 words)

Author(s): Lauer, Uta
[German Version] I. East Asian Calligraphy – II. Islamic Calligraphy (Greek, English “beautiful writing”) refers to the art of lettering or to the work of artistic lettering produced according to aesthetic and artistic principles, particularly well-developed in East Asia and Islamic culture. I. East Asian Calligraphy In China, calligraphy has long been numbered among the six free arts. An elastic brush is the writing tool. In addition to silk, paper has been used to write on since the 2nd century bce. Indian ink or a similar pigment was already in use in the Shang…


(3,654 words)

Author(s): Hjelde, Sigurd | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Wilhelm Horn, Friedrich | Sparn, Walter | Martin Müller, Hans
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The term calling or “call” refers to a person's experience of being grasped by a divine or other superhuman power and being taken into its service. The concept thus relates closely to that of election; at the same time, a calling can be seen as a kind of initiation that can precede or follow a longer period of instruction and maturation. The early…

Callistus I

(308 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg
[German Version] (217–222), bishop of Rome. His life and teachings are known almost exclusively from the portrayal by his competitor and opponent Hippolytus ( Haer. 9.11f.; 10.27), who depicts him as a social climber and careerist. Born a slave, Callistus was entrusted with the banking affairs of his Christian master. A conflict with Roman Jews (debtors?) led to his condemnation as a Christian and to forced labor in the Sardinian mines. After a pardon, manumission, and a decade-long sojourn in …

Callistus III, Pope

(250 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1455 – Aug 6, 1458). Alfonso De Borja [Borgia] born Dec 31, 1378 at Canals, near Játiva, Valencia. Callistus studied and taught civil and canon law at Lérida (Llerda/Lleida). He entered the service of Alfonso V of Aragon and in 1429 persuaded Pope Clement VIII to abdicate. He was then made bishop of Valencia by Pope Martin V. In 1444 he was made cardinal priest of SS. Quattro Coronati in Rome; on Apr 8, 1455, he was elected pope. One of h…

Callistus II, Pope

(185 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1119 – Dec 13, 1124), birth name Guido, son of the count of Burgundy. As archbishop of Vienne (from 1088), he competed with Arles in his efforts to justify a primatial see for Vienne, a status he confirmed as pope. In 1112 a council convened in Vienne to oppose the right of investiture which the German Emperor Henry V had extorted from Paschal II in 1111. Owing to this conflict, the diplomatically skilled Callistus was elected pope follow…

Callistus I of Constantinople

(244 words)

Author(s): Nikolaou, Theodor
[German Version] , patriarch (born end 13th cent. – died 1363/1364, Serrhai) was a dis¶ ciple of Gregory Sinaites and lived, at least from 1314 onward, as a monk (from c. 1335 as a clerical monk) in the Magoula skete monastery, and from 1342 (?) until 1350 in the Iviron monastery on Mount Athos. As a hesychast (Hesychasm) and a companion of G. Palamas, he signed the Tomos Hagioreitikos in 1340. During the civil war of 1342, Callistus was a member of the peace embassy. Elected patriarch in June 1350, he presided over the synod of 1351 (against the a…

Calovius, Abraham

(668 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg
[German Version] (Kalau; Apr 16, 1612, Mohrungen – Feb 25, 1686, Wittenberg) began his philosophical and theological studies in Königsberg in 1626, and continued them in Rostock from 1634 to 1637. In 1640 he became professor extraordinarius in Königsberg, and in 1643 rector and pastor in Danzig. In 1650 he became professor ordinarius in Wittenberg. He was married six times and fathered 13 children (who all died before 1685). Funeral sermon by J.F. Mayer. As the “second Athanasius” (Mayer), Calovius stood for the integrity of the Lutheran church and theology. He…


(787 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland | Arnulf, Arwed | Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Name – II. Art and Liturgy – III. Roman Catholic Congregations I. Name The Greek interpretation of the Aramaic Golgotha as Κρανίου Τόπος/ Kraniou Topos, “Skull Place” (Matt 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17; cf. Luke 23:32), is rendered almost uniformly in the Latin versions (Old Latin, Vulgate) as c alvariae locus. The Latin form gave rise to “Calvary” and similar terms in other European languages. It is based on the Latin noun calvaria, “cranium, skull,” which makes its first appearance in the middle of the 1st century ce in medical works (Aurelius Cornelius Celsus,…


(1,241 words)

Author(s): Gerrish, B.A.
[German Version] I. Term – II. The Establishment of Orthodoxy – III. The Revision of Orthodoxy I. Term The word Calvinism was coined in the 16th century by Lutherans who feared the intrusion of Calvin's ideas, especially on the Eucharist (III, 1.b), into Germany. In time, it acquired several meanings: It may refer to the theological system of Calvin himself or to the theology of his pupils from the 16th century to the present; the adjective “Calvinist” is often used interchangeably…

Calvin, John

(10,728 words)

Author(s): Gerrish, B.A.
[German Version] (Jean Cauvin, Jul 10, 1509, Noyon – May 27, 1564, Geneva) I. Life and Work – II. Theology – III. Impact I. Life and Work 1. Development as a Reformer a. Childhood and youth. Calvin's biography until his first stay in Geneva is only partially known (autobiographical foreword to the Commentarius in librum Psalmorum, Geneva 1557). His father, Gérard Cauvin, was a notary in the service of the cathedral chapter of Noyon. In 1521, Calvin received the tonsure and the income from a benefice sine cura to provide for his education. Probably in 1523, during an outbr…

Calvisius, Seth

(223 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1556, Gorsleben, Thüringen – Nov 24, 1615, Leipzig) attended school in Frankenhausen (1569) and Magdeburg (1572), where he may have been a student of Gallus Dressler. He attended the Universities of Helmstedt (1579) and Leipzig (1580). In 1581, he became cantor at the University Church in Leipzig; in 1582, cantor and Hebrew teacher in the Princes' School in Pforta; in 1594, Thomas cantor in Leipzig. The significance of this office is due…


(470 words)

Author(s): Merz, Birgit
[German Version] The Camaldolese are an offshoot of Benedictine monasticism, combining eremitic and cenobitic styles of life. They wear a white habit; nuns also a black veil. The order originated c. 1000 from the monastic reforms of Romuald of Ravenna (c. 952–1027), put into place at Fonte Avellana (c. 1000; Peter Damian) and Camaldoli (between 1023 and 1026). The constitutions, written between 1045 and 1057 by Peter Damian, followed between 1080 and 1085 …

Câmara, Hélder Pessoa

(289 words)

Author(s): Goldstein, Horst
[German Version] (Feb 7, 1909, Fortaleza – Aug 27, 1999, Recife, Brazil) was ordained priest in 1931; for a short time he was an adherent of the Brazilian Integralistic action (Integralism). From 1936 he served in the Education Department of Guanabara State. In 1952 he became auxiliary bishop of ¶ Rio de Janeiro. In 1964, at the beginning of the military dictatorship, he became archbishop of Olinda and Recife; he retired in 1985. In Rio he was already developing social programs for the slums. In 1952 he founded the Conferência Nac…


(579 words)

Author(s): Gern, Wolfgang
[German Version] The population of Cambodia is 12 million, with a growth rate of 2.5%. Theravada Buddhists (Hĩnayãna) comprise 90% of the population, Muslims2%, Christians 1.5%, adherents of Chinese popular religion and tribal religions 1.5% each, Caodaiists (Caodaism) and Bahā'i 1% each. Of the population, 90% are Khmer, 5% Vietnamese, 1% Chinese, and 2.5% Malay. Catholic missionary work began in 1555 with the arrival of the Dominicans Gaspar da Cruz (died 1570) and Sylvester Azevedo (died 1576) from Malacca (Melaka). Around 1770 P. Levasseu…

Cambridge Platonists

(395 words)

Author(s): Pailin, David Arthur
[German Version] The Cambridge Platonists were a group of independent philosophical theologians influenced by the ideas of Platonism and Neoplatonism, who sought to develop a theology that would eschew both Puritan Calvinism and Laudian (W. Laud) Anglo-Catholicism. Reason was for them “the spirit in man,” which serves as “the cradle of the Lord.” They were unanimous in their conviction that ¶ God acts in harmony with the eternal reason of things, in their rejection of all notions of an absolute, sovereign divine will, and finally in their trust in …

Cambridge Ritualists

(332 words)

Author(s): Ackermann, Robert
[German Version] The “Cambridge Ritual Anthropologists” or “Ritualists” consisted of four classicists, three of them from Cambridge – Jane Ellen Harrison (1850–1928), Arthur Bernard Cook (1868–1952), and Francis Macdonald Cornford (1874–1943) – as well as Gilbert Murray (1866–1957) from Oxford. The period of their activity lay between 1890 and 1920, when they jointly developed a daring irrationalist interpretation of Greek religion, and especially of Greek drama,…

Cambridge University

(762 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] The founding of Cambridge University probably goes back to members of Oxford University who left Oxford in reaction to the closing of schools in 1209 that resulted from disputes between the city and the university. Although instruction resumed in Oxford in 1214, a few scholars remained in Cambridge. Proximity to the episcopal see of Ely favored the establishment of a permanent institution, and Cambridge and Oxford remained the only English univer…
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