Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(393 words)

Author(s): Binder, Hans-Otto
[German Version] Several legends trace the founding of the Italian secret society of the Carbonari (“Charcoal-burners”) back to antiquity. They made their first historical appearance in southern Italy in the Napoleonic period, c. 1807. Similarities in organization and ritual as well as personal connections suggest that they emerged from the Bons Cousins Charbonniers, an occupational organization established primarily in Burgundy and Franche-Comté. It was an initiatory s…


(285 words)

Author(s): Liverani, Mario
[German Version] The city on the Euphrates (modern Jerablus) was an important kingdom and commercial center during the time of Ebla (24th cent. bce) and Mari (18th cent. bce). From the 16th/14th centuries, Carchemish belonged to the Mitanni; c. 1350, Šuppiluliuma conquered the city. The local Hittite dynasty, then founded by Piyaššili, was entrusted with Syrian affairs, and Carchemish almost became independent (Ini-Tešub, c. 1240–1220) gaining the title “Great Kingdom,” dominating the Euphrates …


(395 words)

Author(s): Krämer, Peter
[German Version] Derived from cardo (hinge, pivot point), the term cardinalate originally referred to an institution of the clergy in the city of Rome. Already in the 11th century, three classifications had formed: cardinal deacons, who were responsible to assist the bishop of Rome in liturgical ministry, care for the poor, and administer property; cardinal priests, who, as the heads of Roman titular churches, were responsible for liturgical ministry in the five patri¶ archal churches; and cardinal bishops, who, as bishops of the dioceses situated around Rome …

Cardinals, Congregation of

(8 words)

[German Version] Congregations

Cardinal Virtues

(7 words)

[German Version] Virtues

Cardoso, Mattheus

(399 words)

Author(s): Hastings, Adrian
[German Version] (1584, Lisbon – 1625, São Salvador, Congo) entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1598. Following his studies, ordination, and a number of years as lecturer in the Jesuit college at Evora, he was sent to Angola in 1617 and taught there at the college of Luanda. In the year 1619, Cordoso spent nine months in the Kongo Kingdom in the company of Friar Duarte Vaz. He drew up plans to open a college in the capital, Mbanza Kongo (São Salvador), and translated a stan…


(24 words)

[German Version] Deaf and Hearing Impaired, Care of the; Dying, Care of the; Poor, Care of the; Sick, Care of the

Carey, William

(390 words)

Author(s): Stanley, Brian
[German Version] (Aug 17, 1761, Paulerspury, England – Jun 9, 1834, Serampore, India) is often regarded as the father of modern Protestant missions. As the principal founder of the Baptist Missionary Society (BMS) he pioneered a movement which led to the formation of similar evangelical missionary societies in Great Britain, Europe, and North America. His own missionary vision was much indebted to the earlier achievements of the Moravians (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren…

Cargo Cults

(356 words)

Author(s): Lindstrom, Lamont
[German Version] The term “cargo cult” first appeared in the November 1945 issue of the colonial news magazine Pacific Islands Monthly. Anthropologists and others seized upon the term to label religious movements that emerged in the post-war years, notably in the southwestern Pacific region of Melanesia during a period of rapid economical and political change. Some observers classified cargo cults as a Pacific variant of the universal millenarian (Millenarianism) movements which t…


(1,395 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] For historical reasons, the Caribbean is described as the region that encompasses the archipelago of the greater and lesser Antilles, Belize and the Guyanas. It comprises a surface area of 599, 276 km2. The population numbers 33,791,000. The majority of the population is black or mulatto, stemming from African slaves who mixed with European conquerors. After the arrival of the Spaniards in 1492, “the great death” affected the original inhabitants of the islands, who fell victim to violence o…

Caribbean Conference of Churches

(164 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] (CCC) was founded in 1973 by 18 churches in Kingston, Jamaica. The CCC became the first ecumenical institution in the world, with the Roman Catholic Church as one of its founding members. The other Churches are: the Anglican Church, Baptists, Methodists, Orthodox Churches, Reformed Churches, Lutherans, Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, Presbyterians, and the Salvation Army. The CCC was the result of a process of closer cooperat…

Carissimi, Giacomo

(163 words)

Author(s): Cassaro, James P.
[German Version] (baptized Apr 18, 1605, Marini, died Jan 12, 1674, Rome), Italian composer, the first major composer of oratorios. In 1628, Carissimi was appointed director of music at Assisi, and soon moved on to Rome as director of music at the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, a position he held for life. He was ordained priest in 1637. Among his students were Alessandro Scarlatti and Marc-Antoine Charpentier. Carissimi's most important oratorios include Jephte, Jonas, Baltazar, and ¶ Judicium extremum. In addition, Carissimi composed hundreds of motets, mass…


(1,551 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. Establishment – II. History – III. Current Situation I. Establishment 1. Founders. The notion of caritas as social assistance to those in need deriving from a sense of Christian responsibility has existed as long as the church itself. However, the organizational unification of such efforts beyond the boundaries of the dioceses and without exclusive ties to the socio-charitable religious orders is a modern phenomenon, which did not emerge within Catholicism until…

Carl, Johann Samuel

(205 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1676?; baptized Aug 16, 1677, Öhringen/county of Hohenlohe – Jun 13, 1757, Meldorf/Holstein), doctor and radical pietist. The son of a pharmacist and already influenced by Pietism in his formative years, he became the doctor in his home town after studying medicine in Halle (pupil of Georg Ernst Stahl) and Strasbourg. Deported because of his radical pietistic activities, Carl found positions as ¶ a personal physician at the courts of pietistic high nobility in Büdingen (1708–1728), Berleburg (1728–1736) and Copenhagen (1736–175…


(7 words)

[German Version] Sremski Karlovci

Carlyle, Thomas

(526 words)

Author(s): Erlebach, Peter
[German Version] (Dec 4, 1795, Ecclefechan, Scotland – Feb 5, 1881, London), critic of contemporary civilization and literary figure of tremendous reputation, the most important representative of idealistic (Idealism) thinking of the 19th century in England, influenced by Puritanism (Puritans/Puritanism), who protested against utilitarianism, materialism, the predatory competition of the industrial age and the general lack of intellectual culture in humank…


(510 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The Carmelite Order goes back to a community of occidental hermits on Mount Carmel, who were granted a rule by the patriarch of Jerusalem in 1210. It obligated them to a strict contemplative life. The spirituality of the community, led by a prior, was marked by anachoretic traditions, the example of the prophet Elijah, and veneration of the Virgin Mary. In 1240, the Carmelites fled before the growing threat of the Saracens into their European homelands, where …

Carmel Mission

(91 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Klaus
[German Version] A missionary society founded in 1904 by J. Seitz in Palestine to evangelize German emigrants, Jews, and Muslims. The mission to Muslims soon predominated, and today it characterizes the work of the Carmel Mission. It is based on an evangelically oriented theology of mission: it is active in many countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, in which evangelistic and diaconal missionary programs are implemented. The society's headquarters is in Schondorf, Württemberg (Germany). Klaus Schäfer Bibliography Journal: Mission in der Welt des Islam, 1912ff. (bi-month…

Carmel, Mount

(281 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar
[German Version] (Heb. כַּרְמֶל, “fruit garden, orchard”), limestone and chalk mountain range in northern Palestine, up to 552m high, to the south of the tribe of Asher (Josh 19:26; Tribes of Israel). The OT praises the mountain's beauty (Isa 35:2). In the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce, it is referred to in Egyptian sources as “nose of a gazelle,” and later as “holy head,” probably alluding to a sanctuary. On the Carmel, the Canaanite-Phoenician ¶ god Baal was worshiped, who is equated with Zeus in Ps.-Skylax, Periplus 104 (4th cent. bce), according to Tacitus Hist. 78.3 and Suet. Vesp. 5.6 call…

Carnap, Rudolf

(169 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus
[German Version] (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf – Sep 14, 1970, Santa Monica, CA), a major proponent of the philosophy of logical positivism or empiricism. After studying physics, mathematics, and philosophy (1910–1914), he earned his doctorate from Jena in 1921 with a philosophical dissertation on space. In 1926 he joined the Vienna Circle, a group seeking to use the tools of modern logic to formulate a “scientific world view” based on empiricism. Metaphysics and religion were rejected as empirically untestable and hence meaningless. In 1928 Carnap published his magnum opus, Der logische …


(387 words)

Author(s): Mezger, Werner
[German Version] The word carnival (see also Shrove Tuesday/Mardi Gras) derives from Lat. carnislevamen or carnem levare, “take away meat,” which became vernacular carnevale, carnovale, carnaval, and carnival. A simplified popular etymology derives it from Ital. carne vale, “farewell, meat.” The German equivalent is Fastnacht. It is a celebration preceding the 40-day pre-Easter fast (Fasting: III) that begins on Ash Wednesday, during which consumption of meat and dairy products was forbidden. Pre-Reformation and Counter-Refo…

Caroline Divines

(549 words)

Author(s): Bray, Gerald
[German Version] A group of anti-Puritan/anti-Calvinist theologians from the 17th century. The name is derived from Charles I of England. Its most prominent representatives were L. Andrewes, W. Laud, and Jeremy Taylor. The anti-Calvinist movement in the Church of England possibly began with a sermon held by the then bishop of London, R. Bancroft, on Feb 9, 1589 at Paul's Cross in front of St. Paul's Cathedral. In this sermon, Bancroft lashed out at the Puritans and claimed that the bishops of the Church of England could legitimate their position and authority on the basis of divine right ( iu…


(1,529 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] I. History – II. Carolingian Reforms (Church and Educational Reform) – III. Carolingian Art I. History This family, named, since the 12th century, after its most important representative, Charlemagne, stems from the Maas-Mosel region. The first known Carolingian was bishop Arnulf of Metz (died 640), venerated as a saint. His contemporary was Pippin the Elder (died 640), the majordomo of the king of Austrasia in 624/625. His daughter Begga married Arnulf's son, Ansegisel. The …

Carpaccio, Vittore

(211 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1465, Venice – 1525 or 1526, Venice). With G. Bellini, the Italian painter Vittore Carpaccio was a dominant figure in Venetian painting between 1490 and 1510. In 1511 he called himself pittore di stato. The nucleus of his work consists of cycles for the assembly rooms of several Venetian confraternities. The large-scale canvasses incorporate vivid details of everyday life but also the concern of the republic and its leading families in the face of the danger posed by the Turks. In 1490 Car…

Carpentier, Alejo

(226 words)

Author(s): Hagel, Doris
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1904, Havanna – Apr 24, 1980, Paris), a major 20th-century novelist and musicologist of Franco-Russian extraction. His oeuvre consists of several essays, novellas and six novels, and may be seen as a historiography of European culture in the Ibero-American context, as well as of its decline in the wake of the liberation movements of the 18th and 19th centuries. It is dominated by political themes such as the revolution, its lack of authe…

Carpocrates and Carpocratians

(294 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] The origins of the Christian Gnostic community (Gnosis/Gnosticism: II, 2) of the Carpocratians reach back before 150 ce. According to Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. III 5.2f.), it was founded by Epiphanes son of Carpocrates, who died at the age of 17 and was allegedly venerated as a god in Same on the island of Cephallenia. In his work De iustitia (CPG 1123), Epiphanes understood justice as an original equality of all, polemicized against the lawgiver, and advocated a community of goods and women (Clem. Strom. III 5.1–11. 2). According to the teaching of th…

Carpov, Jakob

(151 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1699, Goslar – Jun 6, 1768, Weimar) gained his M.A. in Jena in 1725, became a Gymnasium teacher in 1737, becoming director in Weimar in 1745. The first of the theological Wolffians (C. Wolff) to do so, Carpov developed his entire dogmatics in a strictly mathematical and demonstrative manner. While in material respects he held fast to orthodox doctrine by explicitly confessing the symbolic books, he wanted to assure the academic standing of theology by applying the methodus scientifica. With the aid of a rational theory of revelation, he sought…

Carpus, Papylus, and Agathonice

(178 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (feast: Apr 13); Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 15.48 relates that the hypomnemata of the martyrdom of these two clergymen and of Agathonice, the sister of Papylus, were still extant in Pergamon. The rich and divergent hagiological tradition, which includes an epic version, attributes various origins and ecclesial ranks to the martyrs and emphasizes that it was the woman who urged the others to accept martyrdom. According to Eusebius, their martyrdom took place in the reign …


(518 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Brigitte
[German Version] An extraordinarily influential academic family of jurists active primarily in Saxony between 1550 and 1800 1. Benedikt I (Oct 22, 1565 – Nov 26, 1624), jurist; 1592 University of Wittenberg, 1594 chancellor in Reinstein/Blankenburg, 1602 in Colditz/Dresden, and counselor at the Dresden court of appeal. His sons: 2. Konrad (Jul 11, 1593 – Feb 12, 1658), jurist; counselor at the Pomeranian court c. 1620, from 1621 assessor at the royal court in Dresden and professor at the University of Wittenberg, 1636 emissary to t…

Carranza de Miranda, Bartolomé

(170 words)

Author(s): Tellechea Idígoras, J. Ignacio
[German Version] (1503, Miranda de Arga – May 2, 1576, Rome), Dominican. In 1546/1547 and 1552/1553, he participated in the Council of Trent (works include: Summa Conciliorum, 1546, repr. 1993; De necessaria residentia episcoporum, 1547, repr. 1993); involved in the Catholic Restoration in England (1554–1557); in 1557, he became archbishop of Toledo. Because of his relationship with J. de Valdés and the – unfounded – suspicion that his Comentarios sobre el Catecismo Cristiano (1558, repr. 1972, new edn 1999) represented a Lutheran understanding of justificati…

Carroll, John

(130 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jan 19, 1736, Upper Marlboro, MD – Mar 12, 1815, Baltimore, MD), Catholic bishop (1789–1808) and archbishop of Baltimore (1808–1815). As the first Catholic bishop in the United States, Carroll was primarily responsible for organizing the Catholic Church and thereby setting the tone for the participation of Catholicism in the post-revolutionary American society. Though Carroll wrote no systematic treatises on the Enlightenment impulses (e.g. repu…

Carr, Thomas

(155 words)

Author(s): Prentis, Malcolm
[German Version] (baptized May 5, 1839, Moylough, County Galway, Ireland – May 6, 1917, Melbourne, Australia), Roman Catholic archbishop. Carr, who came from a landowning family, studied at Maynooth College and was ordained priest in 1866. In 1883, he was appointed bishop of Galway; in 1887, he came to Victoria as archbishop of Melbourne. He strongly fostered Roman Catholic education in his diocese by, for example, supporting a teacher-training college and a univ…


(534 words)

Author(s): Schütt, Hans-Peter
[German Version] a philosophical trend of late 17th and early 18th-century Europe going back to R. Descartes. Initially, the appellation “Cartesians” was applied to those who had known Descartes personally and either adopted some of his teachings or simply disseminated them. These included, in the Netherlands: Cornelius van Hooghelande (c.1590–1676), Heinri Reniersz (latinized as Reneri, c.1593–1639), Henri le Roy (latinized as Regius, 1598–1679), and Adrian Heereboord …


(2,038 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Names – II. Geography – III. History and Society – IV. Religion and Literature I. Names Even though in ancient literary contexts Carthage was occasionally called Tyre, Tarshish, Kaine Polis, Kadmeia, Oinus, Kaccabe, Afrike, and Byrsa, the official name of the city was, nonetheless, always Qrtḍdšt, “New City.” The city was called “New City” to characterize it as an establishment of the “Old City,” Tyre (in Phoenicia). It shared this name with Phoenician settlem…

Carthage, Synod of

(212 words)

Author(s): Drecoll, Volker Henning
[German Version] On May 1, 418, guided by Augustine and Aurelius of Carthage, more than 200 North African bishops meeting in Carthage passed nine canons against Pelagianism (Pelagius; CChr.SL 149, 69–78; DH, 222–230, misnumbered after canon 2). The canons emphasized inherited original sin ( originale peccatum) on the basis of Rom 5:12, infant baptism (cc. 1–3), grace as the infusion of love (not simply forgiveness, revelation, or relief; cc. 4–6), and the impossibility of a sinless life (canons 7–9). The bishops were reacting…


(559 words)

Author(s): Hogg, James
[German Version] The strictly ascetic and contemplative Carthusian order traces its origins to Bruno the Carthusian, who in 1084 joined with six like-minded companions to establish a monastic community of hermits at Cartusia (La Chartreuse), in the mountains near Grenoble. An order came into being in 1127, when Guigo I, the fifth prior of La Chartreuse, composed a customary ( Consuetudines monasticae ) for the handful of Carthusian communities. The customary, which called for a harmonious blend of eremitic and cenobitic life, w…

Cartwright, Thomas

(305 words)

Author(s): Sheils, William Joseph
[German Version] (c. 1535, Hertfordshire – Dec 27, 1603, Warwick) was the leading intellectual figure of English Presbyterianism (Presbyterians) in the reign of Elizabeth I. In 1570, he became professor of divinity at Cambridge University. His lectures on Acts, in which he expressed presbyterian views on church order, aroused opposition from the authorities. He was dismissed from his post and retired to Geneva. He returned in 1572. His support for Puritan petitions …

Caryophylles, John

(160 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1600, Karyai, Thracia – after 1693, Bucharest), an Orthodox lay theologian, Grand Logothet of the Ecumenical patriarchate (1676–1691), student of the Aristotelian Theophilos Korydaleus, and teacher. Since Caryophylles belonged to the circle surrounding Patriarch Cyril Lucaris, who was suspected of Calvinism, he also was subject to the same suspicion for more than a decade, primarily because, owing to his conservative rejection of a mixture of philosophy and theology and a more spiritual doctrine of the Eucharist ¶ preserving its mystery, he was unwillin…

Casaubonus, Isaac

(177 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1559, Geneva – Jul 12, 1614, London). After study at the Geneva Academy, this son of a Huguenot pastor became professor of Greek there in 1583. He taught in Montpellier (1596–1599) but was called to Paris in 1600 by Henry IV. As royal commissioner he took part in the disputation between P. Duplessis-Mornay and Cardinal Duperron, in which he spoke for the latter, earning him the mistrust of his fellow believers. In 1610 he answered a call…

Caselius, Johannes

(134 words)

Author(s): Mager, Inge
[German Version] (v. Kessel; May 18, 1533, Göttingen – Apr 9, 1613, Helmstedt) came from a Dutch family of refugees. He studied in Wittenberg and Leipzig from 1551 onward, became professor of rhetoric and princely tutor in the service of Mecklenburg in 1563, and earned his doctorate in law in Pisa in 1566. Having no strict confessional attachment, Caselius accepted an appointment as professor of philosophy, rhetoric and ethics at the University of Helmstedt in 1589, whe…

Casel, Odo

(376 words)

Author(s): Schilson, Arno
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1886, Koblenz-Lützel – Mar 28, 1948, Herstelle/Weser), important specialist in Catholic liturgy who, through his mystery theology, left a lasting impression on the Liturgical Movement in Germany as well as on the renewal of Catholic theology in the 20th century. In 1905 he became a Benedictine in the abbey Maria Laach; in 1912 earned his Dr. Theol. in Rome and in 1919 Dr. Phil. in Bonn. From 1921 he was editor of the internationally and interdisciplinarily respected Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft (15 vols., 1921–1941, repr. 1973–1979, index vol. …

Case, Shirley Jackson

(122 words)

Author(s): Baird, William
[German Version] (Sep 28, 1872, New Brunswick, Canada – Dec 5, 1947, Lakeland, FL), New Testament scholar and historian of early Christianity. With a doctorate from Yale (Ph.D. 1907), Case was professor of New Testament and patristics (1908–1938) and dean of the Divinity School (1933–1938) at the University of Chicago. Along with Shailer Mathews (1863–1941), Case is recognized as the major representative of the Chicago School. Employing the socio-historical method, Case made important contributions the understanding of Christian origins ( The Evolution of Early Christianity, 19…

Case, William

(153 words)

Author(s): Goodwin, Daniel
[German Version] (Aug 27, 1780, Swansea Township, MA – Oct 19, 1855, Alderville, Upper Canada), Methodist minister of English descent, who experienced his “rebirth” in 1803. Two years later, the Methodist Epis¶ copal Church appointed him as an itinerant preacher in Upper Canada. He was ordained in 1807. Case participated in the “Canada Fire,” an experientially oriented revival, which later spread to New York and beyond. He was also a missionary to the Mississauga Indians. In Upper Canada, he mediate…

Cassander, Georg

(228 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1513, Pitthem near Bruges – Feb 3, 1566, Cologne), humanist Catholic mediation theologian. He studied in Leuven, Cologne, and Heidelberg and, as a follower of Erasmus, worked literarily and politically, in the spirit of a via media, for reform and the recovery of church unity. His irenic document supporting unity, De officio pii ac publicae tranquillitatis vere amantis viri in hoc religionis dissidio (1561), appeared at the Colloquy of Poissy in 1561. In terms of content, he appealed to the Early Church and to a liturgy …


(395 words)

Author(s): Gödde, Susanne
[German Version] the daughter of King Priam of Troy and Hecuba. Homer and Ibycus extol her beauty. Wishing to marry her, Othryoneus fought on the side of Troy but was slain (Hom. Il. 13.363–393). Like her twin brother Helenus, she was endowed with oracular powers, which she received from Apollo, whose prophet and priestess she became – a relationship with erotic connotations (albeit often mentioned in the negative). Anticleides (140; FGH 2, B1, frag. 17), however, records that brother and sister were endow…

Cassian, John (Saint)

(395 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (360, Dobruja – 430/435, Marseille). Born in a Christian home, Cassian undertook a pilgrimage to Palestine and Egypt, where for more than a decade he was a student of the monastic fathers. During the Origenistic controversies he left Egypt c. 399/400, went to Constantinople and John Chrysostom, went to Rome after the latter's banishment, and ultimately settled in southern Gaul, where in 415 he founded a monastery and a convent. With his writings, in which he reflected on the experiences of ascetic life, he became the teacher of western monasticism (Benedict, Rule of). In D…


(258 words)

Author(s): Curti, Carmelo
[German Version] (full name: Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus; senator) (c. 485 – c. 588) was born ¶ in Squillace (Calabria). His life can be divided into two parts. The first was characterized by lively political involvement during the reign of the Goths, which put him into the highest offices ( quaestor, consul, and magister officiorum under Theodoric, praefectus praetorio under Athalaric). In the second, beginning with his withdrawal from active politics c. 537 and return to his homeland, he devoted himself to study and meditation, and founded a monastery in Vivario, Calabria. Hi…

Cassirer, Ernst

(373 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] (Jul 28, 1874, Breslau – Apr 13, 1945, New York), German philosopher and a student of the Marburg Neo-Kantians H. Cohen and P. Natorp (Neo-Kantianism). In 1919, he accepted an appointment as professor at the newly founded University of Hamburg, but emigrated in March 1993 (England, Sweden). As a Swedish citizen, he was visiting professor at Yale and New York from 1941 onward. Cassirer's oeuvre is dedicated to the ideals of humanism and the…

Castaneda, Carlos

(267 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1931, São Paulo, Brazil, or Dec 25, 1925, Cajamarca, Peru – Apr 27, 1998, Westwood, CA), cultural anthropologist, writer, and father of the American New Age movement – emigrated to the USA in 1951. Little is known of his background and life; throughout his lifetime he shunned publicity. He studied anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles, receiving his Ph.D. in 1973. In 1968 he published his first work, the novel The Teachings of Don Juan; it and the nine works that followed became best-sellers. They dealt with dreams, rites…


(1,741 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Jeyaraj, Daniel | Forrester, Duncan
[German Version] I. India – II. Caste and Christianity (in History) – III. Missiology I. India “Caste” (from Port. casta, “pure, unadulterated, chaste”) is the term used to denote Indian social groups based on criteria of consanguinity and, in part, fictional genealogy; they are distinguished by common occupations, names, and traditions, especially norms governing marriage and diet (Dietary laws: VIII). Traditional Hindu society adopts a hierarchic model of four classes (Skt. varṇa, often mislabeled “castes”) (Hinduism: III, 2). Castes are charact…
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