Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

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Castellio, Sebastian

(252 words)

Author(s): Feld, Helmut
[German Version] (Châteillon; 1515, Saint-Martin-du-Fresne, Savoy – Dec 29, 1563, Basel). After studying at Lyon, c. 1540 Castellio came to Strasbourg, where he made friends with Calvin. In 1540 the Reformer found him an appointment in Geneva as headmaster of the Collège de la Rive, where he wrote the Dialogi sacri, a textbook for Latin instruction, and began work on a new translation of the Bible into Latin and French. Differences over Christ's descent into hell and the Song of Songs led to conflict with Calvin. In …

Castellum

(6 words)

[German Version] Fortresses

Castor, Saint

(112 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Saint's day: Feb 13). According to a vita from the High Middle Ages, Castor came from Aquitania and was a contemporary of Bishop Maximinus of Trier (died 346). He became priest and lived as a recluse in Karden (Mosel), where his remains were discovered under Bishop Weomad (died 791) and interred in the nearby Paulinus Church (renamed after Castor in ¶ the 10th/11th cent.); in 836, Archbishop Hetti (died 847) transferred some of them to the collegiate church built by him in Koblenz. Franz Xaver Bischof Bibliography ActaSS Febr. II, 1658, 662–666 MGH.SS II, 1829, 603 F. Pauly…

Castro, Matheus de

(296 words)

Author(s): De Souza, Teotonio R.
[German Version] (Matteo di; c. 1594, Divar – 1677, Rome), the first Indian bishop of the Catholic Church, born to the Mahale brahmin family of Divar, across from the city of Goa. The admission of Indians to the clerical ranks was at that time very rare as a result of colonial politics. Matteo de Castro's wish to join the Franciscans was not given any attention. In the company of some Carmelites he came to Rome in 1625. The secretary of the newly established Propaganda…

Casuistry

(1,832 words)

Author(s): Beck, Herman L. | Herrmann, Klaus | Molinski, Waldemar | Herms, Eilert | Krawietz, Birgit
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Judaism – III. Christianity – IV. Islam I. Religious Studies Casuistry (from Lat. casus, “case”) is a method of practical and dialectical reasoning and argumentation in which the formulation of a specific case that is perceived to be problematic is followed by the application of general moral principles, norms, and guidelines to the specific case at hand. The purpose of this method is to arrive, under changed and changing circumstan…

Catabasis

(159 words)

Author(s): Haase, Mareile
[German Version] – Greek κατάβασις (εἰς ῾Αιδου)/ katábasis ( eís Háidou), Lat. descensus/descensio ( ad inferos), descent (to the underworld; cf. also Descent into hell) – is the classical term for elements of certain myths, especially involving Odysseus (not explained in Hom Od. 11, ¶ but cf. 23.252: κατέβην/ katébēn) and Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 6; Hereafter, Concepts of the), as well as Orpheus, Heracles, and Theseus. It is also an element of some divination rituals (oracle of Trophonius: Pausanias 9.39). The reference to pictorial repr…

Catacombs

(2,213 words)

Author(s): Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle
[German Version] I. Jewish Catacombs – II. Christian Catacombs I. Jewish Catacombs 1. In the Second Temple period, Jerusalem was surrounded by an important necropolis composed of both monumental tombs with decorated facades and simple graves; most of them lay to the east, south and north of the city, in the Qidron valley, between the Temple Mount and the Mount of Olives. The earliest is the tomb of the “Bene Chesir,” attributed to the 1st century bce. A Hebrew inscription on the architrave identifies the memorial as “tomb and nefesh” (literally, “soul,” indicating dedication to …

Catafalque

(116 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] also called tumba (tomb), is a mock coffin shrouded in black cloth that was set up in the church nave in front of the sanctuary. This was done at burial masses at which the coffin containing the body could not be brought into the church. At the end of the mass, farewell was bidden to the deceased through incensing and the sprinkling of the catafalque with holy water (absolution). Since the publication of the post-Vatican II burial rite, the farewell ceremony for the deceased may only be performed in the presence of the actual body. Reiner Kaczynski Bibliography Ordo exsequiaru…

Catechesis and Catechetics

(3,702 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen | Schoberth, Ingrid | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Phan, Peter
[German Version] I. History – II. Practical Theology – III. Latin America, Asia, Africa I. History 1. Early Church. The verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein originally denoted the oral transmission of a message in the sense of “tell, inform.” In Paul and early Christian literature it usually means “teach, instruct” (Gal 6:6; Lat. catechizare); in contrast to glossolalia, it refers to intelligible speech (1 Cor 14:19; Luke 1:4) such as instruction in the law (Rom 2:18) or in the teaching (“the way”) of the Lord (Acts 18:25). In t…

Catechetical Sermon

(271 words)

Author(s): Seitz, Manfred
[German Version] Catechetical preaching is the homiletical exposition of portions of the catechism in the form of a sermon or a series of sermons. Although its precise classification within the homiletical genre is difficult to determine, the catechetical sermon belongs to the category of didactic sermons, which may or may not deal additionally with a biblical text. Its purpose is reinforcement of an already lively faith and the imparting of sound knowledge of its …

Catechism

(3,725 words)

Author(s): Tebartz-van Elst, Franz-Peter | Schulz, Ehrenfried | Hauptmann, Peter | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Catholic Catechisms – III. Orthodox Catechisms – IV. Protestant Catechisms – V. Catechetical Instruction I. Terminology Linguistically and semantically, the word catechism is derived from the Greek verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein, “to echo.” This etymology suggests a semantic connotation, according to which the transmission of the faith is fundamentally seen as a mediation of the content of the faith through personal testimony (cf. the Lat. personare, “to sound through”). Only when used in a transitive sense does κατήχειν acquire the meani…

Catechist

(366 words)

Author(s): Doyé, Götz
[German Version] A vocational designation (derived from the NT verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein, “give information, instruct”; Catechesis: I) for theologically and pedagogically trained coworkers in the service of the church, especially in instructing and attending children, youth, and families. In Switzerland, Poland, and some German states, for example, catechists also work as church- or state-trained schoolteachers of religious education. The function and scope of catechists differs …

Catechumenate

(2,429 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Streck, Danilo | Koschorke, Klaus | Connell, Martin
[German Version] I. General – II. Latin America, Asia and Africa I. General Catechumenate is a term, derived from Gk κατήχειν/ katḗchein as used by Paul (e.g. Gal 6:6), for the institution through which the church, with reference to baptism, forges the necessary link between Christian faith and learning. It is found, after precursors in the scholarly Latin of the 16th and 17th centuries, in the early 19th century as a term for Early Church instruction, but it then quickly became the designation for programs of catechesis and church reform (Henkys). 1. Early Church baptismal catechu…

Categorical Imperative

(704 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] According to I. Kant, the categorical imperative stands for the unconditionally valid moral commandment to heed the general appropriateness of one's actions: “Act only according to that maxim that you could also want to become a universal law” ( Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten [1785], Akademie-Ausgabe [AA] IV, 421; ET: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 1997). As early as the 1760s, Kant had already put forward the idea (crucial for his ethics of autonomy) that the free will of a rational being is subject only …

Category

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Enskat, Rainer
[German Version] I. is a technical term introduced by Aristotle from the border area between grammar, semantics and ontology; it refers to a key aspect under which something that exists can be meaningfully discussed by means of a predicative statement. In textbook form, Aristotle distinguished the category of substance from, at most, nine other categories, linked with explanatory exemplifications: the what, the how large, the kind of nature, t…

Catena

(324 words)

Author(s): Hagedorn, Dieter
[German Version] From the 6th century onward, in the areas dominated by the Greek Church (and later also in some of the Eastern Churches), selected excerpts from existing Bible commentaries and other works of distinguished authors were joined together to form new commentaries on the books of the NT and OT; since the Middle Ages, it has become customary to refer to these compilations as catenae. Procopius of Gaza played a major role in the development of the genre, which may have originally been inspired from the scholia (Scholium) on the …

Cathari

(582 words)

Author(s): Müller, Daniela
[German Version] The term Cathari (from Gk καϑαροί/ katharoí, “pure ones,” hence Ital. Gazari, Ger. Ketzer), first attested in 1163, was hardly used in the Middle Ages; only in the 19th century did it become the usual name for the largest group deviating from the Roman Church. The Cathari of southern France are also called Albigenses. Known to their enemies simply as haeretici, they called themselves “good Christians.” They are to be viewed against the background of the lay movements concerned primarily with poverty, preaching, and cri…

Catharsis,

(288 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias
[German Version] the Greek term for “purification,” was employed systematically in Aristotle's poetics ( Poet. 6): by producing pity ( éleos) and fear (   phóbos) in the observer, the action portrayed leads to purification ( kátharsis) from these affects. This assertion reflects the notion that the objectification of besetting emotions makes them manageable, as it were. Similar ideas lie behind the theology and practice of confession, although in the Middle Ages (and in Catholicism still today) they have been…

Cathedral

(185 words)

Author(s): Nicolai, Bernd
[German Version] A cathedral is the main church of a bishop or archbishop ( ecclesia cathedralis); the term is derived from the bishop's seat (cathedra). In the German-speaking area, cathedrals are also called Dom or Münster (minster), although they are not necessarily linked to an episcopal see. Originally, the bishop and canons lived at the cathedral; later, they usually lived in separate buildings on either side (Paris, Reims, Naumburg). The architectural prototype since 312/313 has been the Lateran basili…

Cathedral Chapter

(293 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Heribert
[German Version] A cathedral chapter is a college of priests (known as capitulars) which is attached to a cathedral or collegiate church and assumes the responsibility for the celebration of the solemn liturgies; it is also expected to carry out the tasks assigned to it by canon law or the diocesan bishop ( CIC/1983, c. 503). The cathedral chapters constituted from the clergy (Clergy and laity) of the bishops' churches (Canons) evolved into collegiate bodies with their own legal competence and statutory autonomy, as well as into major insti…

Cathedral Schools

(471 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] were educational originally institutions for training clergy, administered by the episcopal curia. In the Early Church, learned bishops (preeminently Augustine) already gave instruction to their clergy. From the second Council of Toledo (527/531) onward, the Church repeatedly urged the establishment of episcopal schools; in 789, they were ¶ enjoined by Charlemagne, and in 1076 by Gregory VII. Nevertheless, down to the Reformation numerous councils deplored the educational level of the clergy – a sign of the great dispari…

Catherine II,

(143 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] “the Great,” tsarina of Russia (1762–1796; born princess of Anhalt-Zerbst, Apr 21, 1729, ¶ Stettin, died Nov 6, 1796, Carskoe Selo); on her marriage to Peter III (1761–1762), she converted to the Orthodox Church. As a representative of an enlightened absolutism, she practiced religious tolerance so long as state interests were not affected. In the acquired territories of Poland, Courland, the Crimea, and the Black Sea region, both Christian and non-Christian faith co…

Catherine of Alexandria (Saint)

(362 words)

Author(s): Brackmann, Heinzgerd
[German Version] (actually, Αἰκατερίνα/Aikaterína, not Αεικαθαρίνα/Aeikatherína, “forever pure,” a popular etymology) is venerated in the East and West as an early Christian virgin martyr; her historicity is uncertain. Identification of Catherine with an anonymous woman described by Eusebius ( Hist. eccl. VIII 14; par. Rufinus, Hist. VIII 17: Dorothea) or Hypatia of Alexandria remains hypothetical. There is evidence of a regional veneration of Catherine beginning in the first half of the 8th century. The most famous center o…

Catherine of Genoa (Saint)

(205 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (C. Fieschi; 1447, Genoa – Sep 15, 1519, Genoa), a member of the Genoese higher nobility. At the age of 16, she was married to Giuliano Adorno. After living a worldly life for five years, she experienced a spiritual crisis. During the following years, she lived so ascetically that for a long time she did not eat; the Eucharist was sufficient for her survival. She devoted herself to the care of the sick and of abandoned children. Her husband was c…

Catherine of Siena (Saint)

(219 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (c. 1347, Siena – Apr 29, 1380, Rome) was the youngest daughter of a cloth-dyer. She resolutely refused to marry in accordance with her parents' plans and, on reaching the age of 17 or 18, she became a Dominican tertiary (Tertiaries). She was well known in the town for her strict ascetic practices and for her charitable actions. A group of men and women gathered around her, forming a sort of family and calling Catherine their mother. In 1374, …

Catholic Action

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter | Rambo, Arthur B.
[German Version] I. General – II. Latin America I. General Catholic Action is a general term denoting the corporate involvement of Catholic laity in the church and the world. In the context of 19th-century liberation movements, there emerged various Catholic associations, largely independent of the hierarchical structure of the church, that made the voice of Catholics heard on social and political questions – for example Americanism in the USA, the Sillon in France, th…

Catholic Action (Canada)

(325 words)

Author(s): Perin, Roberto
[German Version] A disparate phenomenon with different regional, cultural, and linguistic expressions, Catholic Action encompasses both traditional devotional societies and newly formed social action ones. In English Canada, the journalist Henry Somerville expounded a social philosophy expounding anti-Communism, labor organization, welfare statism, and religious pluralism. Catholic Action also inspired a regional movement of producers, consumers, and credit coope…

Catholic Apostolic Church

(196 words)

Author(s): Binfield, Clyde
[German Version] The Catholic Apostolic Church was a British denomination, founded in London in 1832, combining Adventism (Adventists), charismatic expression, hierarchical structure, and Catholic liturgy. Although the movement's supporters were nicknamed “Irvingites,” derived from Edward Irving (1792–1834), minister of London's Regent Square Scotch Church, the movement owed most to Henry Drummond (1786–1860), who initiated original meetings to research biblical prophec…

Catholic Emancipation Act

(791 words)

Author(s): Machin, Ian
[German Version] The Catholic Emancipation Act, which became law within the United Kingdom on Apr 13, 1829, was the most important step in the hesitant progress of civil and religious equality for Roman Catholics since c. 1770. The act permit¶ ted duly elected Catholics to sit in the Lower House and become members of the Upper House. At the same time, the act confirmed certain restrictions: a Catholic could not become sovereign, lord chancellor of England or Ireland, or lord lieutenant of Ireland. Catholics could …

Catholic Epistles

(652 words)

Author(s): Lührmann, Dicter
[German Version] I. The term “Catholic Epistles” has been in use at least since the time of Eusebius of Caesarea ( Hist. eccl. II 23, 25) as a designation for the second collection of epistles in the NT canon alongside the Pauline Epistles. According to a 5th-century definition (Leontius of Byzantium, De sectis II, 4), the attribute “Catholic” is meant to indicate that these epistles, unlike those of Paul, are addressed to the whole church rather than to individual congregations. Their compilation into a corpus only began after the …

Catholicism

(7,155 words)

Author(s): Beinert, Wolfgang | Rappel, Simone | Conzemius, Victor | Collet, Giancarlo
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Distribution and Membership Statistics – III. Church History – IV. Missions in Catholicism I. Concept “Catholicism” is generally understood as encompassing the historically conditioned and therefore contingent configurations that have emerged when the basic dogmatic, ethical, and constitutional elements of Roman Catholic Christianity have taken root in concrete societies. More specifically, this can mean (a) theologically the realization in space and time of the Roman Catholic organizational structure, based t…

Catholicity of the Church

(1,699 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd
[German Version] I. The Term and its History – II. Catholicity in the Confessional Traditions – III. Catholicity and Ecumenism – IV. Systematic Perspectives Together with unity (Church unity), holiness (Sacredness and sinfulness), and apostolicity, catholicity is one of the four attributes used by the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed to characterize the church (notae ecclesiae); hence it has become a central concept of ecclesiology. Its meaning, however, is complex. Furthermore, t…

Catholicos

(115 words)

Author(s): Kaufhold, Hubert
[German Version] is the title borne by the heads of the Oriental Orthodox National Churches lying outside the boundaries of the former Roman Empire. It corresponds to the title of “patriarch” and has been employed by the Eastern Syrian Church since the 5th century, whereupon it was adopted by the Armenians, Georgians, Caucasian Albanians, and in part by the Melkites and Indians. The catholicos of the Eastern Syrians and Georgians later assumed the t…

Catholic Social Teaching

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Anzenbacher, Arno
[German Version] I. Assumptions – II. Catholic Social Teaching until Vatican II – III. Catholic Social Teaching since Vatican II – IV. Fundamental Concepts In the narrower sense, Catholic social teaching is the church's social teaching as expressed in texts issued by the teaching office; in the broader sense, it is their development in social ethics as a theological discipline. I. Assumptions The social question of the 19th century demanded of the church a theoretical orientation in addition to charitable engagement. This orientation was…

Cauer, Minna

(180 words)

Author(s): Balzer, Jette K.B.
[German Version] (Nov 1, 1841, Freyenstein/Ostprignitz – Aug 3, 1922, Berlin), women's rights activist. She was a leading representative of the progressive wing of the women's civil rights movement (Feminism and feminist theology), whose central concerns included the attainment of female suffrage. In 1888, she co-founded the Frauenwohl (“Women's Welfare”) association, which became the crystallization point of this movement and the publisher of its organ, Frauenwohl (1893/1894), later published under the title Die Frauenbewegung (The Women's Movement; 1895–1919), …

Causa

(163 words)

Author(s): Saarinen, Risto
[German Version] The Latin word causa is usually understood to denote the causal element of a cause and effect relationship (Causality: I). The Aristotelian system of four causes ( causa efficiens, causa finalis, causa formalis, and causa materialis; Arist. Metaph. I, 3; Phys. II, 3) profoundly influenced theological thought in Scholasticism and Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Causa can also ¶ denote the necessary conditions ( causa sine qua non) for something to take place. – In the expressions causa sui and causa prima, causa functions as a term for God. As causa sui, God is his own ca…

Causality

(3,429 words)

Author(s): Schütt, Hans-Peter | Russell, Robert John | Steiger, Johann Anselm | Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Science – III. Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Philosophy Causality (from Lat. causa, “cause”), also causal nexus, causal relationship, is a term for the characteristic relationship between cause and effect. The things related are generally assumed to be pairs of events (event causality), though in some cases they may be an active thing and an event (agent causality); whether agent causality can be reduced to event causality is disputed. In either ca…

Cavalier, Jean

(150 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1681, Ribaute-les-Tavernes – May 17, 1740, Chelsea). First a shepherd, then a baker's apprentice, Cavalier fled to Geneva in 1701 for faith reasons. Already in the following year, he stepped forward as a “prophet” and military leader of the Camisards who were secretly gathering in the Cévennes for armed resistance. While the counter-measures of the marshal of Montrevel proved ineffective, his successor Villars succeeded in subduing Cava…

Cave Paintings

(8 words)

[German Version] Prehistoric Art

Caves

(7 words)

[German Version] Sacred Sites

Cavour, Camillo Benso di

(498 words)

Author(s): Alberigo, Giuseppe
[German Version] (count; Aug 10, 1810, Turin – Jun 6, 1881, Turin) was the son of a noble Piedmontese family who entered the Accademia militare in 1820 and was introduced at court in 1824. Studies in economics followed. From 1835 onward, he traveled throughout England (showing interest in the Poor Law), France (Paris), Switzerland (Geneva), and Belgium. The year 1829 marked the beginning of a rationalistic crisis that alienated him from reactionary culture and its affiliated circles. He assumed the management of his family'…

Cecilian Feasts

(337 words)

Author(s): Ruff, Anthony
[German Version] are festivals of a musical, cultural, or religious nature held on Nov 22, the feast day of St. Cecilia. The early Christian saint and martyr is known only through unreliable accounts written centuries after her martyrdom, during which (pagan) instruments were played ( cantatibus organis). Beginning in ¶ the late 15th century, she became the patroness of music and of numerous musicians' guilds. In 1570, the association “Le Puy de musique” was founded in Évreux, Normandy. Its festivities included musical performance…

Cecilia, Saint

(216 words)

Author(s): Götz, Roland
[German Version] (saint's day: Nov 22), virgin and martyr. The patroness of a Roman titular church, who gave it its name, was transformed by the legendary Passio (5th/6th cent.) into a 3rd-century patrician lady who took a vow of chastity prior to her wedding and convinced her husband Valerianus to do the same. Having donated her house in order to build a church, she suffered martyrdom by beheading during a persecution. The veneration of Cecilia probably began in the 5th century; the celebrati…

Celan, Paul

(510 words)

Author(s): Weyer-Menkhoff, Stephan
[German Version] (Nov 23, 1920, Czernowitz, now in Ukraine – end of Apr, 1970, Paris, by suicide). Born Paul Ancel, the son of German-speaking parents, for a time he studied medicine and Romance languages and literature. In 1942 he was deported to a labor camp and lived from 1948 until his death in Paris (teaching at the Ecole Normale Supérieure).This Jewish poet set the standards for modern German poetry. He composed his poems exclusively in German and also tran…

Celebrant's Prayer/Chant

(352 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy Historically, the German term Altargesang relates to texts that are sung only by the priest during the mass (celebrant's prayer), and in a broader sense to all sung parts of the liturgy that are led by a celebrant: collects, verses, litanies, Gospel and Epistle readings, responses between choir and congregation, blessings as well as the intoning of the Kyrie, the Gloria and the Creed. The churches of ¶ the Reformation added new compositions for the choir and the congregation. Luther's Deutsche Messe (1526) as a psalm or a hymn as I…

Celebret

(94 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the Catholic Church, this is a letter of recommendation by a priest's own ordinary (Incardination) or superior for admission by the church rector of a different church to celebrate the Eucharist there. A celebret may not be more than a year old (cf. c. 903 CIC/1983; c. 703 CCEO) and is intended to prevent unsanctioned celebrations (cf. c. 1378 § 2, 1° CIC/1983; c. 1443 CCEO). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography K. Lüdicke, MKCIC, canon 903 (as of Nov 1989) E. Miragoli, “Il celebret,” Quaderni di diritto ecclesiale 7, 1994, 435–442.

Celestine III, Pope

(153 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1191 – Jan 8, 1198). Born in Rome around 1105/1106, Celestine (Giacinto [Hyacinthus] Bobone [later Orsini]) studied in Paris under Peter Abelard (c. 1130) and defended him against the accusations brought forward by Bernard of Clairvaux at the Synod of Sens (1140). In 1143/1144, Celestine II appointed him cardinal-deacon at the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. In the following years, he undertook several journeys as a papal legate (esp. to Spain) and…

Celestine I, Pope

(122 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] (422–432). As the successor of Boniface I, Celestine attempted to consolidate the Roman primacy, but he encountered the resistance of the West African bishops. Moreover, he opposed Pelagianism (Pelagius) and from 430 Nestorius; the majority of his correspondence relates to this conflict. ¶ Eventually, he sent Germanus of Auxerre in 429 and “the Celtic bishop” Palladius in 431 to England and Ireland for the anti-Pelagian mission. Christoph Markschies Bibliography CPL 1650–1654 PL 50, 417–558 ACO I/1/7, 125–137; I/2/5, 5–101 On Celestine: E. Caspar, Geschichte des…

Celestines

(316 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Pietro del Morrone (later Pope Celestine V) founded the male branch (Hermits of St. Damian, Fratres de Spiritu Sancto, Coelestini, OSBCoel) between 1240 and 1243 as a strictly ascetic monastic community following the Rule of Benedict (supplemented with Constitutions). It was confirmed by pope Urban IV in 1263 and spread quickly in Italy and, after 1300, in France; with a few monasteries also in Spain, Belgium, and Germany (Oybin near Zittau, Prague, …

Celestine V, Pope

(260 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (Jul 5 – Dec 13, 1294). Celestine (Pietro of Morrone, born 1209/1210 Molise) lived as a hermit at Monte Morrone near Sulmona, then in the Maiella mountains, where he developed the hermit congregation of the Celestines within Benedictine monasticism on the Cistercian model with a general abbot and chapters. He had contacts with Franciscan spirituals and affinities with the eschatological speculations of Joachim of Fiore. After the death of Nicholas IV an…
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