Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see

Cajetan, Thomas de Vio

(305 words)

Author(s): Wicks, Jared
[German Version] (Giacomo de Vio; Feb 20, 1469, Gaeta – Aug 10, 1534, Rome). When Cajetan joined the order of the Dominicans in 1484, he assumed the name Thomas, but was later called “Caietanus” after his place of birth. In Padua in 1494 he defended Thomistic positions against Duns Scotus and the Averroists (Averroism). After treatises on being, essence and analogy, Cajetan's commentary on Aristotle’ De anima (1509) questioned philosophical arguments for the immortality of the soul, while regarding it as revealed – leading some to link Cajetan wi…


(201 words)

Author(s): Schetelich, Maria
[German Version] (Sanskrit “wheel”), in Indian religions, describes dynamic movement and energy in many different forms as well as the self-containment of a system or circle. Thus in Buddhism and Jainism the dharma cakra (Dharma) symbolizes the spread of teachings. In Hinduism cakra is one of the attributes of Viṣṇu as world ruler. Kuṇḍalinī-yoga defines the seven overlapping energy centers in the human body as cakras which have to be set in motion by means of yoga exercises, in order to activate the functions of life and, as energy rises from the lowest to the uppermost cakra, to bring ab…


(191 words)

Author(s): Schetelich, Maria
[German Version] (Sanskrit “wheel-mover”), in all Indian religions a term for the world-conqueror. A cakravartin is marked out as an extraordinary person by marks on his body. His attributes are a wheel and insignia of dominion. He is victorious by virtue of his behavior or his just teaching. The difference between the cakravartin concept in Hinduism and Buddhism/ Jainism lies in the goal of world dominion. In Hinduism the cakravartin removes the disruption of the world by demons and antigods; his central power base is formed by dharma and truth. The embodiment of cakravartin here is …

Calamy, Edmund

(168 words)

Author(s): Watts, Michael R.
[German Version] (Apr 5, 1671, London – Jun 3, 1732, London), nonconformist minister and biographer, and son and grandson of nonconformist ministers of the same name (Dissenters). Following the restoration of the Stuarts and the reinstallation of Charles II to the English throne (1660) English and Welsh clergymen were required by the Act of Uniformity of 1662 to give the Anglican Book of Common Prayer their “unfeigned assent.” The first two Edmund Calamys were among the 2029 clergy and lecturers who were deprived of their posts r…


(148 words)

Author(s): Enders, Markus
[German Version] (Chalcidius), Christian philosopher, whose dates are disputed. Either in the first half or at the end of the 4th century, he composed a Latin translation of the first, cosmological section of Plato's Timaios 17A–53C and a corresponding commentary, in which – with reference to Middle Platonic sources in particular (Numenius) – he drew up a hierarchy of metaphysical entities in which divine Providence was identified with divine Will and Reason and made superior to Fate, which rules all things, including the world soul, though humans, gifted with reason, do not nec¶ essari…

Calderón de la Barca, Pedro

(540 words)

Author(s): Geisler, Eberhard
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1600, Madrid – May 25, 1681, Madrid). Calderón, along with Lope de Vega, is considered the most important Spanish dramatist of the 17th century. Appointed court dramatist in 1635 and ordained priest in 1651, he composed cloak-and-dagger pieces (concerned primarily with the theme of honor), historical, philosophical, mythological, and religious dramas, as well as Corpus Christi pieces ( Autos sacramentales). In what is probably his best-known work, Life is a Dream (1636), the Jesuit student engages the question of the relationship betwe…


(8 words)

[German Version] Tribes of Israel


(3,500 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Meßner, Reinhard | Gerö, Stephen | Nagel, Tilman | Et al.
[German Version] I. General – II. Jewish Calendar – III. Christian Calendar – IV. Islamic Calendar – V. Liturgical Calendar I. General 1. The term calendar derives from the Roman “calendae,” the day on which a new month was proclaimed. It designates the structuring and hence the consequent mediation of time, i.e. records in pictorial and literary media to communicate structures of time. Calendars are concrete translations of chronologies. The performance of activities to be collectiv…

Caligula, Gaius

(238 words)

Author(s): Klein, Richard
[German Version] (Aug 31, 12 ce, Antium – Jan 24, 41, Rome), Roman emperor from 37 to 41 ce. The son of Germanicus and Augustus's granddaughter Agrippina, who received the nickname “Caligula” (soldier's boot) in his father's camp and grew up, following the early death of his parents, at the court of Tiberius, was quickly named Caesar by the people, the army and the Senate after Tiberius's death. After initial reticence, the young ruler, characterized by repeated illnesses, trans…


(589 words)

Author(s): Busse, Heribert
[German Version] Arabic ḫalīfa (“successor” or “deputy”), the leader of the Islamic community (Arab. umma) among the Sunnis (Sunna/Sunnis), and to a degree also among the Shiaites (Šīaa/Shiaites; see also →Islam: II). As prophet (Prophets and prophecy: V), Mu˙ammad could have no successor, for he was the last prophet, the “seal” of the prophets; he could, however, be succeeded as the leader of the community. After the four “rightly-guided caliphs” ( al-ḫulafā' ar-rāšidūn) Abū Bakr, aUmar, aUtmān and aAlī, the Umayyads came to power in Damascus (III) in 661, f…

Calixtus, Georg

(544 words)

Author(s): Mager, Inge
[German Version] (Dec 14, 1586, Medelby, Schleswig – Mar 19, 1656, Helmstedt). The son of the country clergyman Johannes Callisen, a Lutheran controversial theologian, irenicist and adherent of the early Enlightenment, Calixtus spoke out in favor of an ecumenical Christianity. Having grown up without the Formula of Concord or the notion of ubiquity (Omnipresence), he came to Helmstedt in 1603 as a student shaped by the ideas of Melanchthon. Calixtus acquired his knowledge ¶ of theology as an autodidact under the influence of J. Caselius and C. Martini. After receiving his Magister (16…

Callaway, Henry

(162 words)

Author(s): Hexham, Irving
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1817, Lymington, Somerset – Mar 26, 1890, Ottery St Mary, Devon, England), doctor and missionary in South Africa (1855–1886), pioneer in the study of religion, folklore, and linguistics in South Africa. An agnostic, he joined the Quakers in 1837, studied medicine in Aberdeen, Scotland, and converted to Anglicanism in 1853. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts overlooked his lack of theological training an…

Callenberg, Johann Heinrich

(220 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1694, Molschleben near Gotha – Jul 16, 1760, Halle on the Saale). From humble origins, Callenberg was given a pietistic upbringing at the Gotha Gymnasium under G. Vockerodt. He began studying oriental languages and theology at Halle on the Saale in 1715. In the 1720s, he was commissioned by A.H. Francke to author a multivolume church history, in which he gave particular attention to the historical background of Pietism (manuscript…


(605 words)

Author(s): Lauer, Uta
[German Version] I. East Asian Calligraphy – II. Islamic Calligraphy (Greek, English “beautiful writing”) refers to the art of lettering or to the work of artistic lettering produced according to aesthetic and artistic principles, particularly well-developed in East Asia and Islamic culture. I. East Asian Calligraphy In China, calligraphy has long been numbered among the six free arts. An elastic brush is the writing tool. In addition to silk, paper has been used to write on since the 2nd century bce. Indian ink or a similar pigment was already in use in the Shang…


(3,654 words)

Author(s): Hjelde, Sigurd | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Wilhelm Horn, Friedrich | Sparn, Walter | Martin Müller, Hans
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The term calling or “call” refers to a person's experience of being grasped by a divine or other superhuman power and being taken into its service. The concept thus relates closely to that of election; at the same time, a calling can be seen as a kind of initiation that can precede or follow a longer period of instruction and maturation. The early…

Callistus I

(308 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg
[German Version] (217–222), bishop of Rome. His life and teachings are known almost exclusively from the portrayal by his competitor and opponent Hippolytus ( Haer. 9.11f.; 10.27), who depicts him as a social climber and careerist. Born a slave, Callistus was entrusted with the banking affairs of his Christian master. A conflict with Roman Jews (debtors?) led to his condemnation as a Christian and to forced labor in the Sardinian mines. After a pardon, manumission, and a decade-long sojourn in …

Callistus III, Pope

(250 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1455 – Aug 6, 1458). Alfonso De Borja [Borgia] born Dec 31, 1378 at Canals, near Játiva, Valencia. Callistus studied and taught civil and canon law at Lérida (Llerda/Lleida). He entered the service of Alfonso V of Aragon and in 1429 persuaded Pope Clement VIII to abdicate. He was then made bishop of Valencia by Pope Martin V. In 1444 he was made cardinal priest of SS. Quattro Coronati in Rome; on Apr 8, 1455, he was elected pope. One of h…

Callistus II, Pope

(185 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1119 – Dec 13, 1124), birth name Guido, son of the count of Burgundy. As archbishop of Vienne (from 1088), he competed with Arles in his efforts to justify a primatial see for Vienne, a status he confirmed as pope. In 1112 a council convened in Vienne to oppose the right of investiture which the German Emperor Henry V had extorted from Paschal II in 1111. Owing to this conflict, the diplomatically skilled Callistus was elected pope follow…

Callistus I of Constantinople

(244 words)

Author(s): Nikolaou, Theodor
[German Version] , patriarch (born end 13th cent. – died 1363/1364, Serrhai) was a dis¶ ciple of Gregory Sinaites and lived, at least from 1314 onward, as a monk (from c. 1335 as a clerical monk) in the Magoula skete monastery, and from 1342 (?) until 1350 in the Iviron monastery on Mount Athos. As a hesychast (Hesychasm) and a companion of G. Palamas, he signed the Tomos Hagioreitikos in 1340. During the civil war of 1342, Callistus was a member of the peace embassy. Elected patriarch in June 1350, he presided over the synod of 1351 (against the a…

Calovius, Abraham

(668 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg
[German Version] (Kalau; Apr 16, 1612, Mohrungen – Feb 25, 1686, Wittenberg) began his philosophical and theological studies in Königsberg in 1626, and continued them in Rostock from 1634 to 1637. In 1640 he became professor extraordinarius in Königsberg, and in 1643 rector and pastor in Danzig. In 1650 he became professor ordinarius in Wittenberg. He was married six times and fathered 13 children (who all died before 1685). Funeral sermon by J.F. Mayer. As the “second Athanasius” (Mayer), Calovius stood for the integrity of the Lutheran church and theology. He…


(787 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland | Arnulf, Arwed | Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Name – II. Art and Liturgy – III. Roman Catholic Congregations I. Name The Greek interpretation of the Aramaic Golgotha as Κρανίου Τόπος/ Kraniou Topos, “Skull Place” (Matt 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17; cf. Luke 23:32), is rendered almost uniformly in the Latin versions (Old Latin, Vulgate) as c alvariae locus. The Latin form gave rise to “Calvary” and similar terms in other European languages. It is based on the Latin noun calvaria, “cranium, skull,” which makes its first appearance in the middle of the 1st century ce in medical works (Aurelius Cornelius Celsus,…


(1,241 words)

Author(s): Gerrish, B.A.
[German Version] I. Term – II. The Establishment of Orthodoxy – III. The Revision of Orthodoxy I. Term The word Calvinism was coined in the 16th century by Lutherans who feared the intrusion of Calvin's ideas, especially on the Eucharist (III, 1.b), into Germany. In time, it acquired several meanings: It may refer to the theological system of Calvin himself or to the theology of his pupils from the 16th century to the present; the adjective “Calvinist” is often used interchangeably…

Calvin, John

(10,728 words)

Author(s): Gerrish, B.A.
[German Version] (Jean Cauvin, Jul 10, 1509, Noyon – May 27, 1564, Geneva) I. Life and Work – II. Theology – III. Impact I. Life and Work 1. Development as a Reformer a. Childhood and youth. Calvin's biography until his first stay in Geneva is only partially known (autobiographical foreword to the Commentarius in librum Psalmorum, Geneva 1557). His father, Gérard Cauvin, was a notary in the service of the cathedral chapter of Noyon. In 1521, Calvin received the tonsure and the income from a benefice sine cura to provide for his education. Probably in 1523, during an outbr…

Calvisius, Seth

(223 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1556, Gorsleben, Thüringen – Nov 24, 1615, Leipzig) attended school in Frankenhausen (1569) and Magdeburg (1572), where he may have been a student of Gallus Dressler. He attended the Universities of Helmstedt (1579) and Leipzig (1580). In 1581, he became cantor at the University Church in Leipzig; in 1582, cantor and Hebrew teacher in the Princes' School in Pforta; in 1594, Thomas cantor in Leipzig. The significance of this office is due…


(470 words)

Author(s): Merz, Birgit
[German Version] The Camaldolese are an offshoot of Benedictine monasticism, combining eremitic and cenobitic styles of life. They wear a white habit; nuns also a black veil. The order originated c. 1000 from the monastic reforms of Romuald of Ravenna (c. 952–1027), put into place at Fonte Avellana (c. 1000; Peter Damian) and Camaldoli (between 1023 and 1026). The constitutions, written between 1045 and 1057 by Peter Damian, followed between 1080 and 1085 …

Câmara, Hélder Pessoa

(289 words)

Author(s): Goldstein, Horst
[German Version] (Feb 7, 1909, Fortaleza – Aug 27, 1999, Recife, Brazil) was ordained priest in 1931; for a short time he was an adherent of the Brazilian Integralistic action (Integralism). From 1936 he served in the Education Department of Guanabara State. In 1952 he became auxiliary bishop of ¶ Rio de Janeiro. In 1964, at the beginning of the military dictatorship, he became archbishop of Olinda and Recife; he retired in 1985. In Rio he was already developing social programs for the slums. In 1952 he founded the Conferência Nac…


(579 words)

Author(s): Gern, Wolfgang
[German Version] The population of Cambodia is 12 million, with a growth rate of 2.5%. Theravada Buddhists (Hĩnayãna) comprise 90% of the population, Muslims2%, Christians 1.5%, adherents of Chinese popular religion and tribal religions 1.5% each, Caodaiists (Caodaism) and Bahā'i 1% each. Of the population, 90% are Khmer, 5% Vietnamese, 1% Chinese, and 2.5% Malay. Catholic missionary work began in 1555 with the arrival of the Dominicans Gaspar da Cruz (died 1570) and Sylvester Azevedo (died 1576) from Malacca (Melaka). Around 1770 P. Levasseu…

Cambridge Platonists

(395 words)

Author(s): Pailin, David Arthur
[German Version] The Cambridge Platonists were a group of independent philosophical theologians influenced by the ideas of Platonism and Neoplatonism, who sought to develop a theology that would eschew both Puritan Calvinism and Laudian (W. Laud) Anglo-Catholicism. Reason was for them “the spirit in man,” which serves as “the cradle of the Lord.” They were unanimous in their conviction that ¶ God acts in harmony with the eternal reason of things, in their rejection of all notions of an absolute, sovereign divine will, and finally in their trust in …

Cambridge Ritualists

(332 words)

Author(s): Ackermann, Robert
[German Version] The “Cambridge Ritual Anthropologists” or “Ritualists” consisted of four classicists, three of them from Cambridge – Jane Ellen Harrison (1850–1928), Arthur Bernard Cook (1868–1952), and Francis Macdonald Cornford (1874–1943) – as well as Gilbert Murray (1866–1957) from Oxford. The period of their activity lay between 1890 and 1920, when they jointly developed a daring irrationalist interpretation of Greek religion, and especially of Greek drama,…

Cambridge University

(762 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] The founding of Cambridge University probably goes back to members of Oxford University who left Oxford in reaction to the closing of schools in 1209 that resulted from disputes between the city and the university. Although instruction resumed in Oxford in 1214, a few scholars remained in Cambridge. Proximity to the episcopal see of Ely favored the establishment of a permanent institution, and Cambridge and Oxford remained the only English univer…

Camerarius, Joachim

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Apr 12, 1500, Bamberg – Apr 17, 1574, Leipzig) began studies in Leipzig in 1512, in Erfurt in 1518 (M.A. 1521), and in Wittenberg in 1521, where he enjoyed a close friendship with Melanchthon. He became professor of rhetoric in 1522, although he often spent long periods in Bamberg and traveling, in 1524 with Melanchthon to Bretten and as Luther's emissary to Erasmus in Basel. In 1525 he became professor of Greek in Wittenberg, in 1526 rector in …

Cameron, John

(283 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1579, Glasgow – Nov 27, 1625, Montauban) went to France around 1600 and was initially active as a teacher in the vicinity of Humaniora. After studying in Paris, Geneva, and Heidelberg, he became pastor in Bordeaux in 1608, professor of theology at the Protestant academy in Saumur in 1618 and in Montauban in 1624. In the disputes with the Arminians, Cameron defended the Calvinist doctrine of predestination, but modified it by emphasizing …


(618 words)

Author(s): Dah, Jonas Nwiyende
[German Version] The name “Cameroon” derives from the Portuguese name of the Wouri River estuary in Douala: Rio dos Camarões, “River of Prawns.” In 1884 the German colonial administration extended the name to the entire land, whose boundaries were fixed in 1910/1911. Cameroon covers an area of 475,441 km2. It comprises rainy and semi-arid tropical regions, including one of the wettest regions of the world around Mount Cameroon, an active volcano (4095 m.). Cameroon is a potpourri of 120 ethnic groups speaking 236 differen…


(208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Clerici regulares ministrantes infirmis, MI; Ordo Sancti Camilli, OSC). The Camillians are the only clerical order of the Catholic Church devoted entirely to charitable service. The order was founded in Rome in 1582 by Camillo de Lellis (1550–1614) to renew the ministry of service to the sick (fourth vow: to serve the sick, regardless of mortal danger – hence grave losses during epidemics of the plague and cholera). After the demise of the Order of Servants o…


(559 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The Camisards were Protestants in southern France who, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1686 (Huguenots), secretly formed armed bands in the Cévennes region, the “desert,” to fight for the freedom and rights of their suppressed church in the face of harsh persecution. The term “Camisard” probably derives from the camisia (“shirt”) worn over their clothing during night raids, which were therefore called camisades. The movement, which at times appeared fanatical, survived until 1711; especially when its followers were being pu…

Campanella, Tommaso

(456 words)

Author(s): Ernst, Germana
[German Version] (Sep 5, 1568, Stilo, Calabria – May 1, 1639, Paris) attempted to reconcile the Renaissance philosophy of nature with a radical reform of science and society. Born in a small village in southern Italy, he entered the Dominican order as a young man. Campanella read medical works and books on natural science, works of Plato and of Neoplatonism, but the great encounter of his youth was with Bernardino Telesio's natural philosophy. Accor…

Campanus, Johannes

(159 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Maaseik – after 1574). After studying at Cologne and a stay in the duchy of Jülich, Campanus came to Wittenberg c. 1527/1528. His exclusion from the debate at the Colloquy of Marburg (Disputations, Religious: I) marked the beginning of his conflict with the Wittenberg Reformers, which was intensified in 1530 when he disputed the divinity of the Holy Spirit. He soon returned to Jülich, where a warrant for his arrest (at first not executed) was issued in 1532. His Göttlicher und Heiliger Schrift … Restitution (1532) expounded his anti-trinitarian th…

Campbell, Alexander

(294 words)

Author(s): Harrell, David Edwin
[German Version] (Sep 12, 1788, Near Ballymena, Ireland – Mar 4, 1866, Bethany, WV) was one of the founders of the 19th-century American Restoration Movement that gave birth to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Christian Church/Churches of Christ (Independent), and the Churches of Christ. While studying at the University of Glasgow, Campbell had stood under the influence of the primitivist teachings of J. and R. Haldane. He arrived in Virginia in 1808 and found that his…

Campbell, Donald T.

(243 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1916, Grass Lake, MI – May 5, 1996, Bethlehem, PA) was professor of psychology at Northwestern University (1953–1979), Syracuse University (1979–1982), and Lehigh University (1982–1996); he was president of the American Psychological Association in 1975/1976. He won international recognition for his work in social and experimental psychology, especially in the fields of methodology and the philosophy of the social sciences. He made funda…

Campbell, John McLeod

(178 words)

Author(s): Hart, Trevor A.
[German Version] (May 4, 1800, Kilninver – Feb 7, 1872, Roseneath, Scotland). The son of an Argyll¶ shire clerical family, Campbell was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 1821 he obtained a license to preach and was presented to the parish of Rhu in 1825, where he sought to nurture a well-founded and properly orientated piety among his congregation. Initial difficulties were diagnosed by him as the result of a legalistic attitude stemming from Reformed theology …


(324 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] 1. Lorenzo (1474, Milan – Jul 20, 1539, Rome) became professor of law at Bologna in 1500, was ordained priest in 1511, made bishop in 1512 and cardinal in 1517. He achieved fame through his positions as nuncio: in 1511, Julius II sent him to Emperor Maximilian I; Leo X gave him the same assignment (1513–1517). Campeggio established cordial relations with Maximilian and Charles V, as well as with Henry VIII of England. In 1524/1525, Clement VII com…

Campe, Joachim Heinrich

(291 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1746, Deensen/Braunschweig – Oct 22, 1818, Braunschweig). Having received instruction from a private tutor and subsequently attended the local village school as well as the monastery school in Holzminden, Campe began studying Protestant theology at Helmstedt and Halle in 1765. After the completion of his studies, he found employment as a preacher in Potsdam, but also as a tutor in the household of the chamberlain Georg v. Humboldt, whose two so…

Campello, Enrico di

(329 words)

Author(s): Oeyen, Christian
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1831, Spoleto – Jul 2, 1903, Rome) was the most important proponent of Old Catholicism (Old Catholics) in Italy. Count Campello, a member of the Academia dei Nobili who became a priest in 1855 and canon of St. Peter's in 1868, inclined toward Italian nationalism. After 1870 he founded a secret society to demand the popular election of the pope and the bishops. After the liberal press discovered the plan, in 1881 he declared (in the American Methodist Church) a breach with the Vatican and in 1882 established the “Italian Catholic Church” (known ¶ after 1899 as the Ca…

Campenhausen, Hans von

(243 words)

Author(s): Ritter, Adolf Martin
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1903 [Old Style, Dec 3, 1903], Rosenbeck, Livonia – Jan 6, 1989, Heidelberg), doctor of theology, Heidelberg 1926; 5 honorary doctorates in theology; Privatdozent in church history, Marburg, 1928; Göttingen 1930; 1935 temporary professorship in Gießen; 1936 appointed professor in Heidelberg; appointment withdrawn in 1937 on political grounds; 1938 Privatdozent in Greifswald; 1940 temporary professorship in Vienna; ordinary professor in Heidelberg from 1946. With the exception of A. v. Harnack, whose theory …

Camphuysen, Dirck Raphaelszoon

(135 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (1586, Gorinchem – Jul 19, 1627, Dokkum) was deposed as Reformed pastor because of his Arminian views (1619) and banished (1620). He led a beggarly existence, settling nowhere. Inclined toward the newly founded Remonstrantist church (Arminians), he finally felt at home with the Rijnsburger Collegiants. Theologically, he had sympathies with Socinians, and he translated some of F. Sozzini's works into Dutch. He refused a professorship in Raków in 1625. His heartfelt Stichtelycke Rymen (1624, 121658), which revolve around the theme of suffering, wer…

Campion, Edmund, Saint

(210 words)

Author(s): Gilley, Sheridan
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1539/1540, London – Dec 1, 1581, Tyburn), protomartyr of the English Province of the Jesuits. Originally an Anglican, Campion became Junior Fellow at St. John's College, Oxford, in 1557. He moved to Dublin in 1570 and wrote his History of Ireland (1571). Having converted to Catholicism following a crisis of faith, he fled to the University of Douai in Flanders and then to Rome, joined the Austrian Province of the Jesuits, studied in Prague and Brno/Brünn (Moravia), and was ordained priest in 1578. I…

Camus, Albert

(383 words)

Author(s): Kodalle, Klaus-M.
[German Version] (Nov 7, 1913, Mondovi, Algeria – 4 Jan, 1960, in a car accident in Petit-Villeblevin, France) was deeply involved as a journalist and resistance fighter in the conflicts of his age – the Spanish Civil War, the French resistance, the Algerian War of Indepen¶ dence, Soviet occupations, etc. He was honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957. His most important works include short stories ( L'envers et l'endroit, 1937; L'été, 1954; L'exile et le royaume, 1957), novels ( L'étranger, 1942; La peste, 1947), plays ( Caligula, 1945; Les justes, 1949), philosophi…


(123 words)

Author(s): Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] The village (κώμη/ kōmē, Jos. Vita LXIV, 206) of Κανά (τῆς Γαλιλαίας)/ Kaná ( tēs Galilaías; from Heb. קָנֶה/ qāneh, “reed”?) is to be identified with the site of Ḫirbet Qana and lies on the northern slope of the Bet Netofa Valley. According to Josh 19:28, Cana belonged to the tribe of Asher (Tribes of Israel). The New Testament mentions it only in John 2:1, 11; 4:46; 21:2, while Jewish sources locate the priestly family of Eliashib in Cana. Excavations have uncove…


(10 words)

[German Version] Palestina, Syria, Israel and Canaan


(1,422 words)

Author(s): Goodwin, Daniel
[German Version] After Russia, Canada is the largest country in the world, but one of the most sparsely populated. It covers almost 40% of the land area of North America (9, 970, 610 km2). It borders the Arctic Sea to the north, the Atlantic to the east, twelve states of the USA to the south, and Alaska and the Pacific to the west. Its capital is Ottawa. The greatest population density and the largest cities are along the coast and the border with the USA, where 90% of the Canadian population live. In 2001 it had approx. 30 million inhabitants. Canadian society is multicultural, comprising gro…
▲   Back to top   ▲