Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(387 words)

Author(s): Mezger, Werner
[German Version] The word carnival (see also Shrove Tuesday/Mardi Gras) derives from Lat. carnislevamen or carnem levare, “take away meat,” which became vernacular carnevale, carnovale, carnaval, and carnival. A simplified popular etymology derives it from Ital. carne vale, “farewell, meat.” The German equivalent is Fastnacht. It is a celebration preceding the 40-day pre-Easter fast (Fasting: III) that begins on Ash Wednesday, during which consumption of meat and dairy products was forbidden. Pre-Reformation and Counter-Refo…

Caroline Divines

(549 words)

Author(s): Bray, Gerald
[German Version] A group of anti-Puritan/anti-Calvinist theologians from the 17th century. The name is derived from Charles I of England. Its most prominent representatives were L. Andrewes, W. Laud, and Jeremy Taylor. The anti-Calvinist movement in the Church of England possibly began with a sermon held by the then bishop of London, R. Bancroft, on Feb 9, 1589 at Paul's Cross in front of St. Paul's Cathedral. In this sermon, Bancroft lashed out at the Puritans and claimed that the bishops of the Church of England could legitimate their position and authority on the basis of divine right ( iu…


(1,529 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] I. History – II. Carolingian Reforms (Church and Educational Reform) – III. Carolingian Art I. History This family, named, since the 12th century, after its most important representative, Charlemagne, stems from the Maas-Mosel region. The first known Carolingian was bishop Arnulf of Metz (died 640), venerated as a saint. His contemporary was Pippin the Elder (died 640), the majordomo of the king of Austrasia in 624/625. His daughter Begga married Arnulf's son, Ansegisel. The …

Carpaccio, Vittore

(211 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1465, Venice – 1525 or 1526, Venice). With G. Bellini, the Italian painter Vittore Carpaccio was a dominant figure in Venetian painting between 1490 and 1510. In 1511 he called himself pittore di stato. The nucleus of his work consists of cycles for the assembly rooms of several Venetian confraternities. The large-scale canvasses incorporate vivid details of everyday life but also the concern of the republic and its leading families in the face of the danger posed by the Turks. In 1490 Car…

Carpentier, Alejo

(226 words)

Author(s): Hagel, Doris
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1904, Havanna – Apr 24, 1980, Paris), a major 20th-century novelist and musicologist of Franco-Russian extraction. His oeuvre consists of several essays, novellas and six novels, and may be seen as a historiography of European culture in the Ibero-American context, as well as of its decline in the wake of the liberation movements of the 18th and 19th centuries. It is dominated by political themes such as the revolution, its lack of authe…

Carpocrates and Carpocratians

(294 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] The origins of the Christian Gnostic community (Gnosis/Gnosticism: II, 2) of the Carpocratians reach back before 150 ce. According to Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. III 5.2f.), it was founded by Epiphanes son of Carpocrates, who died at the age of 17 and was allegedly venerated as a god in Same on the island of Cephallenia. In his work De iustitia (CPG 1123), Epiphanes understood justice as an original equality of all, polemicized against the lawgiver, and advocated a community of goods and women (Clem. Strom. III 5.1–11. 2). According to the teaching of th…

Carpov, Jakob

(151 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1699, Goslar – Jun 6, 1768, Weimar) gained his M.A. in Jena in 1725, became a Gymnasium teacher in 1737, becoming director in Weimar in 1745. The first of the theological Wolffians (C. Wolff) to do so, Carpov developed his entire dogmatics in a strictly mathematical and demonstrative manner. While in material respects he held fast to orthodox doctrine by explicitly confessing the symbolic books, he wanted to assure the academic standing of theology by applying the methodus scientifica. With the aid of a rational theory of revelation, he sought…

Carpus, Papylus, and Agathonice

(178 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (feast: Apr 13); Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 15.48 relates that the hypomnemata of the martyrdom of these two clergymen and of Agathonice, the sister of Papylus, were still extant in Pergamon. The rich and divergent hagiological tradition, which includes an epic version, attributes various origins and ecclesial ranks to the martyrs and emphasizes that it was the woman who urged the others to accept martyrdom. According to Eusebius, their martyrdom took place in the reign …


(518 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Brigitte
[German Version] An extraordinarily influential academic family of jurists active primarily in Saxony between 1550 and 1800 1. Benedikt I (Oct 22, 1565 – Nov 26, 1624), jurist; 1592 University of Wittenberg, 1594 chancellor in Reinstein/Blankenburg, 1602 in Colditz/Dresden, and counselor at the Dresden court of appeal. His sons: 2. Konrad (Jul 11, 1593 – Feb 12, 1658), jurist; counselor at the Pomeranian court c. 1620, from 1621 assessor at the royal court in Dresden and professor at the University of Wittenberg, 1636 emissary to t…

Carranza de Miranda, Bartolomé

(170 words)

Author(s): Tellechea Idígoras, J. Ignacio
[German Version] (1503, Miranda de Arga – May 2, 1576, Rome), Dominican. In 1546/1547 and 1552/1553, he participated in the Council of Trent (works include: Summa Conciliorum, 1546, repr. 1993; De necessaria residentia episcoporum, 1547, repr. 1993); involved in the Catholic Restoration in England (1554–1557); in 1557, he became archbishop of Toledo. Because of his relationship with J. de Valdés and the – unfounded – suspicion that his Comentarios sobre el Catecismo Cristiano (1558, repr. 1972, new edn 1999) represented a Lutheran understanding of justificati…

Carroll, John

(130 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jan 19, 1736, Upper Marlboro, MD – Mar 12, 1815, Baltimore, MD), Catholic bishop (1789–1808) and archbishop of Baltimore (1808–1815). As the first Catholic bishop in the United States, Carroll was primarily responsible for organizing the Catholic Church and thereby setting the tone for the participation of Catholicism in the post-revolutionary American society. Though Carroll wrote no systematic treatises on the Enlightenment impulses (e.g. repu…

Carr, Thomas

(155 words)

Author(s): Prentis, Malcolm
[German Version] (baptized May 5, 1839, Moylough, County Galway, Ireland – May 6, 1917, Melbourne, Australia), Roman Catholic archbishop. Carr, who came from a landowning family, studied at Maynooth College and was ordained priest in 1866. In 1883, he was appointed bishop of Galway; in 1887, he came to Victoria as archbishop of Melbourne. He strongly fostered Roman Catholic education in his diocese by, for example, supporting a teacher-training college and a univ…


(534 words)

Author(s): Schütt, Hans-Peter
[German Version] a philosophical trend of late 17th and early 18th-century Europe going back to R. Descartes. Initially, the appellation “Cartesians” was applied to those who had known Descartes personally and either adopted some of his teachings or simply disseminated them. These included, in the Netherlands: Cornelius van Hooghelande (c.1590–1676), Heinri Reniersz (latinized as Reneri, c.1593–1639), Henri le Roy (latinized as Regius, 1598–1679), and Adrian Heereboord …


(2,038 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Names – II. Geography – III. History and Society – IV. Religion and Literature I. Names Even though in ancient literary contexts Carthage was occasionally called Tyre, Tarshish, Kaine Polis, Kadmeia, Oinus, Kaccabe, Afrike, and Byrsa, the official name of the city was, nonetheless, always Qrtḍdšt, “New City.” The city was called “New City” to characterize it as an establishment of the “Old City,” Tyre (in Phoenicia). It shared this name with Phoenician settlem…

Carthage, Synod of

(212 words)

Author(s): Drecoll, Volker Henning
[German Version] On May 1, 418, guided by Augustine and Aurelius of Carthage, more than 200 North African bishops meeting in Carthage passed nine canons against Pelagianism (Pelagius; CChr.SL 149, 69–78; DH, 222–230, misnumbered after canon 2). The canons emphasized inherited original sin ( originale peccatum) on the basis of Rom 5:12, infant baptism (cc. 1–3), grace as the infusion of love (not simply forgiveness, revelation, or relief; cc. 4–6), and the impossibility of a sinless life (canons 7–9). The bishops were reacting…


(559 words)

Author(s): Hogg, James
[German Version] The strictly ascetic and contemplative Carthusian order traces its origins to Bruno the Carthusian, who in 1084 joined with six like-minded companions to establish a monastic community of hermits at Cartusia (La Chartreuse), in the mountains near Grenoble. An order came into being in 1127, when Guigo I, the fifth prior of La Chartreuse, composed a customary ( Consuetudines monasticae ) for the handful of Carthusian communities. The customary, which called for a harmonious blend of eremitic and cenobitic life, w…

Cartwright, Thomas

(305 words)

Author(s): Sheils, William Joseph
[German Version] (c. 1535, Hertfordshire – Dec 27, 1603, Warwick) was the leading intellectual figure of English Presbyterianism (Presbyterians) in the reign of Elizabeth I. In 1570, he became professor of divinity at Cambridge University. His lectures on Acts, in which he expressed presbyterian views on church order, aroused opposition from the authorities. He was dismissed from his post and retired to Geneva. He returned in 1572. His support for Puritan petitions …

Caryophylles, John

(160 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1600, Karyai, Thracia – after 1693, Bucharest), an Orthodox lay theologian, Grand Logothet of the Ecumenical patriarchate (1676–1691), student of the Aristotelian Theophilos Korydaleus, and teacher. Since Caryophylles belonged to the circle surrounding Patriarch Cyril Lucaris, who was suspected of Calvinism, he also was subject to the same suspicion for more than a decade, primarily because, owing to his conservative rejection of a mixture of philosophy and theology and a more spiritual doctrine of the Eucharist ¶ preserving its mystery, he was unwillin…

Casaubonus, Isaac

(177 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1559, Geneva – Jul 12, 1614, London). After study at the Geneva Academy, this son of a Huguenot pastor became professor of Greek there in 1583. He taught in Montpellier (1596–1599) but was called to Paris in 1600 by Henry IV. As royal commissioner he took part in the disputation between P. Duplessis-Mornay and Cardinal Duperron, in which he spoke for the latter, earning him the mistrust of his fellow believers. In 1610 he answered a call…

Caselius, Johannes

(134 words)

Author(s): Mager, Inge
[German Version] (v. Kessel; May 18, 1533, Göttingen – Apr 9, 1613, Helmstedt) came from a Dutch family of refugees. He studied in Wittenberg and Leipzig from 1551 onward, became professor of rhetoric and princely tutor in the service of Mecklenburg in 1563, and earned his doctorate in law in Pisa in 1566. Having no strict confessional attachment, Caselius accepted an appointment as professor of philosophy, rhetoric and ethics at the University of Helmstedt in 1589, whe…
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