Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Cano, Melchior

(283 words)

Author(s): Körner, Bernhard
[German Version] (1509, Tarancón or Pastrana – Sep 30, 1560, Toledo), a Dominican friar (1523) and disciple of Francisco de Vitoria. He lectured as professor in Valadolid, Alcala, and Salamanca, and was conciliar theologian at Trent in 1551/1552 (Trent, Council of). His chief work, De locis theologicis libri duodecim (publ. posthumously in 1563; unfinished), exerted a lasting influence on Catholic epistemology and methodology on account of its thorough theological treatment of the subject matter. Cano's philosophical orie…

Canon

(4,367 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Schindler, Alfred | Huizing, Klaas | Troianos, Spyros N. | Felmy, Karl Christian | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Orthodox Law – V. Eastern Poetry – VI. Islam – VII. Buddhism – VIII. Taoism I. History of Religion The canon can be defined as a complex process of selection of documents regarded as authoritative; from the totality of the extant written tradition, documents are set apart according to certain criteria as holy or inspired (Inspiration/Theopneustia). Although the concept of the canon as a normative collection…

Canonesses Regular

(294 words)

Author(s): Auge, Oliver
[German Version] (from Lat. canonicae) first appeared in the Greek church in the 4th century, in the West in the 8th. The term derives from the canon in which these women were registered. Initially, the title was given to all women leading a religious life but not bound by monastic vows. The Aachen Institutiones of 816 defined canonesses as a community under abbatial supervision and following certain rules, albeit enjoying legal and personal privileges such as possession of personal property, having their own curiae, permission to vi…

Canonical Age

(239 words)

Author(s): Becker, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] Like secular law, canon law also distinguishes different stages of life that are of significance for the legal assessment of the legal actions of a natural person, or for access to the stages of ordination and to offices. For tort responsibility, for example, a ¶ person must have completed the 16th year (c. 1323 no. 1 CIC/1983 and c. 1413 §1 CCEO). From this age on, persons who have not yet come of age can also function as godparents (c. 874 §1 no. 2 CIC/1983 and c. 685 §2 CCEO). Admission to the novitiate requires a person to be 17 years old (c. 643 §1 no. 1 CIC/1983 and cc. 450 no. 4…

Canonical Approach

(966 words)

Author(s): Seitz, Christopher R. | Wall, Robert W.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament I. Old Testament “Canonical approach” refers to a primarily synchronic interpretation of the canonized final text of the Bible in the context of all scriptures of the biblical canon (Bible: II, 2; III, 2), which, in view of the various confessional forms of the canon, can and will claim validity only within the boundaries of a faith community. It contrasts with a historical-critical exegesis oriented toward the literary-hi…

Canonical Lists

(349 words)

Author(s): Aland, Barbara
[German Version] are lists of the biblical books of the Old Testament and New Testament (cf. Bible II, 2; III, 2) compiled in the Early Church either by individuals or by synods. They possessed authoritative character, though in practice this was not always evident. The earliest canonical indices are the Muratorian Fragment (see also Canon) from Rome (c. 200) and the index of the Codex Claromontanus (3rd cent.). 1 and 2 Thessalonians along with Philemon are inadvertently omitted here, as is Hebrews, while Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Acts of Paul, and the Apocalypse of Peter are i…

Canonical Provision

(185 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is a technical term in Catholic canon law for all types of sovereign grants through individual administrative decrees (c. 48 CIC/1983; c. 1510 § 2, 1 CCEO; administration: IV, 3). More precisely, it involves the grant of legal capacity (Juridical persons: cc. 114 § 1; 116 § 2 CIC/1983; public Voluntary associations [II, 1.b]: c. 313 CIC/1983), of authorities (Delegation: cc. 131 § 1; 133; 137 CIC/1983; the authority to confirm and hear confession: cc. 882; 969 CIC/1983; delegation of the authority to perform marriages: c. 1111 CIC/1983), of names and titles (cf. cc.…

Canon in Confucianism

(8 words)

[German Version] Confucianism

Canon in Hinduism

(8 words)

[German Version] Vedas

Canonization

(582 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] I. Catholic Church – II. Orthodox Churches (Latin canonisatio, Greek ᾽Αν̆ακῆρυξις/ anakḗryxis, “public proclamation”) refers to the placement in the list (canon) of saints (Saints/Veneration of saints). Such placement includes remembrance in worship, a vita, an icon (Icons; Saints, icons and attributes), the possibility of having an altar or church dedicated to the saint (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication), and the appropriation of the saint's name at ba…

Canon Law/Church Law

(11,049 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Kalb, Herbert | Puza, Richard | Pirson, Dietrich | Engelhardt, Hanns | Et al.
[German Version] I. History – II. The Present – III. Orthodox Church – IV. The Study of Canon Law and Church Law – V. Practical Theology – VI. Oriental Orthodox Canon Law I. History 1. Early Church. The church has had laws ever since Christians recognized the need for a generally recognized authority to regulate the uncertainties, problems, and controversies involving church discipline brought about by the rapid expansion of Christianity. After the death of the initial authority figures (e.g. the fou…

Canon, Muratorian

(8 words)

[German Version] Muratorian Fragment

Canons/Canon Collections

(812 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] Into the 4th century, synods did not call their decisions “canon” or “regula.” In the Greek East, they used the term horos as the older term for ecclesiastical decisions (Ankyra, cc. 6, 19, et passim). In the Latin language sphere, designations including placita, statuta, instituta, decreta, sententiae were drawn from Roman legal language as the specific terminology applicable in such cases. The designation as canons appeared for the first time at the Synod of Antioch c. 330 (cc. 19 etc.) and quickly established itself in the East (Bas. Ep. 188, cc. 4, 10). Th…

Canons Regular

(334 words)

Author(s): Auge, Oliver
[German Version] Members of a chapter (Cathedral chapter) that exists to celebrate liturgical worship in cathedral and college churches under the leadership of the bishop or an archipresbyter. The term, attested in France since 535, derives from inclusion in the list, called the canon, of those clergy of a church entitled to maintenance or obligated to live according to the canons. A specific church regulation, offered in 755 by Chrodegang of Metz on the local, and in 816 by the Insitutiones Aquisgranenses on the general level, distinguishes canons from monasticism. I…

Canons Regular of St. Augustine

(603 words)

Author(s): Crusius, Irene
[German Version] The ideal of a communal life in discipleship to Christ also moved the early medieval clergy of episcopal cities to the vita communis on the example of Augustine. However, only the Gregorian Reform movement (Gregory VII) produced the adoption of strict monastic forms of life for ¶ the clergy, too, so that, alongside the secular collegiate chapters who lived according to the 816 Rule of Aachen, communities of clergy arose who followed the so-called Augustinian Rule ( canonici regulares; Augustine, Rule of). Their way of life between secular clergy and …

Canstein, Karl Hildebrand von

(279 words)

Author(s): Schicketanz, Peter
[German Version] (Baron; Aug 4, 1667, Lindenberg in Mark Brandenburg – Aug 19, 1719, Berlin). The son of the Prussian Kammerpräsident Raban v. Canstein, Canstein studied law in Frankfurt an der Oder, traveled throughout Europe, and took part in a military campaign. While suffering from an illness, he vowed to devote the rest of his life to the service of God, something he accomplished without ever holding public office. On returning to Berlin, he made the acquaintance of P.J. Spen…

Cantata

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] The term cantata now refers especially to the polyphonic church music with multiple movements as specified by J.S. Bach and whose text is based on ¶ the proprium of the Sundays and festival days of the church year. In contrast to the sonata (a “sounding” instrumental piece), the cantata is a choral piece that developed in the 17th century largely in Italy as secular music. Textually, non-strophic, so-called madrigal poetry is used for arias and recitatives. In Germany, ca…

Canterbury

(535 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Seat of a bishopric in the county of Kent, England. Situated at an important road junction during the Roman period, Canterbury became the main settlement of the Cantiani in the first century ce and shows evidence of Christianization from the beginning of the 4th century. The conquest of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons dealt a severe blow to the development of the city. King Ethelbert made it the capital of the kingdom of Kent, while the Roman monk Augustine of Canterbury, a missionary dispatched by Pop…

Canticle

(435 words)

Author(s): Halmo, Joan
[German Version] (from Lat. canticulum, “little song”): poetic prayer or song from the Bible but outside the Psalter. Of the canticles which have been put to liturgical use, most are from the OT (including apocryphal/deuterocanonical literature), for example “Benedicite, omnia opera domini,” or “The Song of Creation,” which comes from the prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Youths in the Fiery Furnace (Daniel, Additions to). Examples of NT canticles are the three from the Gospel of Luke ( Magnificat , 1:46–55, Benedictus , 1:68–79, Nunc dimittis , 2:29–32). Canticles in their …

Cantor

(317 words)

Author(s): Brusniak, Friedhelm
[German Version] From the 4th century, the term cantor (Lat.) refers to a singer, chanter, or leader of church music; from the 10th century it refers also to an office held by a member of the cathedral chapter. In the traditional, pre-reformation understanding, the cantor was distinguished from the trained musicus; this distinction survived well into the 18th century. The Protestant image of the leader of a city Kantorei following the model of Johann Walter in Torgau (1525) combined this post with the duties of an ac…
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