Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Egerton Papyrus

(607 words)

Author(s): Lührmann, Dieter
[German Version] Named after a patron of the British Museum, Papyrus Egerton 2 (= PLondon Christ.1) was purchased in Egypt in 1934; the exact location of its discovery, however, cannot be ascertained with certainty. At the time of its publication in 1935, the papyrus was considered to be the oldest extant Christian document (dating to “c. 150”), though it lost that status in the …


(626 words)

Author(s): Klaes, Norbert
[German Version] The egg, focus of the mysterious processes of incubation and hatching, from the shell of which fresh new life bursts forth, was an important symbol in many ancient creation myths. The primordial Chaos out of which the cosmos arose was frequently depicted as a cosmic egg (e.g. in Egypt, India, China, Greece, Indonesia, Polynesia, Africa) in which primeval matter lay dormant in an undiffe…

Egidy, Moritz of

(162 words)

Author(s): Egidy, Berndt v.
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1847, Mainz – Dec 28, 1898, Potsdam) became a military officer, as was the family tradition, and was dismissed from military ser-¶ vice prematurely in 1890 at the rank of first lieutenant. The cause for his decomissioning were the “serious reservations,” in which Egidy avowed a confession- and dogma-free Christianity. From that point onward, he apeared as a freelance author and lecturer, and increasin…


(707 words)

Author(s): Kreß, Hartmut
[German Version] The term originated in the 18 century. I. Kant described as moral egoists those who see only their own needs and happiness instead of seeking the basis for volitional decisions in moral obligations. The opposite of “egoism” for Kant was the mindset of a tolerant, cosmopolitan “pluralism” (Pluralism, altruism). Apart from the term, egoism, coined in the modern era, ancient religion and philosophy already discussed excessive love of self, unilateral selfishness or an internal “perver…

Egranus, Johannes Sylvius

(196 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Wildenauer; born in Eger, died Jun 11, 1535 in Joachimsthal, Erzgebirge [Ore ¶ Mountains]) began studying in Leipzig in the year 1500, earning his Master of Arts in 1507. In 1517 he became preacher at St. Marien in Zwickau, where he got into a dispute with the Franciscans over the legend of Anna. In 1518, he became involved in a literary controversy with Hieronymus Dungersheim of …


(11,934 words)

Author(s): Schenkel, Wolfgang | Weintritt, Otfried | Assmann, Jan | Bergman, Jan | Modrzejewski, Joseph Mélèze | Et al.
[German Version] I. General – II. History and Society – III. Religion and Culture I. General 1. Name/Designations In Egyptian-Coptic, Egypt is “the black (i.e. land)” (Egyptian *Kū́mut, Coptic Kēme, etc.) after the dark soil, in Semitic languages, generally, Miṣr-, etc., in Hebrew also מָצוֹר / Māṣôr (“border,” i.e. “borderland”?), in Greek after a sanctuary of the god Ptah as a designation for the old capital city Memphis, Aígyptos, i.e. Aígupto-s (in contemporary Egyptian perhaps *Hekoptáḥ). 2. Geography The central area of the country is the river oasis of the lowe…

Egyptian Liturgy

(7 words)

[German Version] Rites, Oriental

Egyptians, Gospel of the

(439 words)

Author(s): Wisse, Frederik
[German Version] I. Greek Gospel of the Egyptians – II. The So-called Gospel of the Egyptians from Nag Hammadi I. Greek Gospel of the Egyptians The Greek Gospel of the Egyptians was an apocryphal gospel known to Clement of AlexandriaClement of Alexandria who cites from it a brief dialogue between Jesus and Salome which was used by the encratites (Asceticism) in defense of their rejection of human procreation (Clement, Stromata III 45.3; 63.2; 64.2; 66.1; 92.1). Clement refutes the encratite implications of Jesus' answers and appears …
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