Religion Past and Present

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Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

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Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Haarbeck, Theodor

(176 words)

Author(s): Printz, Markus
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1846, Neukirchen – Dec 3, 1923, Wuppertal), studied theology in Basel, Tübingen and Bonn (1846–1868), taught in Bern (1868–1883), was inspector of St. Chrischona pilgrims mission (1883–1890), director of the Johanneum, a school for evangelists in Wuppertal-Barmen (1890–1919), and chair of the Gnadauer Verband (1911–1919). He received the D.theol. in Bonn (1919). Influenced by Reformed Pietism and the Kingdom of God theology of J.T. Beck, Haarbeck was concerned with holding together the church and the Gemeinschaftsbewegung (Community movement/Gemei…

Haase, Theodor Karl

(191 words)

Author(s): Schwarz, Karl
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1834, Lviv [Ger. Lemberg], Ukraine – Mar 27, 1909, Cieszyn/Český Těšín [Ger. Teschen], Poland/Czech Republic), Protestant theologian. After studying theology and philosophy in Vienna, Göttingen, Rostock (Dr.phil. 1856) and Berlin, he pastored in Bielitz (1859–1876) and Teschen (1876–1909). He was Senior (from 1865) and superintendent (from 1882), and a member of the General Synods (1871–1902), sometimes serving as their president. As a member of the synodal committee, he participated in the administration of the …

Habad Hasidism

(7 words)

[German Version] H asidism

Habakkuk/Book of Habakkuk

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart
[German Version] I. The Prophet – II. The Book – III. Effective History I. The Prophet The prophet Habakkuk lived in Jerusalem around 600 bce. His name is Assyrian in origin and derives from the Akkadian term for a garden plant ( ḫabb[m]aqūqu). He is described as a cult prophet ( nabı̑) (1:1), which is confirmed by the fact that he receives the word in a cultic location (2:1–3). Whether, however, his critique of the social abuses caused by the political and economic elite of Judah was part of his function or contradicted it, must remain as op…

Habakkuk Commentary

(548 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran, 1QpHab, belongs to the genre of continuous pesharim (thus also “Habakkuk Pesher”), i.e. those exegeses of a prophetic or psalm text which in Qumran interpret entire biblical books or parts of them in terms of the history of the Qumran-Essene (Essenes) community (the yaḥad). The manuscript of 1QpHab is unique, but certainly not an autography as copy errors and mistakes in the configuration of the columns indicate (II 5); it was copied in the last decades of the 1st century bce in Qumran – as can be deduced from the (typical) Ess…

Haberkorn, Peter

(179 words)

Author(s): Matthias, Markus
[German Version] (May 9, 1604, Butzbach – Apr 5, 1676, Gießen), Lutheran theologian. Orphaned in 1617, Haberkorn came in 1620 to K. Dieterich at the gymasium in Ulm, studied primarily in Marburg (beginning in 1625, M.A. 1627), and, after teaching philosophy in Marburg (1632), he received the Dr.theol. and became court preacher in Darmstadt. After 1636 in Gießen, he was appointed superintendent in 1643 and in 1650 professor of theology and Hebrew in Gießen. Married to Elisabetha Katharina, the daug…

Häberlin, Paul

(203 words)

Author(s): Wegenast, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1878, Kesswil, Switzerland – Sep 29, 1960, Basel), studied theology in Basel, Göttingen and Berlin (graduation 1900) and philosophy in Göttingen and Basel (doctorate 1903). He taught in the gymnasium in Basel (1903), was director of the teacher's academy in Kreuzlingen (1904–1909), became assistant professor of philosophy in Basel (1908–1914), and professor of philosophy, education and psychology in Bern ¶ (1914–1922) and in Basel (1922–1944). The accents of Häberlin's work lie on a dualist anthropology (mind – drive) and a resultin…

Habermann, Hans Max

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1885, Altona – Oct 30, 1944, Gifhorn). The son of a mastertailor initially became a bookseller in his home city. By reading the journal Der Kunstwart [custodian of art], he came into contact with the German social movement and the Deutsch-Nationaler Handlungsgehilfenverband (DHV, German National Association of Commercial Clerks), for which he began working in 1907. As editor of the Deutsche Handelswacht [German business watch] beginning in 1911, he advocated the superiority of models of corporative self-governance over against a soci…

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the Stift in Zeitz. Known to his contemporaries as a Hebraist (Hebrew grammar 1571, Hebrew dictionary 1588), ¶ he was remembered by later generations as the author of a Lutheran prayer book equal in popularity to the Paradiesgärtlein of Joha…

Habit (Custom)

(855 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics Aristotle used the term ἕξις/ héxis (Lat. habitus) to describe the basic condition for people (and not merely their actions) to be ethically qualified, if humans are inherently able to regularly and willingly limit their affects in life's basic situations to the right, situation-appropriate degree (cf. Eth. Nic. II, 3 and 4 [1105a 17–1106a 13]). The regularity of right conduct, for instance, which permits a person to be described as “righteous” refers to a habit or disposition acquired through…

Habit (Religious Attire)

(178 words)

Author(s): Haering, Stephan
[German Version] is the uniform and obligatory clothing (Clothing and Vestments) of the members of the various orders as determined by tradition and law ( CIC 1983, c. 669; CCEO, cc. 476, 540). As a rule, it is conferred in a worship service at the beginning of a person's life in the order (investiture). The habit should be simple (cf. PC 17); it is a symbol of membership in a specific community and of religious status. In some countries (e.g. Germany, Austria), civil law guarantees it a particular degree of protection. Som…


(1,050 words)

Author(s): Baum, Wilhelm
[German Version] This important European ruling family was first known in the middle of the 10th century in the Aargau and upper Alsace. Bishop Werner of Straßburg built the Habichtsburg near Brugg in the Aargau in 1029. Before 1135, the Habsburgs obtained the governorship of Lucerne, and in 1173 of Säckingen and Waldshut. In 1264, Count Rudolph I (d. 1291), from the Hohenstaufen entourage, obtained the inheritance of the Counts of Kyburg in the Thurgau along with Freiburg in Üchtland (Fribourg). …


(5 words)

[German Version] Pharisees


(5 words)

[German Version] Baal/Baalat


(340 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Hades is the realm of the dead (Death) lying beneath the earth (DeathDeath) or at the end of the world, i.e. beyond the reach of the sun, where the capacity to see and to enjoy life thus lapses into a state of slumber “without seeing” (ἀίδης/ a-ídēs, aspirated only in the Attic dialect as ᾅδης/ hadēs). Escorted by Hermes the “guide of souls” (ψυχοπομπός/ psychopompós), the dead are separated from the living by the burial mound, a gate, a river (Hom. Od. XI). The personification of this realm is the god Hades who, though powerful, cannot be propitiated through …

Hadewijch of Antwerp

(212 words)

Author(s): Faesen, Rob
[German Version] lived in the first half of the 13th century in Brabant and, along with Beatrice of Nazareth (1200–1268), is considered the first female author from the Netherlands. Nothing is known of her life; she may have been the leader of a community of Beguines. She was acquainted with texts by Bernard of Clairvaux, William of Saint-Thierry and Richard of St. Victor. In her Strofische Gedichten (Strophic Poems), she transformed profane into mystical love lyrics. In addition, she wrote visions, letters and rhymed ¶ letters ( Mengeldichten). Her work exhibits parallels with my…


(7 words)

[German Version] Pilgrimage/Places of Pilgrimage

Hadrian I, Pope

(296 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 9, 772 – Dec 25, 795). Hadrian was from the nobility in the city of Rome and soon broke with the pro-Lombard policy of his predecessor. He refused to anoint the sons of the deceased Frankish King Carloman and called Charlemagne to Rome, instead. He was received as patricius there at Easter 774 as the first Frankish king. Charlemagne took an oath of security, renewed the Donation of Pippin, and, thus, also promoted the extension of the Patrimonium Petri. In Rome, Hadrian christened Charlemagne's son Carloman Pippin and anointed him and Louis the Pious as…

Hadrian IV, Pope

(208 words)

Author(s): Tanner, Norman
[German Version] Dec 4, 1154 – Sep 1, 1159 (Nicholas Breakspear; c. 1100, Abbot's Langley or St. Albans, England – Sep 1, 1159, Anagni, Italy) was the only Englishman to become pope. As a young man he moved to France; he became abbot of St. Rufus in Avignon in 1137; in 1149 he became cardinal, and from 1150 to 1153 he was papal legate in Scandinavia. He was elected pope on Dec 4, 1154. Hadrian IV's reign was dominated by struggles with three parties: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, the commune of Ro…

Hadrian, Publius Aelius

(139 words)

Author(s): Klein, Richard
[German Version] Hadrian, Publius Aelius, Roman emperor (117–138). Hadrian, who was born in 76 ce in Italica (near Seville) and was “adopted” by Trajan as his successor, protected the empire with an active peace policy. An enthusiastic Philhellene, he adorned Athens with many structures. In Rome, the Pantheon, the temple for Venus and Roma and the Mausoleum (later the papal Castel Sant' Angelo) commemorate the highly educated ruler. The prohibition of circumcision issued throughout the empire and the attempt …
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