Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Haarbeck, Theodor

(176 words)

Author(s): Printz, Markus
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1846, Neukirchen – Dec 3, 1923, Wuppertal), studied theology in Basel, Tübingen and Bonn (1846–1868), taught in Bern (1868–1883), was inspector of St. Chrischona pilgrims mission (1883–1890), director of the Johanneum, a school for evangelists in Wuppertal-Barmen (1890–1919), and chair of the Gnadauer Verband (1911–1919). He received the D.theol. in Bonn (1919). Influenced by Reformed Pietism and the Kingdom of God theology of J.T. Beck, Haarbeck was concerned with holding together the church and the Gemeinschaftsbewegung (Community movement/Gemei…

Haase, Theodor Karl

(191 words)

Author(s): Schwarz, Karl
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1834, Lviv [Ger. Lemberg], Ukraine – Mar 27, 1909, Cieszyn/Český Těšín [Ger. Teschen], Poland/Czech Republic), Protestant theologian. After studying theology and philosophy in Vienna, Göttingen, Rostock (Dr.phil. 1856) and Berlin, he pastored in Bielitz (1859–1876) and Teschen (1876–1909). He was Senior (from 1865) and superintendent (from 1882), and a member of the General Synods (1871–1902), sometimes serving as their president. As a member of the synodal committee, he participated in the administration of the …

Habad Hasidism

(7 words)

[German Version] H asidism

Habakkuk/Book of Habakkuk

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart
[German Version] I. The Prophet – II. The Book – III. Effective History I. The Prophet The prophet Habakkuk lived in Jerusalem around 600 bce. His name is Assyrian in origin and derives from the Akkadian term for a garden plant ( ḫabb[m]aqūqu). He is described as a cult prophet ( nabı̑) (1:1), which is confirmed by the fact that he receives the word in a cultic location (2:1–3). Whether, however, his critique of the social abuses caused by the political and economic elite of Judah was part of his function or contradicted it, must remain as op…

Habakkuk Commentary

(548 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran, 1QpHab, belongs to the genre of continuous pesharim (thus also “Habakkuk Pesher”), i.e. those exegeses of a prophetic or psalm text which in Qumran interpret entire biblical books or parts of them in terms of the history of the Qumran-Essene (Essenes) community (the yaḥad). The manuscript of 1QpHab is unique, but certainly not an autography as copy errors and mistakes in the configuration of the columns indicate (II 5); it was copied in the last decades of the 1st century bce in Qumran – as can be deduced from the (typical) Ess…

Haberkorn, Peter

(179 words)

Author(s): Matthias, Markus
[German Version] (May 9, 1604, Butzbach – Apr 5, 1676, Gießen), Lutheran theologian. Orphaned in 1617, Haberkorn came in 1620 to K. Dieterich at the gymasium in Ulm, studied primarily in Marburg (beginning in 1625, M.A. 1627), and, after teaching philosophy in Marburg (1632), he received the Dr.theol. and became court preacher in Darmstadt. After 1636 in Gießen, he was appointed superintendent in 1643 and in 1650 professor of theology and Hebrew in Gießen. Married to Elisabetha Katharina, the daug…

Häberlin, Paul

(203 words)

Author(s): Wegenast, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1878, Kesswil, Switzerland – Sep 29, 1960, Basel), studied theology in Basel, Göttingen and Berlin (graduation 1900) and philosophy in Göttingen and Basel (doctorate 1903). He taught in the gymnasium in Basel (1903), was director of the teacher's academy in Kreuzlingen (1904–1909), became assistant professor of philosophy in Basel (1908–1914), and professor of philosophy, education and psychology in Bern ¶ (1914–1922) and in Basel (1922–1944). The accents of Häberlin's work lie on a dualist anthropology (mind – drive) and a resultin…

Habermann, Hans Max

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1885, Altona – Oct 30, 1944, Gifhorn). The son of a mastertailor initially became a bookseller in his home city. By reading the journal Der Kunstwart [custodian of art], he came into contact with the German social movement and the Deutsch-Nationaler Handlungsgehilfenverband (DHV, German National Association of Commercial Clerks), for which he began working in 1907. As editor of the Deutsche Handelswacht [German business watch] beginning in 1911, he advocated the superiority of models of corporative self-governance over against a soci…

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the Stift in Zeitz. Known to his contemporaries as a Hebraist (Hebrew grammar 1571, Hebrew dictionary 1588), ¶ he was remembered by later generations as the author of a Lutheran prayer book equal in popularity to the Paradiesgärtlein of Joha…

Habit (Custom)

(855 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics Aristotle used the term ἕξις/ héxis (Lat. habitus) to describe the basic condition for people (and not merely their actions) to be ethically qualified, if humans are inherently able to regularly and willingly limit their affects in life's basic situations to the right, situation-appropriate degree (cf. Eth. Nic. II, 3 and 4 [1105a 17–1106a 13]). The regularity of right conduct, for instance, which permits a person to be described as “righteous” refers to a habit or disposition acquired through…

Habit (Religious Attire)

(178 words)

Author(s): Haering, Stephan
[German Version] is the uniform and obligatory clothing (Clothing and Vestments) of the members of the various orders as determined by tradition and law ( CIC 1983, c. 669; CCEO, cc. 476, 540). As a rule, it is conferred in a worship service at the beginning of a person's life in the order (investiture). The habit should be simple (cf. PC 17); it is a symbol of membership in a specific community and of religious status. In some countries (e.g. Germany, Austria), civil law guarantees it a particular degree of protection. Som…


(1,050 words)

Author(s): Baum, Wilhelm
[German Version] This important European ruling family was first known in the middle of the 10th century in the Aargau and upper Alsace. Bishop Werner of Straßburg built the Habichtsburg near Brugg in the Aargau in 1029. Before 1135, the Habsburgs obtained the governorship of Lucerne, and in 1173 of Säckingen and Waldshut. In 1264, Count Rudolph I (d. 1291), from the Hohenstaufen entourage, obtained the inheritance of the Counts of Kyburg in the Thurgau along with Freiburg in Üchtland (Fribourg). …


(5 words)

[German Version] Pharisees


(5 words)

[German Version] Baal/Baalat


(340 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Hades is the realm of the dead (Death) lying beneath the earth (DeathDeath) or at the end of the world, i.e. beyond the reach of the sun, where the capacity to see and to enjoy life thus lapses into a state of slumber “without seeing” (ἀίδης/ a-ídēs, aspirated only in the Attic dialect as ᾅδης/ hadēs). Escorted by Hermes the “guide of souls” (ψυχοπομπός/ psychopompós), the dead are separated from the living by the burial mound, a gate, a river (Hom. Od. XI). The personification of this realm is the god Hades who, though powerful, cannot be propitiated through …

Hadewijch of Antwerp

(212 words)

Author(s): Faesen, Rob
[German Version] lived in the first half of the 13th century in Brabant and, along with Beatrice of Nazareth (1200–1268), is considered the first female author from the Netherlands. Nothing is known of her life; she may have been the leader of a community of Beguines. She was acquainted with texts by Bernard of Clairvaux, William of Saint-Thierry and Richard of St. Victor. In her Strofische Gedichten (Strophic Poems), she transformed profane into mystical love lyrics. In addition, she wrote visions, letters and rhymed ¶ letters ( Mengeldichten). Her work exhibits parallels with my…


(7 words)

[German Version] Pilgrimage/Places of Pilgrimage

Hadrian I, Pope

(296 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 9, 772 – Dec 25, 795). Hadrian was from the nobility in the city of Rome and soon broke with the pro-Lombard policy of his predecessor. He refused to anoint the sons of the deceased Frankish King Carloman and called Charlemagne to Rome, instead. He was received as patricius there at Easter 774 as the first Frankish king. Charlemagne took an oath of security, renewed the Donation of Pippin, and, thus, also promoted the extension of the Patrimonium Petri. In Rome, Hadrian christened Charlemagne's son Carloman Pippin and anointed him and Louis the Pious as…

Hadrian IV, Pope

(208 words)

Author(s): Tanner, Norman
[German Version] Dec 4, 1154 – Sep 1, 1159 (Nicholas Breakspear; c. 1100, Abbot's Langley or St. Albans, England – Sep 1, 1159, Anagni, Italy) was the only Englishman to become pope. As a young man he moved to France; he became abbot of St. Rufus in Avignon in 1137; in 1149 he became cardinal, and from 1150 to 1153 he was papal legate in Scandinavia. He was elected pope on Dec 4, 1154. Hadrian IV's reign was dominated by struggles with three parties: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, the commune of Ro…

Hadrian, Publius Aelius

(139 words)

Author(s): Klein, Richard
[German Version] Hadrian, Publius Aelius, Roman emperor (117–138). Hadrian, who was born in 76 ce in Italica (near Seville) and was “adopted” by Trajan as his successor, protected the empire with an active peace policy. An enthusiastic Philhellene, he adorned Athens with many structures. In Rome, the Pantheon, the temple for Venus and Roma and the Mausoleum (later the papal Castel Sant' Angelo) commemorate the highly educated ruler. The prohibition of circumcision issued throughout the empire and the attempt …

Hadrian VI, Pope

(474 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Peter
[German Version] Jan 9, 1522 (coronation Aug 31, 1522) – Sep 14, 1523 (Adrianus Florensz Boeyens, Adrian of Utrecht, b. Mar 2, 1459, Utrecht). Hadrian probably received his early education from the Brothers of the Common Life. In 1476, he began his studies at the University of Leuven (1491 Dr.theol.) where he held a professorship from 1489. He was twice rector of the University of Leuven (1493 and 1500–1501) and chancellor from 1497. Although he was more traditionally oriented himself, he supporte…

Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August

(493 words)

Author(s): Daecke, Sigurd
[German Version] (Feb 16, 1834, Potsdam – Aug 9, 1919, Jena) was a doctor of medicine, a zoologist, and a natural philosopher who became an advocate of C.R. Darwin's teachings ( On the Origin of Species, 1859) as early as 1862. He was highly instrumental in securing the acceptance of the theory of evolution in German-speaking countries ¶ and contributed to its further elaboration and expansion over and above Darwin, notably in the direction of an ideology and “monistic religion” (Monism). He became associate professor of comparative anatomy in 1862 and…

Haecker, Theodor

(187 words)

Author(s): Dunkel, Daniela
[German Version] (Jun 4, 1879, Eberbach – Apr 9, 1945, Usterbach), author and essayist. Throughout his life, Haecker was a close collaborator with his friend, the publisher Ferdinand Schreiber. Beginning in 1914, his work appeared in the journal Der Brenner published by Ludwig v. Ficker and from 1923 to 1941 in the Hochland published by Carl Muth. Haecker's translations include works by S. Kierkegaard, F. Thompson and Virgil. Influenced by Cardinal J.H. Newman's works, Haecker converted to Catholicism in 1921. Haecker's Christian philosophy was d…

Haemstede, Adriaen Cornelisz van

(161 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1525, Zierikzee/Zeeland [?] – c. 1562, Emden) studied law in Leuven, was ordained priest in 1552, and assumed leadership of the Reformed congregation in Antwerp in dangerous circumstances in 1556. Having sojourned in Aachen and Emden, Haemstede pastored the expatriate Dutch congregation in London from 1559. Here, he was excommunicated by archbishop Grindal in 1560 because of his tolerant attitude toward the Anabaptists. Finally expelled from England in 1562, he again worked in…

Haendler, Otto

(141 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] (Apr 18, 1890, Komsomolsk [Ger. Löwenhagen], Russia – Jan 12, 1981, Berlin). After pastoring in Gumtow, Prignitz and Stralsund, Haendler was director of the seminary in Stettin (1931–1935), pastor in Neuenkirchen near Greifswald (1935–1949) and professor of practical theology at Greifswald (1945–1951) and East Berlin (1951–1959). Marked by ¶ the depth psychology of C.G. Jung and the Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft, he became an early proponent of pastoral psychology in Germany before its broad acceptance after 1970. His 1941 textbook Die Predigt [The sermo…

Hafenreffer, Matthias

(179 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1561, Lorch – Oct 22, 1619, Tübingen) studied philosophy and theology in Tübingen and became a deacon in Herrenberg in 1586, pastor in Ehningen in 1588, and court preacher and consistorial counselor in Stuttgart in 1590. He received his doctorate in theology and became professor of theology in Tübingen (1592) and then chancellor (1617) and provost of the university. He was an important representative of post-Concord Lutheran theology. In contrast to J. Kepler, who valued …


(180 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (Heb. הָגָר) was Sarah's slave, Abraham's (Abraham: I) concubine and Ishmael's (I) mother in Gen 16; 21:9–21 and 25:12. On the ethnographical level, the origins of Ishmael's mother may have been (a) the city and region of Hagar in eastern Arabia attested from the late 2nd millennium bce to the end of the 1st millennium ce, modern t̲āg in al-ḥasā; (b) the extension of this geographical designation by the Achaemenid administration to all of northern Arabia and its inhabitants, which is certainly reflected in the designation Hag(a)rites …

Hagenbach, Karl Rudolf

(198 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Markus
[German Version] (Mar 4, 1801, Basel – Jun 7, 1874, Basel) studied philosophy, then theology in Basel (1815–1818), Bonn, especially with F. Lücke, and Berlin with A. Neander and F.D.E Schleiermacher (1820–1823). W.M.L. De Wette invited him to obtain his habilitation in Basel in 1823. Already associate professor of church history and the history of dogma by 1824 (1829, full professor), Hagenbach shaped the faculty in Basel for more than 50 years (Basel: II). As a member of the church council and the educational authority, since 1848 of the Grand Council, and as editor of the Kirchenblatt fü…


(360 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Klaus
[German Version] (Aramaicized form, Aggada), derived from Hebrew נגד/ ngd “to recount,” “to tell,” is already defined in medieval Jewish tradition, mostly negatively, as the non-legal branch of rabbinic literature and was employed as a complement to Halakhah. The source for the Haggadah is the material of the Hebrew Bible, which is presented – sometimes simply retold, sometimes supplemented with many new details – with educational, parenetic, promissory or some other homiletic intention and interpreted i…

Haggai/Book of Haggai

(936 words)

Author(s): Meyers, Carol L.
[German Version] I. Prophet and Setting – II. Literary Aspects – III. Message I. Prophet and Setting Very little is known about the prophet Haggai as a historical figure. What is known comes mainly from the book that bears his name, the tenth book in the Book of the Twelve (Prophetic Books) according to the Masoretic ordering. The name Haggai (Heb. חַגַּי/ ḥaggay), which is derived from חָג/ ḥag (“feast” or “holiday”), means “festal.” Together with his contemporary (First) Zechariah, Haggai is also mentioned in the book of Ezra (5:1; 6:14). In both Haggai and…

Hagia Sophia

(367 words)

Author(s): Schlüter, Sabine
[German Version] (“Holy Wisdom”) is the name of a few churches in the Byzantine Empire and in neighboring lands, including churches in Constantinople, Thessalonica, Ohrid and Kiev. The most important, the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople/Istanbul, was erected in 532–537 under Emperor Justinian I by Anthemios of Tralles and Isidoros of Mileto. Two previous structures had burned down (dates of dedication: 360, 415). Justinian's new structure is considered to be the most outstanding achievement of Byza…


(2,226 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Plank, Peter | Dan, Joseph
[German Version] I. Western Hagiography – II. Eastern Hagiography – III. Medieval and Modern Judaism I. Western Hagiography Western hagiography, as a literature that has no scholarly purpose but serves to venerate saints, first followed Greek examples. Its most important genre, the lives of the saints, is shaped less by the panegyric biography of the martyr bishop Cyprian of Carthage, written by the deacon Pontius (2nd half of 3rd cent. ce), than by the vitaes of the desert father Anthony of Padua, written by Athanasius (with two Latin translations), and of Martin …

Hague Society, The

(319 words)

Author(s): van Belzen, Jacob A.
[German Version] Hague Society, The, (Het Haagsch Genootschap) was originally subtitled “tot verdediging van de christelijke godsdienst” (“for the defense of the Christian religion”; dropped in 1998) “tegen deszelfs hedendaagse bestrijders” (“against its contemporary detractors”; dropped in 1835). It was founded in 1785 in opposition to the spirit of the Enlightenment (notably in opposition to J. Priestley). Initially characterized by an orthodox-supernaturalistic orientation and an apologetic mot…

Hahn, August

(304 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1792, Großosterhausen – May 13, 1863, Wrocław [Ger. Breslau], Poland), Protestant theologian. At the age of eight, Hahn lost his father, a cantor. His pietistic mother shaped his religion. In rationalist Leipzig, he studied Protestant theology and oriental philology. After three years as tutor, Carl Ludwig Nitzsch, Johann Friedrich Schleusner and Heinrich Leonhard Heubner in the Wittenberg seminary brought him back to revivalist piety and supranaturalism in 1817. In 1819,…

Hahn, Carl Hugo

(154 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1818, Riga, Latvia – Nov 24, 1895, Cape Town, South Africa). Sent by the Rhenish Mission to southwest Africa (Namibia) in 1842, Hahn studied the Herero language, wrote the first Herero grammar and translated first sections of the Bible. In 1844, he founded a so-called “mission colony” in which Christian life was to be shared and into which the converted Herero were to be incorporated. During his activity, Hahn laid the cornerstone for the Lutheran stamp on mission and chu…

Hahn, Johann Michael

(259 words)

Author(s): Brecht, Martin
[German Version] (authentically, only Michael; Feb 2, 1758, Altdorf near Böblingen – Jan 20, 1819, Sindlingen near Herrenberg), from a peasant background and, by profession even a farm hand, became within Württembergian Pietism, under the influence of J.A. Bengel, F.C. Oetinger and P.M. Hahn, a high-profile theosophic systematician (Theosophy) and an adherent of J. Böhme, with whom he shared the constitutive experience of the central view in which God is intuitively grasped in his will to create a…

Hahn, Philipp Matthäus

(298 words)

Author(s): Stäbler, Walter
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1739, Scharnhausen – May 2, 1790, Echterdingen), pastor and engineer. He pastored in Onstmettingen (1764), Kornwestheim (1770) and Echterdingen (1781). In Onstmettingen, Hahn disputed with E. Swedenborg and began, along with Philipp Gottfried Schaudt, the construction of astronomical works that earned Hahn the benevolence of the duke. In Kornwestheim, Hahn constructed a calculating machine and clocks; devotional classes enlivened his congregational work. In 1779, J.W. v. …

Hai Gaon

(187 words)

Author(s): Schlüter, Margarete
[German Version] (also: Hai ben Sherira; 939–1038), gaon of the Academy (Yeshivah) of Pumbedita from 1004 to 1038. Having already assisted his father Sherira Gaon as a young man, he became ab bet din (“Father of the Court,” the second highest in the hierarchy of the academy) in 985 and was appointed gaon during his father's lifetime. With the latter's help, he reestablished the “worldwide” authority and spiritual leadership of the Babylonian gaonate. Hai's prominence is largely due to the approx. 1,500 complete, fragmentary, or quoted ¶ responsa (representing ab…


(343 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl
[German Version] The care and style of one's hair is governed by the conventions prevailing at any one time, and a full head of hair is regarded everywhere as a sign of health, while its loss through violence or age is seen as dishonor or as powerlessness and decreasing vitality. This has resulted in hair being ascribed with a fairly constant symbolic and magical significance. As the hair (and nails) also continue growing shortly after death, they are seen as bearing the power to maintain and rais…


(1,047 words)

Author(s): Hurbon, Laënnec
[German Version] With an area of 27,750km2, Haiti occupies the western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, ¶ which was discovered by C. Columbus on Dec 5, 1492, and whose larger, eastern part belongs to the Dominican Republic. Haiti's indigenous population was virtually wiped out during Spanish rule. In 1697, Haiti became a French possession through the Treaty of Ryswick. With the approval of the French revolutionary government, the black population rose up against the white upper class on Aug 23, 1791, a…


(156 words)

Author(s): Hezser, Catherine
[German Version] In Wisdom and Sirach, Palestinian students of the Torah are already referred to as ḥakhamim, “wise men,” since wisdom is identified with the Torah (cf. e.g. Sir 24:19–29). The same meaning is attached to the term “wise” in the Qumran texts (Qumran) and in the NT. In rabbinic literature, ḥakhamim appears as a self-designation of the Tannaim. In the Mishnah and the Tosefta, halakhic teachings (Halakhah) are handed down in the name of these Hakhamim, who are presented as teachers of the Torah. They are regarded as moral authorities…


(1,115 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Klaus
[German Version] (from the Heb. הלך/ hlḥ; literally “to go, to walk”) described, in rabbinic usage, “the (particular) standardized religious rule, the prevailing precept” (Bacher), and later it also stood for Judaism's entire legal system. In addition to the Haggadah, i.e. the non-legal matters, the Halakhah represents one of the two main strands of rabbinic tradition. In this, the former is not of a legally binding character, and no Halakhah may be derived from the Haggadah. As for the derivation of the term Halakhah, the biblical usage of the verb הלך, as especially encountered in …

Halberstadt, Bishopric

(283 words)

Author(s): Sevrugian, Petra
[German Version] Under Charlemagne, Halberstadt was the eastern base for the forced conversion of the Saxons (establishment of the diocese, 804). In 989, Halberstadt obtained market, mint and tariff rights. Conflicts arose between the bishopric or the cathedral chapter (Canons Regular of St. Augustine, until 1810) and the city concerning jurisdiction, administration and property ownership. In 1179, Henry the Lion partially destroyed Halberstadt. In the 12th and 13th centuries, many orders took up …


(519 words)

Author(s): Chapman, Mark D.
[German Version] 1. Robert (Feb 28, 1764, London – Dec 12, 1842, Edinburgh). After an education in Dundee and Edinburgh and a brief naval career, Haldane settled on his estate at Airthrey near Stirling for ten years. By 1796 he sought to establish a mission to India by selling his estate. Thwarted in his efforts by the East India Company, Haldane turned his attention to home mission. In 1799 he left the Church of Scotland. He joined his brother James (2.) in Edinburgh and set about establishing tabernacles and training courses throughout Scotland. By ¶ 1810 he had spent over £70,000. In 1…

Hales, John

(156 words)

Author(s): James, Frank A. III
[German Version] (Apr 19, 1584, Bath – May 19, 1656, Eton) was an English clergyman and Greek scholar. He received his B.A. at Corpus Christi College in Oxford, and his M.A. at Merton College, being elected fellow there in 1606. In 1612 he was made professor of Greek at Oxford. Hales's great academic achievement was working with Sir Henry Savile to prepare a superb edition of Chrysostom. In 1618 Sir Dudly Caleton, the English ambassador to Holland, sent him to the Synod of Dort to report on its proceedings. This report was published in his book Golden Remains in 1659. Influenced by the syno…


(355 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] Halieutica, derived from Mark 1:17 (Gk ἁλιεὺς ἀνϑρώπων/ halieús anthrṓpôn, “fisher of men”), was the term for a sub-discipline of practical theology in the 19th century. G.A.F. Sickel introduced it in 1829. Against the background of the loss of pastoral effectiveness, he wanted to establish a “science… that, with greater attention to the inner being of a person, would instruct young theologians in how one could win people for the Kingdom of God through preaching that followed the laws of …


(5 words)

[German Version] Alleluia

Haller, Albrecht von

(390 words)

Author(s): Dellsperger, Rudolf
[German Version] (Oct 16, 1708, Bern – Dec 12, 1777, Bern), a pioneer of modern medicine and botany and an important 18th century poet and thinker. After studying in Tübingen, Leiden (, London, Paris and Basel, Haller was a physician in Bern (1729–1736). As professor of anatomy, botany and surgery in Göttingen (1736–1753), he contributed significantly to the rise of the young university (editor and author of the journal Göttingische Gelehrten Anzeigen, president of the Akademie der Wissenschaften [Academy of Sciences]). From 1753 until his death, he held pu…

Haller, Berchtold

(295 words)

Author(s): Dellsperger, Rudolf
[German Version] (1494 [1490?], Aldingen – Feb 25, 1536, Bern), schooled in Rottweil and Pforzheim (here with Melanchthon and S. Grynaeus), received the Bacc. artium in Cologne in 1511, became provisor of the Latin School in Bern (1513) and secular priest and canon of the Minster in 1520. Haller's historical importance consists in the trustworthy, persistent and circumspect manner in which he represented the Reformation impulse that reached Bern from Wittenberg, Zürich and Upper Germany. For years…

Haller, Johannes

(146 words)

Author(s): van Wijnkoop Lüthi, Marc
[German Version] (II; Jan 18,1523, Amsoldingen, Switzerland – Sep 11, 1575, Bern), a pastor's son, studied in Zürich, Tübingen, Marburg and Leipzig. After pastorates in the canton of Zürich and in Augsburg (1545–1547), Zürich let the church in Bern have him, provisionally in 1547 and definitively in 1550. As superintendent (1552), reformer of Saanen (1555/1556), promoter of church music (1558), defender of orthodoxy (against the Anabaptists, against V. Gentile 1566), translator and editor of a num…

Halle, University of

(794 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] The initiative to establish a university in Halle goes back to Albert of Brandenburg, who in 1531 obtained the founding privilege from the papal legate cardinal L. Campeggio. Lack of money and the introduction of the Reformation in the archdiocese of Magdeburg forestalled these plans, which were directed against Wittenberg University (Wittenberg, University of). When in 1680 the archdiocese fell to Brandenburg as the Duchy of Magdeburg, the founding plans were revived and were rea…

Hall, Granville Stanley

(286 words)

Author(s): Schlauch, Chris R.
[German Version] (Feb 1, 1844, Ashfield, MA – Apr 24, 1924, Worcester, MA) was a psychologist whose fame rested more on organizational and administrative than on scholarly contributions, though he published 489 works covering most of the major areas of psychology, including child study and developmental psychology. Hall grew up on a farm in New England. He experienced a religious conversion in his first year at Williams College. Later he enrolled at Union Theological Seminary, which he left after …

Hall, Joseph

(212 words)

Author(s): James, Frank A. III
[German Version] (Jul 1, 1574, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, England – Sep 8, 1656, Higham near Norwich, England) studied at Emmanuel College in Cambridge and began his career as a poet and satirist. In 1601 he became an Anglican clergyman, and, in 1616, chaplain to the English ambassador to France. Shortly thereafter Hall enjoyed the favor of James I, who sent him as his minister to the Synod of Dort in 1618. In 1627 Hall ¶ became bishop of Exeter and, in 1641, bishop of Norwich. For his book, Episcopacy by Divine Right (1640), Hall was charged with treason for pro-episcopacy along with eleve…

Hall, Thomas

(186 words)

Author(s): James, Frank A. III
[German Version] (Jul 22, 1610, Worcester – Apr 13, 1665, Kings Norton) was a notable clergyman. He began his education at Balliol College in Oxford, but, disliking his tutor, he transferred to Pembroke College, Oxford, from which he graduated in 1629. Hall became curate in Kings Norton under his brother, John Hall, whom he later succeeded as pastor. At the same time he was master of the local Grammar School established by King Edward VI. During this time, Hall converted to Presbyterianism, influe…


(7 words)

[German Version] Vision/Visionaccount, Auditory Hallucination


(692 words)

Author(s): Thümmel, Hans Georg
[German Version] In the 4th century, Christian art adopted the pagan custom of using the nimbus in illustrations to distinguish gods and other figures. (Contrary to O. Perler, Die Mosaiken der Juliergruft im Vatikan, 1953, there is no proof that the depiction of Sol [Sun: III] with its radiant nimbus in the mausoleum of Julius beneath St. Peter's in Rome is supposed to represent Christ. Compare Sol and the Seasons with nimbus, Rome, Peter and Marcellinus catacomb, chambers 45 and 67). The nimbus is meant to represent the supernatural glo…

Halyburton, Thomas

(153 words)

Author(s): Keith, Graham A.
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1674, Duplin, Perthshire – Sep 23, 1712, St. Andrews) was a Church of Scotland minister in Ceres (Fife) and was appointed professor of divinity at St. Andrews in 1710. He is known for his devotional and apologetic writings, all posthumously published. Halyburton combined academic rigor with a Calvinist piety that involved careful, though not fastidious, self-examination. His spiritual autobiography, Memoirs of the Life (1714), never intended for publication but compiled from private papers, proved popular among evangelicals in the Eng…

Hamann, Johann Georg

(499 words)

Author(s): Moustakas, Ulrich
[German Version] (Aug 27, 1730, Krolewiec [Ger. Königsberg], Poland – Jun 21, 1788, Münster) was a journalist and author who confronted the Enlightenment's self-conception with astute provocations. Stemming from the environment of a Pietism reconciled with the Enlightenment, Hamann underwent a decisive turn in his life during a personal crisis in London in 1758 in the context of intensive reading of the Bible. Without academic office, working briefly as editor for the Königsbergsche Gelehrte und Politische Zeitungen, then as translator, and finally as administrator of a…


(322 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar
[German Version] Hamath, city on the river Orontes in mid-Syria (modern Ḥamā) and an important regional center since the Bronze Age. Danish excavations (H. Ingholt, 1931–1938) document the existence of a settlement from the 5th millennium bce. A first historical mention of the city in the Ebla texts (3rd mill. bce) is controversial. The ancient name Hamath is not attested in the 2nd millennium bce, although archaeological remains of the Middle and Late Bronze Age have been uncovered. The settlement is mentioned in Assyrian texts from the 9th century onward (…


(2,853 words)

Author(s): Sprengler-Ruppenthal, Anneliese | Hering, Rainer
[German Version] I. City and Archbishopric – II. University I. City and Archbishopric 1. Bishopric and archbishopric The origins of the mission center probably go back to the time of Charlemagne. The “Hammaburg” ( hamma = meadows; burg = fortress, stronghold) was founded in 820 by Louis the Pious, and the church and, later, the cathedral were erected there. Ansgar was appointed bishop in 831 and archbishop in 834, and so the archbishopric of Hamburg was established, from which the evangelization of Denmark, Sweden, and the Slavic…

Hamelmann, Hermann

(208 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (1526, Osnabrück – Jun 26, 1595, Oldenburg), Lutheran theologian. He attended school in Osnabrück, Münster and Dortmund and studied in Cologne and Mainz (1549/1550). He served as a chaplain in Münster, became a priest (1550) and pastor in Kamen (1552). Initially a Reform Catholic opponent of the Reformation, he became a Lutheran in 1553 and was removed from office. Hamelmann after-¶ wards worked as a preacher in Bielefeld (Neustadt) in 1554, but was removed from office in 1555. He then became a preacher in Lemgo (Marien). He studied in Rost…

Hamilton, John

(162 words)

Author(s): Keith, Graham A.
[German Version] (c. 1511 – Apr 6, 1571, Stirling, Scotland) was an illegitimate son of the powerful first earl of Arran. After returning from his studies in Paris in 1543, he acquired political and ecclesiastical influence. In 1546 he was made archbishop of St. Andrews and primate of Scotland. From 1549 to 1559 Hamilton convened a series of synods to restore clerical standards, educate the laity, and drive back Protestantism. He had a catechism issued in Scottish dialect, whose tone was moderate …

Hamilton, Patrick

(173 words)

Author(s): Cameron, Euan
[German Version] (b. c. 1504 – executed St. Andrews, Feb 29, 1528) was an early Scottish reformer, who studied in Paris, then Louvain, and, in 1523, in St. Andrews. In St. Andrews he already showed sympathy with the ideas of Luther. In 1527 he visited first Wittenberg, then Marburg. There he wrote his Loci Communes, in which he developed the principal points of Luther's theology of justification. They embody the contrast between law and gospel, an understanding of faith as fiducia or trust in Christ as savior, and the doctrine that good works flow from faith. J. Frith revised the Loci as treat…

Hammarskjöld, Dag

(160 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1905, Jönköping, Sweden – Sep 17, 1961, near Ndola, Zambia), first held high government offices in Sweden. In 1953, he was appointed secretary-general of the UN. His negotiation skills enabled him to mediate in numerous conflicts. When he attempted to arbitrate in the Congo crisis, he died in an unexplained airplane crash. In 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize posthumously. During his lifetime, he was known to have only a general interest in religion. After his death, however – in express accordance with his will – his spiritual diary Vägmarken (1963; ET: Ma…

Hammerstein, Wilhelm von

(161 words)

Author(s): Laube, Martin
[German Version] (baron; Feb 21, 1838, Retzow – Mar 16, 1904, Berlin-Charlottenburg), politician. A member of the Prussian parliament (1873–1893) and the Reichstag (1881–1890, 1892–1895), and an executive editor of the Kreuzzeitung (1881–1895), he was, along with A. Stoecker, one of the leaders of the anti-Semitic Christian wing of the Deutschkonservative Partei (German Conservative Party). With his idea of a monarchial Christian state, he was in conflict with both O. von Bismarck and the agrarian wing of his own party. He opposed the policy of the Kulturkampf ,…


(440 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes
[German Version] Hammurabi, the most prominent ruler of the first dynasty of Babylon. His reign (1792–1750 bce) ¶ was dominated, first, by the successful struggle against Elam, which had claimed sovereignty over the states of Mesopotamia in order to gain control of the principal long-distance trade routes in the Near East. Second, his reign is also marked by numerous internal conflicts in Babylonia itself, especially in the context of the struggle for access to the waters of the Euphrates, which were of vital imp…

Hampton Court Conference

(167 words)

Author(s): Trueman, Carl Russell
[German Version] A conference that took place at Hampton Court in 1604 in the presence of James I. Since the reign of Edward VI, groups dissatisfied with the Book of Common Prayer and the perceived failure of the English authorities to instigate a ¶ thorough reformation had been pushing for further reforms in church polity and liturgy. The accession of James VI of Scotland in England raised new hopes among the Puritans and the Hampton Court Conference represented their attempt to push for a form of church government which would compromise…

Hamsun, Knut

(332 words)

Author(s): Sandberg, Hans-Joachim
[German Version] (Knut Pedersen; Aug 4, 1859, Garmostræet, Vågå, Norway – Feb 19, 1952, at Nörholmen near Grimstad, Norway), grew up in Hamsund (Hamarøy Island [Nordland]) after 1862. After years of wanderings as an agricultural worker and roadman, and as a postal aid in Norway and America (a treasure of experiences for his “Vagabond” novels), he became a pioneer of the literature of modernity with his early metropolitan novel Sult (1890) (ET: Hunger, 1908). He sensitively depicted the most nuanced emotions of his often provocative characters. He was a stylist with …

Hananias (Ananias)

(223 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Hananias (Ananias), the son of Nedebaeus, was appointed high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis, in 47 ce (Agrippa I and II; Jos. Ant. XX 5.2) and replaced by Ishmael under King Agrippa II in 59 ce ( Ant. XX 8.8). Following an altercation between Jews and Samaritans, Ananias was put in chains and sent with a delegation to the Roman emperor Claudius to give an account of himself (Jos. Bell. II 12.6; Ant. XX 6.2). In Acts 23:1–10, Paul faces Ananias during his interrogation by the Sanhedrin (the insult “whitewashed wall” is uttered according to Acts 23:3).…

Handel, George Frideric

(838 words)

Author(s): Böhmer, Karl
[German Version] (Feb 23, 1685, Halle – Apr 14, 1759, London), English composer of German origin (German name Georg Friedrich Händel). The most significant 18th-century master of the oratorio, one of the most important opera composers of his period; he and J.S. Bach perfected late Baroque (V) instrumental music. After teaching himself to play the harpsichord and basic instruction in composition with Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow, Handel, the son of a barber-surgeon, decided against the standard academic training of a professional musician. His cosm…

Handel-Mazzetti, Enrica

(269 words)

Author(s): Hausberger, Karl
[German Version] (baroness; Jan 10, 1871, Vienna – Apr 8, 1955, Linz, Austria). From a mixed-denomination noble family, Handel-Mazzetti received a very religious upbringing in the Institute of the English Ladies (Institutum Beatae Mariae Virginis) in Sankt Pölten before pursuing German and Romance studies. With her novels Meinrad Helmpergers denkwürdiges Jahr [Meinrad Helmperger's memorable year] (1897–1900) and Jesse und Maria (1904/1905 in the journal Hochland), she fulfilled Karl Muth's call for contemporary Catholic bellelettres. However, the author was …

Hand of God and Hand of Humans in Art

(952 words)

Author(s): Schroer, Silvia | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Ancient to Pre-Roman Times – II. From Roman Times I. Ancient to Pre-Roman Times From its earliest beginnings, ancient art reflected the central role of the hand in sign language. Hands were raised in prayer, incantation, greeting, blessing, and in delivering a blow. Hands were raised in entreaty and in mourning, or were thrown in the air in triumph. Hostility was averted with an extended hand and fingers or the fist. Parties to a contract shook the right hand as a sign of binding commitment…

Handsome Lake

(239 words)

Author(s): McNally, Michael
[German Version] (1735–1815), was a prophet and reformer from the Seneca Indian tribe who, with a series of visions, was able to attract a large group of adherents from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederation in the state of New York between 1799 and 1814. His early, apocalytpic visions from the years 1799–1801 revealed to his adherents the imminent judgment on the world and lively images of heaven and hell. His message called on his adherents to reject alcohol, sectarianism, and other vices as…


(336 words)

Author(s): Pitters, Hermann
[German Version] 1. Georg (Apr 28, 1672, Sighişoara [Ger. Schäßburg], Romania – Dec 15, 1740, Biertan [Ger. Bierthälm], Romania), Protestant bishop and historian in Transylvania. He studied in Wittenberg (1691–1695), where he received the M.A., was a teacher and principal in Sighişoara (1695–1698), then pastor in several rural congregations, in Mediaş (1713), and, finally, superintendent (bishop, 1736). In his Historia ecclesiarum Transylvanicarum (1694), still uncritically indebted to older, humanistic scholarship, Haner compiled collections of documents…


(190 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Annas; in Jos.: Ananos), high priest, the son of Sethi. Annas was installed as high priest in 6 ce by the Roman legate of Syria Quirinius (Jos. Ant. XVIII 26) and deposed in 15 ce by the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus ( Ant. XVIII 34) although he continued to bear the title (Luke 3:2, Acts 4:6). From his family, five other sons ( Ant. XX 198) held the office of high priest, including Annas II who was responsible for the death of James, brother of Jesus (62 ce), and, according to John 18:13, also his son-in-law Caiaphas (18–36 ce). According to the Johannine passion narrativ…


(337 words)

Author(s): Matthias, Markus
[German Version] 1. Meno (Mar 1, 1595, Blexen – Feb 17, 1671, Lübeck) Lutheran theologian. After studies in Gießen (1618 M.A.) and a co-rectorate (1619) in Oldenburg, Hanneken began theological studies in 1622, primarily in Wittenberg, and, after teaching philosophy (1626) in Marburg, he earned his Dr.theol. (1627) and became professor of theology and Hebrew in Marburg. In 1628, he married Justina Eleonora, the daughter of B.Mentzer. He became superintendent in Lübeck in 1646, where he challenged the authorization of Reformed worship, and opposed the Socinians and conventicles. Mar…


(1,363 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] I. City and Territory – II. Church History – III. Regional Church ( Landeskirche) I. City and Territory The settlement “on the high bank” (Honovere) of the River Leine was incorporated into the diocese of Minden following the Saxon wars of Charlemagne and was first referred to as a city in 1150. At the time of the Reformation, Hannover (German spelling) was one of the more important cities in the principality of Calenberg ¶ and disposed of five parish churches and 14 chapels. The citizenry enforced the Reformation against the will of the council and …

Hansen, Martin Alfred

(170 words)

Author(s): Schjørring, Jens Holger
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1909, Strøby, Denmark – Jun 27, 1955, Copenhagen), Danish author. The main character in his best-known novel Løgneren (1950; ET: The Liar, 1954) is an existentially irresolute teacher who, with his weak, indecisive character, always avoids the basic decisions in his life. In Hansen's late works, a poetic retrospective on the distant past dominates. Orm og Tyr [Lindworm and Steer] (1952) became significant in equal measure for the church and for cultural life. It is based on impressions of travels in the Nordic countries and is s…


(2,967 words)

Author(s): Gilhus, Ingvild Sælid | Steinmann, Michael | Sarot, Marcel | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Religion – II. Philosophy – III. History of Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Religion Talk of happiness refers to a deeper level of experience than enjoying oneself or feeling good. Happiness denotes success in life; the pursuit of happiness is a universal element in human life and thought. The hope of happiness may take ritual forms, especially in connection with rites of passage when a change of social position and status makes life uncertain, for instance at birth and weddings. The…


(431 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang
[German Version] Haran, Ḫarran, Greek and Latin Karr(h)ai, is a modern town and a major field of ruins near Altınbas̲ak, circa 40 km southeast of Canlıurfa in southeast Turkey. In the Old Testament (Gen 11:26–31), Haran was the brother of Abraham (I) and the father of Lot. The city of Haran was a stop on Abraham's way from Ur to Canaan (Gen 11:31; 12:4f.), and home of Laban, Rebekah's brother, where Jacob fled (Gen 27:43). The city, situated on a preferred trade route (cf. Ezek 27:23) through the …

Hardenberg, Albert Rizaeus

(246 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1510, Hardenberg, The Netherlands – May 18, 1574, Emden). Brought up among the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Groningen (1517–1527), Hardenberg became a monk in the Cistercian monastery of Aduard near Groningen (1528) and studied in Leuven from 1530 until receiving the Bacc.theol. Instead of a journey to Italy interrupted because of illness (1538), he earned the Dr.theol. in Mainz (1539). Arrested and charged as a Protestant in Leuven, he entered the Aduard monaste…

Harder, Günther

(208 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1902, Groß Breesen – Sep 12, 1978, Berlin), Dr.jur., Lic.theol., Dr.theol. Harder became pastor in Fehrbellin in 1929, district and precinct pastor of the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) and member of its administrative committees (1934–1945), co-founder of the Kirchliche Hochschule in Berlin (Christian College, Colleges and Universities, Christian) established on behalf of the Confessing Church (1935). He was a tutor in New Testament there (1936–1941 and 1945–1948)…

Harderwijk Academy

(151 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] The Gymnasium Illustre, in existence since 1600, was converted in 1648 by the councillors of the province of Gelderland into a college, which was in existence until 1812. It mostly remained in the shadows of the other Dutch universities where professors from Harderwijk gladly transferred to take up professorships. The theologian Bernhard Cremer (1717–1750), a proponent of the ideas of J. Cocceius, became rather well-known. The executive guarded orthodoxy, as in the trial of the su…

Hardouin, Jean

(188 words)

Author(s): Mulsow, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 23, 1646, Quimper, France – Sep 3, 1729, Paris) was a leading Jesuit philologist, numismatist and historian, professor of theology (1684–1714) and librarian at the Parisian Collège Louis-le-Grand. Hardouin was controversial because of his extreme historical Pyrrhonism: on the basis of numismatic findings, he considered all ancient texts except Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Horace ( Saturae, Epistulae) and Virgil ( Georgica) to be late medieval counterfeits. The Jesuits condemned his Opera selecta (1709). His Opera varia (1733) also caused a sensation sinc…

Hardt, Hermann von der

(182 words)

Author(s): vom Orde, Klaus
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1660, Melle – Feb 28, 1746, Helmstedt), became assistant professor and member of the Pietist Collegium Philobiblicum in Leipzig in 1687 and studied in Dresden with P.J. Spener, who regarded him as his closest confidant among the young Pietists. In the fall of 1687, together with A.H. Francke, he began further exegetical studies with C.H. Sandhagen in Lüneburg. He became secretary to Duke Rudolph August of Braunschweig in 1688 and became entangled in the beginning Pietist …

Hare Krishna

(6 words)

[German Version] ISKCON

Haring, Johann

(199 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] (Aug 5, 1867, Wettmannsstetten, Austria – Dec 25, 1945) studied theology in Graz and was ordained a priest in 1891. Haring received the Dr.theol. from Graz in 1896, he became lecturer (1899/1900), associate professor (1900) and professor (1906–1937) of church law at the faculty of theology in Graz, and, after 1929, an official of the diocese of Graz-Seckau and consultant for Roman congregations. Haring was one of the most important Austrian canonists of his time. His scholarly attention was primarily devoted to the law in force, from 1917 to the CIC. His work, Der Rechts-…

Harkness, Robert

(154 words)

Author(s): Cole, Keith
[German Version] (Mar 2, 1880, Bendigo, Australia – May 8, 1961, London). Harkness, a talented musician, ¶ was active as a pianist and composer for the Torrey-Alexander (1902–1909) and Chapman missions (1910–1916). He wrote 61 tunes and 14 hymn texts for Alexander's Hymns No. 3. In 1912 He married Adela Ruth Langsford. After World War I they moved to the USA, where he founded the Harkness Music Company and published three correspondence courses on hymn playing. He edited the periodical The Sacred Musician and wrote the biography Ruben Archer Torrey: The Man and His Message (1929). For 40…

Harleß, Adolf Gottlieb Christoph von

(312 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1806, Nürnberg – Oct 5, 1879, Munich), studied with F.W.J. Schelling and others in Erlangen (1823–1826) and with F.A.G. Tholuck in Halle (1826–1828). Under Tholuck's revivalist influence, he came to a “conversion experience.” He became professor in Erlangen in 1836, was transferred to Bayreuth as consistorial councillor (because of his vote in the “genuflexion controversy”), became professor in Leipzig (1845), preacher at the upper court and vice-president of the regional…

Harmony, Prestabilized

(6 words)

[German Version] Monad

Harms, Claus

(325 words)

Author(s): Hermelink, Jan
[German Version] (May 25, 1778, Fahrstedt – Feb 1, 1855, Kiel), a miller's apprentice, studied theology in Kiel (1799–1802). He was shaped by F.D.E. Schleiermacher Reden über die Religion (1799, 1993; ET: On Religion, 1988) and idealistic and mystical literature (Novalis). He became pastor in Lunden in 1806, arch-deacon (second pastor) in Kiel in 1816. He declined to succeed Schleiermacher as preacher in Berlin in 1834 and thereupon became senior pastor and provost in Kiel in 1835. Far beyond his home, Harms first became renowned as a preacher: more than 300 sermons, som…

Harms, Georg Ludwig Detlev Theodor

(169 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Christoffer Hinrich
[German Version] (also Georg Louis; May 5, 1808, Walsrode – Nov 14, 1865, Hermannsburg). Harms was the leading figure of the Her-¶ mannsburg Revival (Revival/Revival movements: I, 7), the effects of which are still felt today, and the founder of the Hermannsburg Mission (1849). After theological studies at Göttingen (1827–1830) and many years as a private tutor, during which he had been active in revival and missionary circles in northern Germany, on Oct 10, 1849, he became pastor in Hermannsburg, where he had alread…


(1,413 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] 1. Theodosius Andreas (Jan 3, 1817, St. Petersburg – Sep 23, 1889, Tartu [Ger. Dorpat], Estonia). Harnack studied at Dorpat from 1834 to 1837; after three years as a private tutor, he also studied at Berlin, Bonn, and Erlangen. He became a Privatdozent in 1843. From 1848 to 1852 and again from 1866 to 1875 he was professor of practical theology at Dorpat, from 1853 to 1866 at Erlangen. In 1852/1853 he taught systematic theology at Dorpat. He was orphaned at 15; in 1857 his first wife…

Harnisch, Christian Wilhelm

(276 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1787, Wilsnack – Aug 15, 1864, Berlin). After concluding his theological studies in Halle and Frankfurt an der Oder, Harnisch turned to education and became a teacher at the Plamann Institute for Education in Berlin. Critical engagement with the work of J.H. Pestalozzi became characteristic of his school practice and writing, beginning with Deutsche Volksschulen mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Pestalozzischen Grundsätze (German public schools with attention to the principles of Pestalozzi, 1812). Since 1812, as the first teacher in …

Haroutunian, Joseph

(152 words)

Author(s): Crocco, Stephen D.
[German Version] (Sep 18, 1904, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey – Nov 5, 1968, Chicago, IL), Presbyterian theologian, in the American tradition of pragmatism and J. Edwards. After studying at the American University in Beirut, Union Theological Seminary (New York), and Columbia University, he taught at various American institutions. As a theocentric Protestant, he castigated fundamentalism, liberalism, and early Neo-orthodoxy on the grounds that they were more interested in human sensitivities than in God. …

Harris, Howel

(204 words)

Author(s): Hindmarsh, Bruce
[German Version] (Jan 23, 1714, Trevecca, Wales – Jul 21, 1773, Trevecca, Breconshire, Wales), founder of Welsh Methodism (Methodists: II, 2). Originally intended for pastoral ministry in the Anglican Church, Harris became the head of a school after the death of his father in 1730. In 1735 he experienced an evangelical conversion and became a lay preacher. His preaching drew large crowds, and he began extended preaching tours. From 1735 to 1750 he was a key figure in the revival movement (Revival/…

Harris, William Wadé

(623 words)

Author(s): Shank, David A.
[German Version] (c. 1860 – 1929, Half Graway, Liberia, Africa), a West African (Liberian) Christian “prophet” who belonged to the Grebo people. After 1913–1915, he led a large movement, transcending ethnic groups, that turned away from tribal religion and that led to the origin of the Church of Twelve Apostles (Gold Coast), the Église Harriste (Ivory Coast) and finally to the tens of thousands of new members in Roman Catholic and Methodist missionary congregations. Harris's mother was a first-gen…

Hartenstein, Karl

(291 words)

Author(s): Rennstich, Karl Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1894, Cannstatt – Oct 1, 1952, Stuttgart). Hartenstein studied theology in Tübingen from 1913 to 1921 (interrupted by the war). The “crisis” of World War I led Hartenstein to the theology of K. Barth, which he utilized fruitfully for the theology of missions. Through his wife, Margarete (née Umfrid) and his brother-in-law, Hermann Umfrid, who “cried out for the Jews” in 1933 and was, therefore, driven to his death by the National Socialists, Hartenstein established a clos…

Hartlieb, Samuel

(176 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (or Hartlib; c. 1600, Elbing – 1662, London). After studying at Cambridge (1625/1626), Hartlieb moved permanently to England c. 1628. He combined enthusiasm for F. Bacon's scientific reforms with chiliastic expectations and utopian Christian ideas (J.V. Andreae), to whose realization he dedicated himself as an organizer, publisher, correspondent, and publicist. He saw the Puritan revolution as the onset of the millennium, which would bring to England a golden age of science togeth…

Hartmann, Eduard von

(174 words)

Author(s): Köhnke, Klaus Christian
[German Version] (Feb 23, 1842, Berlin – Jun 5, 1906, Berlin). The son of a Prussian major general, Hartmann served in the Prussian Guard Artillery Regiment from 1858 until retirement through invalidity (with the rank of first lieutenant) in 1865. He turned to the life of an autodidact and private scholar, attracting great public attention as a militant exponent of philosophical pessimism in the vein of A. Schopenhauer with his early work Philosophie des Unbewußten (1868, 121923; ET: Philosophy of the Unconscious, 1884). Despite many invitations to join the faculty of a Germ…
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