Religion Past and Present

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Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Haarbeck, Theodor

(176 words)

Author(s): Printz, Markus
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1846, Neukirchen – Dec 3, 1923, Wuppertal), studied theology in Basel, Tübingen and Bonn (1846–1868), taught in Bern (1868–1883), was inspector of St. Chrischona pilgrims mission (1883–1890), director of the Johanneum, a school for evangelists in Wuppertal-Barmen (1890–1919), and chair of the Gnadauer Verband (1911–1919). He received the D.theol. in Bonn (1919). Influenced by Reformed Pietism and the Kingdom of God theology of J.T. Beck, Haarbeck was concerned with holding together the church and the Gemeinschaftsbewegung (Community movement/Gemei…

Haase, Theodor Karl

(191 words)

Author(s): Schwarz, Karl
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1834, Lviv [Ger. Lemberg], Ukraine – Mar 27, 1909, Cieszyn/Český Těšín [Ger. Teschen], Poland/Czech Republic), Protestant theologian. After studying theology and philosophy in Vienna, Göttingen, Rostock (Dr.phil. 1856) and Berlin, he pastored in Bielitz (1859–1876) and Teschen (1876–1909). He was Senior (from 1865) and superintendent (from 1882), and a member of the General Synods (1871–1902), sometimes serving as their president. As a member of the synodal committee, he participated in the administration of the …

Habad Hasidism

(7 words)

[German Version] H asidism

Habakkuk/Book of Habakkuk

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart
[German Version] I. The Prophet – II. The Book – III. Effective History I. The Prophet The prophet Habakkuk lived in Jerusalem around 600 bce. His name is Assyrian in origin and derives from the Akkadian term for a garden plant ( ḫabb[m]aqūqu). He is described as a cult prophet ( nabı̑) (1:1), which is confirmed by the fact that he receives the word in a cultic location (2:1–3). Whether, however, his critique of the social abuses caused by the political and economic elite of Judah was part of his function or contradicted it, must remain as op…

Habakkuk Commentary

(548 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran, 1QpHab, belongs to the genre of continuous pesharim (thus also “Habakkuk Pesher”), i.e. those exegeses of a prophetic or psalm text which in Qumran interpret entire biblical books or parts of them in terms of the history of the Qumran-Essene (Essenes) community (the yaḥad). The manuscript of 1QpHab is unique, but certainly not an autography as copy errors and mistakes in the configuration of the columns indicate (II 5); it was copied in the last decades of the 1st century bce in Qumran – as can be deduced from the (typical) Ess…

Haberkorn, Peter

(179 words)

Author(s): Matthias, Markus
[German Version] (May 9, 1604, Butzbach – Apr 5, 1676, Gießen), Lutheran theologian. Orphaned in 1617, Haberkorn came in 1620 to K. Dieterich at the gymasium in Ulm, studied primarily in Marburg (beginning in 1625, M.A. 1627), and, after teaching philosophy in Marburg (1632), he received the Dr.theol. and became court preacher in Darmstadt. After 1636 in Gießen, he was appointed superintendent in 1643 and in 1650 professor of theology and Hebrew in Gießen. Married to Elisabetha Katharina, the daug…

Häberlin, Paul

(203 words)

Author(s): Wegenast, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1878, Kesswil, Switzerland – Sep 29, 1960, Basel), studied theology in Basel, Göttingen and Berlin (graduation 1900) and philosophy in Göttingen and Basel (doctorate 1903). He taught in the gymnasium in Basel (1903), was director of the teacher's academy in Kreuzlingen (1904–1909), became assistant professor of philosophy in Basel (1908–1914), and professor of philosophy, education and psychology in Bern ¶ (1914–1922) and in Basel (1922–1944). The accents of Häberlin's work lie on a dualist anthropology (mind – drive) and a resultin…

Habermann, Hans Max

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1885, Altona – Oct 30, 1944, Gifhorn). The son of a mastertailor initially became a bookseller in his home city. By reading the journal Der Kunstwart [custodian of art], he came into contact with the German social movement and the Deutsch-Nationaler Handlungsgehilfenverband (DHV, German National Association of Commercial Clerks), for which he began working in 1907. As editor of the Deutsche Handelswacht [German business watch] beginning in 1911, he advocated the superiority of models of corporative self-governance over against a soci…

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the Stift in Zeitz. Known to his contemporaries as a Hebraist (Hebrew grammar 1571, Hebrew dictionary 1588), ¶ he was remembered by later generations as the author of a Lutheran prayer book equal in popularity to the Paradiesgärtlein of Joha…

Habit (Custom)

(855 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics Aristotle used the term ἕξις/ héxis (Lat. habitus) to describe the basic condition for people (and not merely their actions) to be ethically qualified, if humans are inherently able to regularly and willingly limit their affects in life's basic situations to the right, situation-appropriate degree (cf. Eth. Nic. II, 3 and 4 [1105a 17–1106a 13]). The regularity of right conduct, for instance, which permits a person to be described as “righteous” refers to a habit or disposition acquired through…

Habit (Religious Attire)

(178 words)

Author(s): Haering, Stephan
[German Version] is the uniform and obligatory clothing (Clothing and Vestments) of the members of the various orders as determined by tradition and law ( CIC 1983, c. 669; CCEO, cc. 476, 540). As a rule, it is conferred in a worship service at the beginning of a person's life in the order (investiture). The habit should be simple (cf. PC 17); it is a symbol of membership in a specific community and of religious status. In some countries (e.g. Germany, Austria), civil law guarantees it a particular degree of protection. Som…


(1,050 words)

Author(s): Baum, Wilhelm
[German Version] This important European ruling family was first known in the middle of the 10th century in the Aargau and upper Alsace. Bishop Werner of Straßburg built the Habichtsburg near Brugg in the Aargau in 1029. Before 1135, the Habsburgs obtained the governorship of Lucerne, and in 1173 of Säckingen and Waldshut. In 1264, Count Rudolph I (d. 1291), from the Hohenstaufen entourage, obtained the inheritance of the Counts of Kyburg in the Thurgau along with Freiburg in Üchtland (Fribourg). …


(5 words)

[German Version] Pharisees


(5 words)

[German Version] Baal/Baalat


(340 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Hades is the realm of the dead (Death) lying beneath the earth (DeathDeath) or at the end of the world, i.e. beyond the reach of the sun, where the capacity to see and to enjoy life thus lapses into a state of slumber “without seeing” (ἀίδης/ a-ídēs, aspirated only in the Attic dialect as ᾅδης/ hadēs). Escorted by Hermes the “guide of souls” (ψυχοπομπός/ psychopompós), the dead are separated from the living by the burial mound, a gate, a river (Hom. Od. XI). The personification of this realm is the god Hades who, though powerful, cannot be propitiated through …

Hadewijch of Antwerp

(212 words)

Author(s): Faesen, Rob
[German Version] lived in the first half of the 13th century in Brabant and, along with Beatrice of Nazareth (1200–1268), is considered the first female author from the Netherlands. Nothing is known of her life; she may have been the leader of a community of Beguines. She was acquainted with texts by Bernard of Clairvaux, William of Saint-Thierry and Richard of St. Victor. In her Strofische Gedichten (Strophic Poems), she transformed profane into mystical love lyrics. In addition, she wrote visions, letters and rhymed ¶ letters ( Mengeldichten). Her work exhibits parallels with my…


(7 words)

[German Version] Pilgrimage/Places of Pilgrimage

Hadrian I, Pope

(296 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 9, 772 – Dec 25, 795). Hadrian was from the nobility in the city of Rome and soon broke with the pro-Lombard policy of his predecessor. He refused to anoint the sons of the deceased Frankish King Carloman and called Charlemagne to Rome, instead. He was received as patricius there at Easter 774 as the first Frankish king. Charlemagne took an oath of security, renewed the Donation of Pippin, and, thus, also promoted the extension of the Patrimonium Petri. In Rome, Hadrian christened Charlemagne's son Carloman Pippin and anointed him and Louis the Pious as…

Hadrian IV, Pope

(208 words)

Author(s): Tanner, Norman
[German Version] Dec 4, 1154 – Sep 1, 1159 (Nicholas Breakspear; c. 1100, Abbot's Langley or St. Albans, England – Sep 1, 1159, Anagni, Italy) was the only Englishman to become pope. As a young man he moved to France; he became abbot of St. Rufus in Avignon in 1137; in 1149 he became cardinal, and from 1150 to 1153 he was papal legate in Scandinavia. He was elected pope on Dec 4, 1154. Hadrian IV's reign was dominated by struggles with three parties: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, the commune of Ro…

Hadrian, Publius Aelius

(139 words)

Author(s): Klein, Richard
[German Version] Hadrian, Publius Aelius, Roman emperor (117–138). Hadrian, who was born in 76 ce in Italica (near Seville) and was “adopted” by Trajan as his successor, protected the empire with an active peace policy. An enthusiastic Philhellene, he adorned Athens with many structures. In Rome, the Pantheon, the temple for Venus and Roma and the Mausoleum (later the papal Castel Sant' Angelo) commemorate the highly educated ruler. The prohibition of circumcision issued throughout the empire and the attempt …

Hadrian VI, Pope

(474 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Peter
[German Version] Jan 9, 1522 (coronation Aug 31, 1522) – Sep 14, 1523 (Adrianus Florensz Boeyens, Adrian of Utrecht, b. Mar 2, 1459, Utrecht). Hadrian probably received his early education from the Brothers of the Common Life. In 1476, he began his studies at the University of Leuven (1491 Dr.theol.) where he held a professorship from 1489. He was twice rector of the University of Leuven (1493 and 1500–1501) and chancellor from 1497. Although he was more traditionally oriented himself, he supporte…

Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August

(493 words)

Author(s): Daecke, Sigurd
[German Version] (Feb 16, 1834, Potsdam – Aug 9, 1919, Jena) was a doctor of medicine, a zoologist, and a natural philosopher who became an advocate of C.R. Darwin's teachings ( On the Origin of Species, 1859) as early as 1862. He was highly instrumental in securing the acceptance of the theory of evolution in German-speaking countries ¶ and contributed to its further elaboration and expansion over and above Darwin, notably in the direction of an ideology and “monistic religion” (Monism). He became associate professor of comparative anatomy in 1862 and…

Haecker, Theodor

(187 words)

Author(s): Dunkel, Daniela
[German Version] (Jun 4, 1879, Eberbach – Apr 9, 1945, Usterbach), author and essayist. Throughout his life, Haecker was a close collaborator with his friend, the publisher Ferdinand Schreiber. Beginning in 1914, his work appeared in the journal Der Brenner published by Ludwig v. Ficker and from 1923 to 1941 in the Hochland published by Carl Muth. Haecker's translations include works by S. Kierkegaard, F. Thompson and Virgil. Influenced by Cardinal J.H. Newman's works, Haecker converted to Catholicism in 1921. Haecker's Christian philosophy was d…

Haemstede, Adriaen Cornelisz van

(161 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1525, Zierikzee/Zeeland [?] – c. 1562, Emden) studied law in Leuven, was ordained priest in 1552, and assumed leadership of the Reformed congregation in Antwerp in dangerous circumstances in 1556. Having sojourned in Aachen and Emden, Haemstede pastored the expatriate Dutch congregation in London from 1559. Here, he was excommunicated by archbishop Grindal in 1560 because of his tolerant attitude toward the Anabaptists. Finally expelled from England in 1562, he again worked in…

Haendler, Otto

(141 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] (Apr 18, 1890, Komsomolsk [Ger. Löwenhagen], Russia – Jan 12, 1981, Berlin). After pastoring in Gumtow, Prignitz and Stralsund, Haendler was director of the seminary in Stettin (1931–1935), pastor in Neuenkirchen near Greifswald (1935–1949) and professor of practical theology at Greifswald (1945–1951) and East Berlin (1951–1959). Marked by ¶ the depth psychology of C.G. Jung and the Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft, he became an early proponent of pastoral psychology in Germany before its broad acceptance after 1970. His 1941 textbook Die Predigt [The sermo…

Hafenreffer, Matthias

(179 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1561, Lorch – Oct 22, 1619, Tübingen) studied philosophy and theology in Tübingen and became a deacon in Herrenberg in 1586, pastor in Ehningen in 1588, and court preacher and consistorial counselor in Stuttgart in 1590. He received his doctorate in theology and became professor of theology in Tübingen (1592) and then chancellor (1617) and provost of the university. He was an important representative of post-Concord Lutheran theology. In contrast to J. Kepler, who valued …


(180 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (Heb. הָגָר) was Sarah's slave, Abraham's (Abraham: I) concubine and Ishmael's (I) mother in Gen 16; 21:9–21 and 25:12. On the ethnographical level, the origins of Ishmael's mother may have been (a) the city and region of Hagar in eastern Arabia attested from the late 2nd millennium bce to the end of the 1st millennium ce, modern t̲āg in al-ḥasā; (b) the extension of this geographical designation by the Achaemenid administration to all of northern Arabia and its inhabitants, which is certainly reflected in the designation Hag(a)rites …

Hagenbach, Karl Rudolf

(198 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Markus
[German Version] (Mar 4, 1801, Basel – Jun 7, 1874, Basel) studied philosophy, then theology in Basel (1815–1818), Bonn, especially with F. Lücke, and Berlin with A. Neander and F.D.E Schleiermacher (1820–1823). W.M.L. De Wette invited him to obtain his habilitation in Basel in 1823. Already associate professor of church history and the history of dogma by 1824 (1829, full professor), Hagenbach shaped the faculty in Basel for more than 50 years (Basel: II). As a member of the church council and the educational authority, since 1848 of the Grand Council, and as editor of the Kirchenblatt fü…


(360 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Klaus
[German Version] (Aramaicized form, Aggada), derived from Hebrew נגד/ ngd “to recount,” “to tell,” is already defined in medieval Jewish tradition, mostly negatively, as the non-legal branch of rabbinic literature and was employed as a complement to Halakhah. The source for the Haggadah is the material of the Hebrew Bible, which is presented – sometimes simply retold, sometimes supplemented with many new details – with educational, parenetic, promissory or some other homiletic intention and interpreted i…

Haggai/Book of Haggai

(936 words)

Author(s): Meyers, Carol L.
[German Version] I. Prophet and Setting – II. Literary Aspects – III. Message I. Prophet and Setting Very little is known about the prophet Haggai as a historical figure. What is known comes mainly from the book that bears his name, the tenth book in the Book of the Twelve (Prophetic Books) according to the Masoretic ordering. The name Haggai (Heb. חַגַּי/ ḥaggay), which is derived from חָג/ ḥag (“feast” or “holiday”), means “festal.” Together with his contemporary (First) Zechariah, Haggai is also mentioned in the book of Ezra (5:1; 6:14). In both Haggai and…

Hagia Sophia

(367 words)

Author(s): Schlüter, Sabine
[German Version] (“Holy Wisdom”) is the name of a few churches in the Byzantine Empire and in neighboring lands, including churches in Constantinople, Thessalonica, Ohrid and Kiev. The most important, the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople/Istanbul, was erected in 532–537 under Emperor Justinian I by Anthemios of Tralles and Isidoros of Mileto. Two previous structures had burned down (dates of dedication: 360, 415). Justinian's new structure is considered to be the most outstanding achievement of Byza…


(2,226 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Plank, Peter | Dan, Joseph
[German Version] I. Western Hagiography – II. Eastern Hagiography – III. Medieval and Modern Judaism I. Western Hagiography Western hagiography, as a literature that has no scholarly purpose but serves to venerate saints, first followed Greek examples. Its most important genre, the lives of the saints, is shaped less by the panegyric biography of the martyr bishop Cyprian of Carthage, written by the deacon Pontius (2nd half of 3rd cent. ce), than by the vitaes of the desert father Anthony of Padua, written by Athanasius (with two Latin translations), and of Martin …

Hague Society, The

(319 words)

Author(s): van Belzen, Jacob A.
[German Version] Hague Society, The, (Het Haagsch Genootschap) was originally subtitled “tot verdediging van de christelijke godsdienst” (“for the defense of the Christian religion”; dropped in 1998) “tegen deszelfs hedendaagse bestrijders” (“against its contemporary detractors”; dropped in 1835). It was founded in 1785 in opposition to the spirit of the Enlightenment (notably in opposition to J. Priestley). Initially characterized by an orthodox-supernaturalistic orientation and an apologetic mot…

Hahn, August

(304 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1792, Großosterhausen – May 13, 1863, Wrocław [Ger. Breslau], Poland), Protestant theologian. At the age of eight, Hahn lost his father, a cantor. His pietistic mother shaped his religion. In rationalist Leipzig, he studied Protestant theology and oriental philology. After three years as tutor, Carl Ludwig Nitzsch, Johann Friedrich Schleusner and Heinrich Leonhard Heubner in the Wittenberg seminary brought him back to revivalist piety and supranaturalism in 1817. In 1819,…

Hahn, Carl Hugo

(154 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1818, Riga, Latvia – Nov 24, 1895, Cape Town, South Africa). Sent by the Rhenish Mission to southwest Africa (Namibia) in 1842, Hahn studied the Herero language, wrote the first Herero grammar and translated first sections of the Bible. In 1844, he founded a so-called “mission colony” in which Christian life was to be shared and into which the converted Herero were to be incorporated. During his activity, Hahn laid the cornerstone for the Lutheran stamp on mission and chu…

Hahn, Johann Michael

(259 words)

Author(s): Brecht, Martin
[German Version] (authentically, only Michael; Feb 2, 1758, Altdorf near Böblingen – Jan 20, 1819, Sindlingen near Herrenberg), from a peasant background and, by profession even a farm hand, became within Württembergian Pietism, under the influence of J.A. Bengel, F.C. Oetinger and P.M. Hahn, a high-profile theosophic systematician (Theosophy) and an adherent of J. Böhme, with whom he shared the constitutive experience of the central view in which God is intuitively grasped in his will to create a…

Hahn, Philipp Matthäus

(298 words)

Author(s): Stäbler, Walter
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1739, Scharnhausen – May 2, 1790, Echterdingen), pastor and engineer. He pastored in Onstmettingen (1764), Kornwestheim (1770) and Echterdingen (1781). In Onstmettingen, Hahn disputed with E. Swedenborg and began, along with Philipp Gottfried Schaudt, the construction of astronomical works that earned Hahn the benevolence of the duke. In Kornwestheim, Hahn constructed a calculating machine and clocks; devotional classes enlivened his congregational work. In 1779, J.W. v. …

Hai Gaon

(187 words)

Author(s): Schlüter, Margarete
[German Version] (also: Hai ben Sherira; 939–1038), gaon of the Academy (Yeshivah) of Pumbedita from 1004 to 1038. Having already assisted his father Sherira Gaon as a young man, he became ab bet din (“Father of the Court,” the second highest in the hierarchy of the academy) in 985 and was appointed gaon during his father's lifetime. With the latter's help, he reestablished the “worldwide” authority and spiritual leadership of the Babylonian gaonate. Hai's prominence is largely due to the approx. 1,500 complete, fragmentary, or quoted ¶ responsa (representing ab…


(343 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl
[German Version] The care and style of one's hair is governed by the conventions prevailing at any one time, and a full head of hair is regarded everywhere as a sign of health, while its loss through violence or age is seen as dishonor or as powerlessness and decreasing vitality. This has resulted in hair being ascribed with a fairly constant symbolic and magical significance. As the hair (and nails) also continue growing shortly after death, they are seen as bearing the power to maintain and rais…


(1,047 words)

Author(s): Hurbon, Laënnec
[German Version] With an area of 27,750km2, Haiti occupies the western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, ¶ which was discovered by C. Columbus on Dec 5, 1492, and whose larger, eastern part belongs to the Dominican Republic. Haiti's indigenous population was virtually wiped out during Spanish rule. In 1697, Haiti became a French possession through the Treaty of Ryswick. With the approval of the French revolutionary government, the black population rose up against the white upper class on Aug 23, 1791, a…


(156 words)

Author(s): Hezser, Catherine
[German Version] In Wisdom and Sirach, Palestinian students of the Torah are already referred to as ḥakhamim, “wise men,” since wisdom is identified with the Torah (cf. e.g. Sir 24:19–29). The same meaning is attached to the term “wise” in the Qumran texts (Qumran) and in the NT. In rabbinic literature, ḥakhamim appears as a self-designation of the Tannaim. In the Mishnah and the Tosefta, halakhic teachings (Halakhah) are handed down in the name of these Hakhamim, who are presented as teachers of the Torah. They are regarded as moral authorities…


(1,115 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Klaus
[German Version] (from the Heb. הלך/ hlḥ; literally “to go, to walk”) described, in rabbinic usage, “the (particular) standardized religious rule, the prevailing precept” (Bacher), and later it also stood for Judaism's entire legal system. In addition to the Haggadah, i.e. the non-legal matters, the Halakhah represents one of the two main strands of rabbinic tradition. In this, the former is not of a legally binding character, and no Halakhah may be derived from the Haggadah. As for the derivation of the term Halakhah, the biblical usage of the verb הלך, as especially encountered in …

Halberstadt, Bishopric

(283 words)

Author(s): Sevrugian, Petra
[German Version] Under Charlemagne, Halberstadt was the eastern base for the forced conversion of the Saxons (establishment of the diocese, 804). In 989, Halberstadt obtained market, mint and tariff rights. Conflicts arose between the bishopric or the cathedral chapter (Canons Regular of St. Augustine, until 1810) and the city concerning jurisdiction, administration and property ownership. In 1179, Henry the Lion partially destroyed Halberstadt. In the 12th and 13th centuries, many orders took up …


(519 words)

Author(s): Chapman, Mark D.
[German Version] 1. Robert (Feb 28, 1764, London – Dec 12, 1842, Edinburgh). After an education in Dundee and Edinburgh and a brief naval career, Haldane settled on his estate at Airthrey near Stirling for ten years. By 1796 he sought to establish a mission to India by selling his estate. Thwarted in his efforts by the East India Company, Haldane turned his attention to home mission. In 1799 he left the Church of Scotland. He joined his brother James (2.) in Edinburgh and set about establishing tabernacles and training courses throughout Scotland. By ¶ 1810 he had spent over £70,000. In 1…

Hales, John

(156 words)

Author(s): James, Frank A. III
[German Version] (Apr 19, 1584, Bath – May 19, 1656, Eton) was an English clergyman and Greek scholar. He received his B.A. at Corpus Christi College in Oxford, and his M.A. at Merton College, being elected fellow there in 1606. In 1612 he was made professor of Greek at Oxford. Hales's great academic achievement was working with Sir Henry Savile to prepare a superb edition of Chrysostom. In 1618 Sir Dudly Caleton, the English ambassador to Holland, sent him to the Synod of Dort to report on its proceedings. This report was published in his book Golden Remains in 1659. Influenced by the syno…


(355 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] Halieutica, derived from Mark 1:17 (Gk ἁλιεὺς ἀνϑρώπων/ halieús anthrṓpôn, “fisher of men”), was the term for a sub-discipline of practical theology in the 19th century. G.A.F. Sickel introduced it in 1829. Against the background of the loss of pastoral effectiveness, he wanted to establish a “science… that, with greater attention to the inner being of a person, would instruct young theologians in how one could win people for the Kingdom of God through preaching that followed the laws of …


(5 words)

[German Version] Alleluia

Haller, Albrecht von

(390 words)

Author(s): Dellsperger, Rudolf
[German Version] (Oct 16, 1708, Bern – Dec 12, 1777, Bern), a pioneer of modern medicine and botany and an important 18th century poet and thinker. After studying in Tübingen, Leiden (, London, Paris and Basel, Haller was a physician in Bern (1729–1736). As professor of anatomy, botany and surgery in Göttingen (1736–1753), he contributed significantly to the rise of the young university (editor and author of the journal Göttingische Gelehrten Anzeigen, president of the Akademie der Wissenschaften [Academy of Sciences]). From 1753 until his death, he held pu…

Haller, Berchtold

(295 words)

Author(s): Dellsperger, Rudolf
[German Version] (1494 [1490?], Aldingen – Feb 25, 1536, Bern), schooled in Rottweil and Pforzheim (here with Melanchthon and S. Grynaeus), received the Bacc. artium in Cologne in 1511, became provisor of the Latin School in Bern (1513) and secular priest and canon of the Minster in 1520. Haller's historical importance consists in the trustworthy, persistent and circumspect manner in which he represented the Reformation impulse that reached Bern from Wittenberg, Zürich and Upper Germany. For years…

Haller, Johannes

(146 words)

Author(s): van Wijnkoop Lüthi, Marc
[German Version] (II; Jan 18,1523, Amsoldingen, Switzerland – Sep 11, 1575, Bern), a pastor's son, studied in Zürich, Tübingen, Marburg and Leipzig. After pastorates in the canton of Zürich and in Augsburg (1545–1547), Zürich let the church in Bern have him, provisionally in 1547 and definitively in 1550. As superintendent (1552), reformer of Saanen (1555/1556), promoter of church music (1558), defender of orthodoxy (against the Anabaptists, against V. Gentile 1566), translator and editor of a num…
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