Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Hartmann, Johann Ludwig

(180 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 3, 1640, Rothenburg ob der Tauber – Aug 18, 1680, Rothenburg ob der Tauber). After studying at Wittenberg under A. Calovius, in 1660 Hartmann became pastor in Spielbach, in 1661 rector of the gymnasium in Rothenburg, and in 1666 pastor of Sankt Jakobi and superintendent. After receiving his doctorate from Tübingen in 1670, he published several volumes of sermons (including Das wahre Christenthum… in einer Hertz Postill, 1671)…

Hartmann, Nicolai

(551 words)

Author(s): Ströker, Elisabeth
[German Version] (Feb 20, 1882, Riga, Latvia – Oct 9, 1950, Göttingen), came to philosophy, particularly that of Marburg Neo-Kantianism, by way of the study of medicine and classical philology. This led him to a critical analysis of epistemological idealism. Also influenced by the phenomenological method developed by E. Husserl and its modification by M. Scheler, Hartmann arrived at a way to a new ontology in 1921 in his work Grundzüge einer Metaphysik der Erkenntnis [Principles of a metaphysics of cognition]. This ultimately guided him into an ontological realism. Hi…

Hartmann von Aue

(738 words)

Author(s): Ruberg, Uwe
[German Version] (c. 1160 – c. 1210), along with Heinrich von Veldeke, one of the founders of classical courtly literature in Middle High German. Origins and sphere of activity are to be sought in Swabia-Alemannia, perhaps in the surroundings of the ducal court of the house of Zähringen. According to his own statement, he was a “dienstman” ( ministerialis) in a place called “Ouwe” (which cannot be identified with certainty). He proudly ident…

Harvard University

(203 words)

Author(s): Shoemaker, Stephen P.
[German Version] America's oldest institution of higher learning was founded in 1636 by the Puritans only six years after their arrival in Massachusetts Bay. Around 1805, the Unitarians assumed oversight over the University, a move that reflected a change in theological orientation. After a few years, the decision was made to establish a school devoted to theological studies separate from the College. The beginnings of the Divinity School cannot be dated precisely. The program was in full operation, how…

Hase, Cornelius de

(209 words)

Author(s): vom Orde, Klaus
[German Version] (Nov 13, 1653, Frankfurt am Main – May 16, 1717, Bremen), Reformed theologian. Hase studied under J. Cocceius and T. Undereyck. The latter, with whom he lived in Kassel, arranged a junior appointment as Frühprediger with the Martinikirche in Bremen in 1676. In 1679 he became the assistant; in 1683 he was also appointed professor of ¶ theology at the Bremen gymnasium, where he served several terms as rector. In 1685 he received his doctorate in theology from Groningen. In 1693 he was appointed chief pastor of the Martinikirche and in 170…

Hase, Karl August von

(411 words)

Author(s): Jaeger, Bernd
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1800, Niedersteinbach – Jan 3, 1890, Jena), representative of critical theology and liberal Protestantism in the 19th century. After an eventful youth (theological studies in Leipzig and Erlangen, expelled from both universities for fraternity activities, Habilitation in Tübingen 1823, imprisoned in Hohenasperg 1824/25, renewed Habilitation in Leipzig 1828), Hase was called to Jena in 1830 where he taught until 1883 and was the dominant figure on the faculty. He attained …

Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard

(380 words)

Author(s): vom Orde, Klaus
[German Version] (Jul 12, 1736, Wechte – Jun 27, 1777, Duisburg), in his youth contacts with members of the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements) from the Ravensberger Land. After studying at the Calvinist College in Lingen, he wrote a number of works that earned him charges of Socinian heterodoxy and of rejecting the church's doctrine of atonement, charges which, despite the publication of an explanation, he was not able to deflect. Prompted by mystical experiences, he attempted to co…

Hasidic Tales

(276 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] The use of narrative literature in the presentation of Hasidism occurred mainly more than a century after the beginning of the movement. It peaked in the period between 1863 and 1914 when many scores of collections of Hasidic tales were published in Hebrew and Yiddish, mainly in Poland. In the ealier period of Hasidism, only two narrative works were published, both in 1815: Shivchey ha-Besht [In praise of the Besht], a hagiographic biography of the founder of the movement, Israel Baʾal Shem Tov (acronym Besht; this collection became paradigmat…


(1,178 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] I. Modern Hasidism – II. Ashkenazi Hasidism I. Modern Hasidism Hasidism is the largest and most important Orthodox Jewish religious movement of the modern period. Founded in southern Russian by Rabbi Israel Baʾal ¶ Shem Tov (acronym Besht) in the middle of the 18th century, it spread throughout Europe in the 19th century. Today its strongholds are in the great cities on the East Coast …


(5 words)

[German Version] Maccabees

Hasper, Hendrik

(149 words)

Author(s): Luth, Jan R.
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1886, Enumatil – Mar 24, 1974, Rijswijk). Hasper, who studied theology at Amsterdam from 1905 to 1913, served as a pastor on the island of Schiermonnikoog, in Oldeboorn, in Heemstede, and in The Hague. He is a major figure in hymnology. His published works include a history of the Genevan Psalter (Psalms/Psalter: IV, 3.b). His views on the notation of its tunes and his interpretation of Calvin's guidelines for singing in church were controversial. He was very disappointed…

Haßler, Hans Leo

(294 words)

Author(s): Zager, Daniel
[German Version] (baptized on Oct 26, 1564, Nuremberg – Jun 8, 1612, Frankfurt am Main), an ¶ organist and composer from a family of musicians. His father Isaak (c. 1530–1591) was an organist, his brother Kaspar (1562–1618) an organist and composer as well as publisher of various printed compilations of music, while his brother Jakob (1569–1622) was also an organist and composer. Haßler began studying under his father in Nuremberg, but went to Venice in 1584 to study under A. Gabrieli. In 1586, he secured his fi…


(1,212 words)

Author(s): Schoberth, Wolfgang | Winkler, Klaus
[German Version] I. Bible and Dogmatics – II. Psychology and Ethics I. Bible and Dogmatics Because hatred, as opposed to spontaneous and short-lived affects such as anger and wrath, refers to a long-term attitude (I. Kant; cf. II below) which grips a person entirely, the biblical antithesis of hatred and love can denote a comprehensive alternative of extremes in which human beings find themselves. The biblical texts speak of love and hatred in the context of situations that make nuanced reflection impossible…

Hattem, Pontiaen van

(235 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (1645, Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands – 1706, Bergen op Zoom), Reformed pastor in Sint Philipsland (Tholen Island, Zeeland) after 1672. In 1680, he fell under suspicion of teaching Spinozism in ecclesial guise. The responsible classical assembly of Tholen submitted the manuscript of his catechetical instruction to the judgment of the theology faculties in Leiden and Utrecht. The latter condemned it as blasphemous and Hattem was suspended. After a trial lasting three years, the pr…


(207 words)

Author(s): Seeher, Jürgen
[German Version] The capital of the Hittites (Asia Minor) in Central Anatolia, near Boǧazköy or Boǧazkale in the province of Çorum, 150 km east of Ankara in present-day Turkey, was sporadically inhabited from the Chalcolithic period onward. In the 19th and 18th centuries bce, it was the site of a karum (an Assyrian trading ¶ colony). From c. 1600 bce, it was the capital and residence of the Hittite kings. The walled city territory reached a size of 180 hectares and was studded with official buildings and also comprised palatial structures protected by m…

Hätzer, Ludwig

(168 words)

Author(s): Klaassen, Walter
[German Version] (c. 1500, Bischofszell, Switzerland – 1529, Constance). After receiving a Humanist education, in 1523 Hätzer supported Zwingli's Reformation in Zürich, in this context writing a pamphlet against images that was based on the biblical prohibition (Veneration of images: VI). He was banished in 1525 because he had criticized infant baptism the year before. He traveled extensively and had many friends among the Reformers of southern Germany. He produced translations of the Reformers' w…

Hauck, Albert

(358 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Dec 9, 1845, Wassertrüdingen, – Apr 7, 1918, Leipzig), the most important Protestant church historian of Wilhelmine Germany besides A. v. Harnack, studied Protestant theology in Erlangen and Berlin. He experienced formative impulses of Erlangen Lutheranism from J.C. von Hofmann and Gustav Leopold Plitt, and, in the spirit of historicism, from L. v. Ranke. Having passed the qualifying exam for theology in Bavaria (1868), Hauck entered into church service. On the basis of a monogra…

Hauer, Jakob Wilhelm

(241 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] (Apr 4, 1881, Ditzingen – Feb 18, 1962, Tübingen), educated in the Basel Mission and, after 1907, a missionary in India. Hauer was shaped by Wurttembergian Pietism, studied Indology and taught as professor of Indology (and general history of religions) in Marburg after 1925 (cooperation with F. Heiler, R. Otto), then in Tübingen beginning in 1927 ( Glaube und Blut, 1938). Chancellor of the Köngener Bund from 1920, co-founder (1933), then leader of the Deutsche Glaubensbewegung (German Faith Movement) (1934–1936), and editor of the journal Deutscher Glaube (1933–194…

Hauge, Hans Nielsen

(343 words)

Author(s): Jensen, Oddvar Johan
[German Version] (Apr 3, 1771, Rolvsøy, Norway – Mar 29, 1824, Aker, Norway), farmer's son ¶ reared in Pietism. In his parental home, he read Luther, Johann Arndt, H. Müller and E. Pontoppidan. On Apr 5, 1796, Hauge had a life-changing religious experience and from then on was active throughout Norway as a lay preacher and author, forming community associations and calling for lay preaching. His preaching was closely related to his work to improve agriculture and to establish industrial and trade concerns. Haug…

Haug, Johann Friedrich

(316 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (often erroneously called Heinrich; Apr 17, 1680, Strasbourg – Mar 12, 1753, Berleburg). While still a theology student in his hometown, Haug was already involved in a fierce controversy concerning Pietist-Philadelphian conventicles. Following his banishment (1705) and a two-year sojourn in Esslingen that also ended with his expulsion ( Zeugnuß der Liebe an die Inwohnere der Stadt Straßburg und Eißlingen [Testimony of love to the inhabitants of the city of Strassburg and Eißlingen] (1708), Haug settled with his father David and his brothe…
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