Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Hauptmann, Gerhart

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Sprengel, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1862, Szcawno Zdrój [Ger. Bad Salzbrunn], Poland – Jun 6, 1946, Jagniątków [Ger. Agnetendorf], Poland). Hauptmann, who gained international fame with the social drama in Silesian dialect Die Weber (1892; ET: The Weavers, 1977; Nobel Prize, 1912), is the best-known representative of naturalism in German literature. After an uncertain search, the production of Vor Sonnenaufgang (Berlin, 1889; ET: Before Daybreak, 1978), which was surrounded by scandal, brought his breakthrough to success, which was consolidated through his long-term …

Hausmann, Nikolaus

(201 words)

Author(s): Beyer, Michael
[German Version] (1478/1479, Freiberg – Nov 3, 1538, Freiberg). The son of a town councillor, Hausmann began to study the liberal arts in 1498 in Leipzig, received his M.A. in 1503, and was ordained in Altenburg. He became a preacher in Schneeberg and a close follower of Luther from 1519. In 1521 he took over the pastoral position at St. Mary's in Zwickau (the center of early Reformation activity) and, in careful cooperation with the city council, established a Protestant church presence. As a cle…


(378 words)

Author(s): Bunners, Christian
[German Version] The term Hausmusik (house music) arose in connection with the Lutheran culture of hymns (first used by Bartholomäus Gesius, 1605; Church song). It refers to interactive music-making in homes or other spheres of daily life, generally in groups and not in public. Into the 20th century, important parts of European music were oriented toward house performance without the term always being used. German Protestant Hausmusik is older and more comprehensive than the normal use of the term might imply, extending from songs for one voice to complex voca…

Hausrath, Adolf

(392 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1837, Karlsruhe – Aug 2, 1909, Heidelberg), a Protestant church historian. The son of a prominent pastor from Baden, Hausrath studied Protestant theology and history from 1856 onward in liberal Jena, where K.A. v. Hase became his teacher and close friend. Following study visits to Göttingen, Berlin, and Heidelberg, Hausrath earned his Lic.theol. in Berlin with a study entitled Der Ketzermeister Konrad von Marburg (1861). After completing his curacy, he gained his Habilitation in Heidelberg in 1862 and was employed as an assessor in the…


(386 words)

Author(s): Fitzgerald, John T.
[German Version] The term Haustafel, “domestic code,” refers to a list of the various duties and responsibilities of the members of a household. Such lists appear in ancient ¶ ethical literature and set out the appropriate behavior toward gods, the state, friends, other members of the household, and outsiders. Content, form, and function vary considerably; domestic codes appear in the unwritten laws of Greek popular culture (Aesch. Supplices 701–709), in various philosophical traditions (Cic. Off. 1.17.58; Sen. Ep. 94.1; Ps-Plut. Moralia 7e; Hierocles Stoicus), Hellenistic …


(272 words)

Author(s): Strohmaier-Wiederanders, Gerlinde
[German Version] A German castle has existed on the narrow mountain ridge along the River Havel since 929. Emperor Otto the Great founded a bishopric here in 948, which was not permanently occupied until the mid-12th century. Premonstratensians constituted the cathedral chapter and began the construction of ¶ the cathedral, characterized by a broad westwork, in 1150. Anselm of Havelberg, the most important theologian from the bishopric, called it turris fortitudinis because the location of the cathedral chapter in the still pagan environment continued to be very p…

Hävernick, Heinrich Andreas Christoph

(173 words)

Author(s): Garbe, Irmfried
[German Version] (Dec 29, 1811, Kröpelin – Aug 19, 1845, Neustrelitz), Protestant theologian and OT exegete. After a solid philological training, Hävernick studied Protestant theology and Semitic languages from 1827 to 1830 in Leipzig, Halle, and Berlin, where he received his Lic.theol. and Dr.phil. A follower of F.A.G. Tholuck in the theological controversies of the period, in Berlin he became a devoted student of E.W. Hengstenberg. On the recommendation of both, he received a call to the École d…

Hawthorne, Nathaniel

(190 words)

Author(s): Meller, Horst
[German Version] (Aug 4, 1804, Salem, MA – May 19, 1864, Plymouth, NH), Romantic master of American fiction and classical interpreter of New England Puritanism (Puritans/Puritanism). One of his ancestors, a judge in the 18th-century Salem witchcraft trials and immortalized by Hawthorne in the patriarch of The House of the Seven Gables (1851), stands under the family curse: “God will give him blood to drink.” In 1808 Hawthorne's father, a ship's captain, died of yellow fever in Surinam, leaving the family impoverished. After graduation from colle…


(586 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Flynn, William
[German Version] 1. Franz Joseph (Mar 31, 1732, Rohrau, Austria – May 31, 1809, Vienna) was an Austrian composer of great importance for the history of music, who strongly influenced the mellow classical style and the form of the symphony, the string quartet, and the piano sonata. In addition, he composed 14 masses (IV), six oratorios and secular songs, church songs, chamber music, as well as various instrumental works. He received his musical education from the age of six, attending the choir school…

Hayek, Friedrich August von

(245 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] (May 8, 1899, Vienna – Mar 23, 1992, Freiburg i.Br.), studied law and economics in Vienna, was director of the Östereichisches Institut für Konjunkturforschung (Austrian Institute for Economic Research) (1927–1931), held professorships in the London School of Economics (1931–1950), Chicago (1950–1962), Freiburg im Breisgau (1962–1968), and received the Nobel Memorial Prize from the Bank of Sweden in 1974. Beginning with studies on monetary and economic cyle theory, Hayek turned in ¶ the 1940s to the study of the theoretical, socio-philosophical and a…


(163 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] Ever since the Catalogus illustrium virorum Germaniae (1495) of J. Trithemius, Haymo of Halberstadt, bishop from 840 to 853, has been identified as the author of numerous biblical commentaries, printed in volumes 116–118 of Migne's PL. Probably, however, not a few of these commentaries were actually written by Haymo of Auxerre, who headed an important school from the middle through the second half of the 9th century at the Abbey of St. Germain in Auxerre. Today the widely disseminated c…

Haynes, Lemuel

(206 words)

Author(s): Saillant, John
[German Version] (Jul 18, 1753, Westfort, CT – Sep 28, 1833, Granville, NY), was a black pastor who, on the basis of the theology of J. Edwards, fought against slavery and racial discrimination. The son of a white woman and a black man, he grew up as a slave and served as a solder in the American War of Independence. He published essays and sermons. His reform ideas were influenced by Edwards and the English abolitionists (Abolitionism): reason knows of the existence of God ¶ and the injustice of slavery, but from reason alone no moral teaching can be derived. Sin is intentional…


(333 words)

Author(s): Na'aman, Nadav
[German Version] (“enclosure”) was a large fortified town in northern Galilee, situated at the intersection of the roads leading northwards from the Jordan valley to the Beqa valley and the Lebanese coast. The most important city in Canaan in the 2nd millennium bce, Hazor is mentioned in the clay tablets from the 18th century bce that were excavated in Mari dealing with the diplomatic and trade relations to the Mesopotamian and North Syrian kingdoms. Hazor asserted its position in northern Canaan even after the Egyptian conquest of the land in 1457 bce. The settlement of ancient Hazor…


(6 words)

[German Version] Ritual Killing

Headlam, Stewart Duckworth

(158 words)

Author(s): Mosig, Jörg
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1847, Wavertree, England – Nov 18, 1924, St. Margaret's-on-Thames), Anglican priest. During his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 1869), Headlam was inspired by F.D. Maurice. His liberal theological views and many controversial campaigns, for example, his defense of the theater and dancing as well as his public support of O. Wilde, shocked the Victorian ecclesiastical establishment, which forced him to resign from all his church posts. A sensational speech in Tr…


(7 words)

[German Version] Sickness and Healing

Healing and Anointing

(323 words)

Author(s): White, James F.
[German Version] From the earliest period, healing has played a role in Christianity. The Gospels are replete with accounts of Jesus' healing, and the apostles continued this practice (Mark 6:13). The key passage for all subsequent developments is Jas 5:14–16. The elders “pray over” the sick, “anointing them with oil in the name of the Lord” in order to heal body and soul (Sickness and Healing). All Christians should pray for the healing of others. The 3rd-century apostolic tradition knew of an ep…

Healing Gods

(438 words)

Author(s): Gladigow, Burkhard
[German Version] Among different activities and capabilities, the capacity to heal has also been attributed to gods (Gods, Groups of). Protecting, preserving, delivering and healing are part of a broad spectrum of concepts about the activity of the gods. Healing gods in the more restricted sense, legitimized as the sons or daughters of the great gods, exercise specific activities and sometimes bear reference to their medical activity in their names (Mesopotamia, Syria). In accordance with the soci…

Healing Movements in Religion

(792 words)

Author(s): Bergler, Thomas
[German Version] (in North America). A widespread belief in supernatural healing has survived all attacks from the Enlightenment and the natural sciences brought against it in the history of America. In the American colonial period, it was a component of the conceptual world of population groups of African, European and American origin. In the late 18th century, educated Protestant clergy under the influence of the Enlightenment began to doubt the validity of contemporary accounts of miracles. Thi…


(1,154 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Josef N.
[German Version] I. Ethics – II. Practical Theology I. Ethics Health is a normative concept denoting the physical, psychological, and mental state in which individuals ought to find themselves, so as to be able to cope positively with their situation. Thus, health may not be defined as an ideal condition, but always only as an individual's capacity to act independently. Therefore, health cannot be equated with the absence of sickness (Sickness and Healing), just as sickness does not merely mean the loss of health. Heal…
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