Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Hardenberg, Albert Rizaeus

(246 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1510, Hardenberg, The Netherlands – May 18, 1574, Emden). Brought up among the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Groningen (1517–1527), Hardenberg became a monk in the Cistercian monastery of Aduard near Groningen (1528) and studied in Leuven from 1530 until receiving the Bacc.theol. Instead of a journey to Italy interrupted because of illness (1538), he earned the Dr.theol. in Mainz (1539). Arrested and charged as a Protestant in Leuven, he entered the Aduard monaste…

Harder, Günther

(208 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1902, Groß Breesen – Sep 12, 1978, Berlin), Dr.jur., Lic.theol., Dr.theol. Harder became pastor in Fehrbellin in 1929, district and precinct pastor of the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) and member of its administrative committees (1934–1945), co-founder of the Kirchliche Hochschule in Berlin (Christian College, Colleges and Universities, Christian) established on behalf of the Confessing Church (1935). He was a tutor in New Testament there (1936–1941 and 1945–1948)…

Harderwijk Academy

(151 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] The Gymnasium Illustre, in existence since 1600, was converted in 1648 by the councillors of the province of Gelderland into a college, which was in existence until 1812. It mostly remained in the shadows of the other Dutch universities where professors from Harderwijk gladly transferred to take up professorships. The theologian Bernhard Cremer (1717–1750), a proponent of the ideas of J. Cocceius, became rather well-known. The executive guarded orthodoxy, as in the trial of the su…

Hardouin, Jean

(188 words)

Author(s): Mulsow, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 23, 1646, Quimper, France – Sep 3, 1729, Paris) was a leading Jesuit philologist, numismatist and historian, professor of theology (1684–1714) and librarian at the Parisian Collège Louis-le-Grand. Hardouin was controversial because of his extreme historical Pyrrhonism: on the basis of numismatic findings, he considered all ancient texts except Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Horace ( Saturae, Epistulae) and Virgil ( Georgica) to be late medieval counterfeits. The Jesuits condemned his Opera selecta (1709). His Opera varia (1733) also caused a sensation sinc…

Hardt, Hermann von der

(182 words)

Author(s): vom Orde, Klaus
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1660, Melle – Feb 28, 1746, Helmstedt), became assistant professor and member of the Pietist Collegium Philobiblicum in Leipzig in 1687 and studied in Dresden with P.J. Spener, who regarded him as his closest confidant among the young Pietists. In the fall of 1687, together with A.H. Francke, he began further exegetical studies with C.H. Sandhagen in Lüneburg. He became secretary to Duke Rudolph August of Braunschweig in 1688 and became entangled in the beginning Pietist …

Hare Krishna

(6 words)

[German Version] ISKCON

Haring, Johann

(199 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] (Aug 5, 1867, Wettmannsstetten, Austria – Dec 25, 1945) studied theology in Graz and was ordained a priest in 1891. Haring received the Dr.theol. from Graz in 1896, he became lecturer (1899/1900), associate professor (1900) and professor (1906–1937) of church law at the faculty of theology in Graz, and, after 1929, an official of the diocese of Graz-Seckau and consultant for Roman congregations. Haring was one of the most important Austrian canonists of his time. His scholarly attention was primarily devoted to the law in force, from 1917 to the CIC. His work, Der Rechts-…

Harkness, Robert

(154 words)

Author(s): Cole, Keith
[German Version] (Mar 2, 1880, Bendigo, Australia – May 8, 1961, London). Harkness, a talented musician, ¶ was active as a pianist and composer for the Torrey-Alexander (1902–1909) and Chapman missions (1910–1916). He wrote 61 tunes and 14 hymn texts for Alexander's Hymns No. 3. In 1912 He married Adela Ruth Langsford. After World War I they moved to the USA, where he founded the Harkness Music Company and published three correspondence courses on hymn playing. He edited the periodical The Sacred Musician and wrote the biography Ruben Archer Torrey: The Man and His Message (1929). For 40…

Harleß, Adolf Gottlieb Christoph von

(312 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1806, Nürnberg – Oct 5, 1879, Munich), studied with F.W.J. Schelling and others in Erlangen (1823–1826) and with F.A.G. Tholuck in Halle (1826–1828). Under Tholuck's revivalist influence, he came to a “conversion experience.” He became professor in Erlangen in 1836, was transferred to Bayreuth as consistorial councillor (because of his vote in the “genuflexion controversy”), became professor in Leipzig (1845), preacher at the upper court and vice-president of the regional…

Harmony, Prestabilized

(6 words)

[German Version] Monad

Harms, Claus

(325 words)

Author(s): Hermelink, Jan
[German Version] (May 25, 1778, Fahrstedt – Feb 1, 1855, Kiel), a miller's apprentice, studied theology in Kiel (1799–1802). He was shaped by F.D.E. Schleiermacher Reden über die Religion (1799, 1993; ET: On Religion, 1988) and idealistic and mystical literature (Novalis). He became pastor in Lunden in 1806, arch-deacon (second pastor) in Kiel in 1816. He declined to succeed Schleiermacher as preacher in Berlin in 1834 and thereupon became senior pastor and provost in Kiel in 1835. Far beyond his home, Harms first became renowned as a preacher: more than 300 sermons, som…

Harms, Georg Ludwig Detlev Theodor

(169 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Christoffer Hinrich
[German Version] (also Georg Louis; May 5, 1808, Walsrode – Nov 14, 1865, Hermannsburg). Harms was the leading figure of the Her-¶ mannsburg Revival (Revival/Revival movements: I, 7), the effects of which are still felt today, and the founder of the Hermannsburg Mission (1849). After theological studies at Göttingen (1827–1830) and many years as a private tutor, during which he had been active in revival and missionary circles in northern Germany, on Oct 10, 1849, he became pastor in Hermannsburg, where he had alread…


(1,413 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] 1. Theodosius Andreas (Jan 3, 1817, St. Petersburg – Sep 23, 1889, Tartu [Ger. Dorpat], Estonia). Harnack studied at Dorpat from 1834 to 1837; after three years as a private tutor, he also studied at Berlin, Bonn, and Erlangen. He became a Privatdozent in 1843. From 1848 to 1852 and again from 1866 to 1875 he was professor of practical theology at Dorpat, from 1853 to 1866 at Erlangen. In 1852/1853 he taught systematic theology at Dorpat. He was orphaned at 15; in 1857 his first wife…

Harnisch, Christian Wilhelm

(276 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1787, Wilsnack – Aug 15, 1864, Berlin). After concluding his theological studies in Halle and Frankfurt an der Oder, Harnisch turned to education and became a teacher at the Plamann Institute for Education in Berlin. Critical engagement with the work of J.H. Pestalozzi became characteristic of his school practice and writing, beginning with Deutsche Volksschulen mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Pestalozzischen Grundsätze (German public schools with attention to the principles of Pestalozzi, 1812). Since 1812, as the first teacher in …

Haroutunian, Joseph

(152 words)

Author(s): Crocco, Stephen D.
[German Version] (Sep 18, 1904, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey – Nov 5, 1968, Chicago, IL), Presbyterian theologian, in the American tradition of pragmatism and J. Edwards. After studying at the American University in Beirut, Union Theological Seminary (New York), and Columbia University, he taught at various American institutions. As a theocentric Protestant, he castigated fundamentalism, liberalism, and early Neo-orthodoxy on the grounds that they were more interested in human sensitivities than in God. …

Harris, Howel

(204 words)

Author(s): Hindmarsh, Bruce
[German Version] (Jan 23, 1714, Trevecca, Wales – Jul 21, 1773, Trevecca, Breconshire, Wales), founder of Welsh Methodism (Methodists: II, 2). Originally intended for pastoral ministry in the Anglican Church, Harris became the head of a school after the death of his father in 1730. In 1735 he experienced an evangelical conversion and became a lay preacher. His preaching drew large crowds, and he began extended preaching tours. From 1735 to 1750 he was a key figure in the revival movement (Revival/…

Harris, William Wadé

(623 words)

Author(s): Shank, David A.
[German Version] (c. 1860 – 1929, Half Graway, Liberia, Africa), a West African (Liberian) Christian “prophet” who belonged to the Grebo people. After 1913–1915, he led a large movement, transcending ethnic groups, that turned away from tribal religion and that led to the origin of the Church of Twelve Apostles (Gold Coast), the Église Harriste (Ivory Coast) and finally to the tens of thousands of new members in Roman Catholic and Methodist missionary congregations. Harris's mother was a first-gen…

Hartenstein, Karl

(291 words)

Author(s): Rennstich, Karl Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1894, Cannstatt – Oct 1, 1952, Stuttgart). Hartenstein studied theology in Tübingen from 1913 to 1921 (interrupted by the war). The “crisis” of World War I led Hartenstein to the theology of K. Barth, which he utilized fruitfully for the theology of missions. Through his wife, Margarete (née Umfrid) and his brother-in-law, Hermann Umfrid, who “cried out for the Jews” in 1933 and was, therefore, driven to his death by the National Socialists, Hartenstein established a clos…

Hartlieb, Samuel

(176 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (or Hartlib; c. 1600, Elbing – 1662, London). After studying at Cambridge (1625/1626), Hartlieb moved permanently to England c. 1628. He combined enthusiasm for F. Bacon's scientific reforms with chiliastic expectations and utopian Christian ideas (J.V. Andreae), to whose realization he dedicated himself as an organizer, publisher, correspondent, and publicist. He saw the Puritan revolution as the onset of the millennium, which would bring to England a golden age of science togeth…

Hartmann, Eduard von

(174 words)

Author(s): Köhnke, Klaus Christian
[German Version] (Feb 23, 1842, Berlin – Jun 5, 1906, Berlin). The son of a Prussian major general, Hartmann served in the Prussian Guard Artillery Regiment from 1858 until retirement through invalidity (with the rank of first lieutenant) in 1865. He turned to the life of an autodidact and private scholar, attracting great public attention as a militant exponent of philosophical pessimism in the vein of A. Schopenhauer with his early work Philosophie des Unbewußten (1868, 121923; ET: Philosophy of the Unconscious, 1884). Despite many invitations to join the faculty of a Germ…
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