Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Iglesia Filipina Independiente

(238 words)

Author(s): Sitoy, T. Valentino S. Jr.
[German Version] (IFI; Philippine Independent Church), with two million members in 1999, is an independent and nationalistic Philippine Catholic Church, rooted in the Filipino clergy's 19th-century struggle for dignity and equal opportunity with Spanish friars in appointment to the parishes. During the Philippine Revolution against Spain in 1896–1898, Filipino priests controlled all the 800 parishes in the country. Opposition by Rome to an 1899 plan to organize an indigenous hierarchy prompted the…

Iglesia ni Cristo

(260 words)

Author(s): Sitoy, T. Valentino S. Jr.
[German Version] (INC; Church of Christ) is an indigenous Philippine evangelical church, which was founded in 1914 by Felix Y. Manalo (1886–1963), who served as its executive minister for 49 years till his death. Born a Catholic, Manalo had taken a spiritual pilgrimage through the Iglesia Filipina Indepediente, the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Disciples missions prior to gathering a following around himself. Unitarian in theology, the INC teaches only one true God and no salvation outside the Chur…

Iglesia y Sociedad en América Latina

(174 words)

Author(s): Mendonça, Antonio Gouvêa
[German Version] (ISAL; also: Movimiento de ISAL; Commission for Church and Society in Latin America). The ISAL arose in 1955 in Latin America in the context of Protestant intellectual youth organizations that were critical of capitalism; it was decisively influenced by notions stemming from dependency theory and by Richard Shaull's revolutionary theology. Having initially concentrated its theological work on the elites, the ISAL modified its course of action in 1975 and now strove to educate the …

Ignatian Epistles

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Dehandschutter, Boudewijn
[German Version] I. Ignatius of Antioch – II. Transmission and authenticity – III. Themes I. Ignatius of Antioch According to Eusebius of Caesarea ( Hist. eccl. III 36) Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, second in succession to Peter (the Disciple), was sent from Syria to Rome to die as a Martyr. On his journey he wrote seven letters to give thanks to the Christian communities that supported him and to exhort them to maintain unity, avoiding heretical tendencies (namely Judaism and Docetism). From Smyrna he wrote to the Ephesians ( Eph.), the Magnesians ( Magn.), the Trallians ( Trall.), and t…

Ignatius of Antioch

(8 words)

[German Version] Ignatian Epistles

Ignatius of Constantinople

(165 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (d. Oct 23, 877). The son of Emperor Michael I Rangabe, after whose deposition (813) he was forced to become a monk, was elevated uncanonically (without vote of a synod) to the patriarchate by Empress Theodora II in 847. After her fall in 858, he had to resign in favor of Photius. Pope Nicholas I did not recognize his resignation. In the context of the rapprochement with the West of Emperor Basileios I, which resulted in the deposition of Photius, Ignatius was reappointed as patriarch in 867; in a conflict with Rome over ecclesiastical jurisdic…

Ignatius of Loyola

(1,653 words)

Author(s): Sievernich, Michael
[German Version] (Iñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; 1491, Loyola – Jul 31, 1556, Rome) founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). I Iñigo de Loyola was born in 1491 as the 13th child of a Basque noble family at the castle of Loyola near Azpeitia (in the province of Guipúzcoa), received a court education at the palace of the royal treasurer in Arévalo and, after the latter's death, entered the service of the viceroy of Navarra as an officer. Seriously wounded in the leg during the defense of Pamplona against French troops on May 20, 1521, for lack of chivalrous romances, he read the Vita Christi by Ludolf …


(349 words)

Author(s): Hilpert, Konrad
[German Version] Since knowledge and volition are indispensable for moral behavior, ignorance of the facts, in its various forms, represents a factor that influences moral decision. As a component of the respective understanding of responsibility and as a precondition for any definition of guilt and meriting punishment, consideration of ignorance plays at least an implicit role in any ¶ ethics. Its explicit treatment and central position is a typical characteristic of moral theology since the High Middle Ages. At that time, theologians such as Abelard, …
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