Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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La Salle, Jean Baptiste de

(313 words)

Author(s): Schotte, Alexandra
[German Version] (Apr 30, 1651, Reims – Apr 7, 1719, Rouen), was a pastor and educator who founded the French primary school system. He was canonized in 1900. The son of an old French aristocratic family, La Salle was ordained to the priesthood in 1678 and appointed cathedral canon in Reims in the same year. He acquired his first impressions of educational practice while working in the institute of the “Sisters of the Infant Jesus” (School Sisters) established by his spiritual mentor Abbé Nicolas …

Läsare

(345 words)

Author(s): Montgomery, Ingun
[German Version] (“readers”). The so-called “läsare” go back to the Swedish Herrnhuter revival movement (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, Revival/Revival Movements). The movement began around 1750 in Västergötland, where the appellation läsare was first used for edification meetings characterized by diligent Bible readings. The readings attained their greatest significance in Norrland, where they gave rise to a deep and austere piety that manifested itself in frequent “village praying hours” during which laypersons read aloud…

Lasaulx, Amalie von

(204 words)

Author(s): Berlis, Angela
[German Version] (Oct 19, 1815, Koblenz – Jan 28, 1872, Vallendar) joined the order of the Borromeans (Sister Augustine) in Nancy in 1840, trained as a pharmacist, and began working at Aachen Hospital in 1842. She took permanent vows in 1843 and offici-¶ ated as the first mother superior of the St. Johannis Hospital in Bonn from 1849 to 1871, becoming widely known through care of the wounded from the German-Danish War (1864) and the Austro-Prussian War (1866). Lasaulx concerned herself with the theological issues of the time and cultivat…

Las Casas, Bartolomé de

(815 words)

Author(s): Delgado, Mariano
[German Version] (1484, Seville – Jul 18, 1566, Madrid). From 1502 to 1514, Las Casas was a prospector, field chaplain (ordained priest in 1507), and encomendero in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti) and Cuba. At Pentecost in 1514 he was converted to a messianic Christianity out of pity and compassion for the Indians (Native American Indians), in whom he saw “scourged Christs.” Appointed Protector de los Indios by Cardinal F. Jiménez de Cisneros in 1516, he led an unsuccessful mission in Hispa…

Lascaux Grotto

(263 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] is a long, multi-branched cave located in the vicinity of Montignac (Dordogne, near Périgueux) that was discovered in 1940. Its walls and ceilings are decorated with the most extensive cylce of paintings ever discovered in a prehistoric cave. At first, they were very well preserved, but have suffered greatly from algae. The cave was closed in 1963 and a viewing copy was installed nearby. Almost 1,500 individual depictions have been counted. Animals, especially wild horses, but als…

Lasitius, Johann

(249 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Dietrich
[German Version] (Jan Lasicki; 1533 or 1534, Lasice – after Jan, 1599). From the lower Polish nobility and with a humanist education, Lasitius joined the Reformed in Poland. As the tutor of the sons of the Polish nobility, he visited the Western European centers of education in Strasbourg, Geneva, Zürich, Basel, Paris, and Heidelberg, traveled to England, Italy, and Bohemia, and maintained contacts with Calvin, T. Beza, and S. Castellio. He suffered from the schisms of his church in Poland (Antitr…

Lasker-Schüler, Else

(382 words)

Author(s): Meier, Andreas
[German Version] ( née Elisabeth Schüler; Feb 11, 1869, Elbertfeld – Jan 22, 1945, Jerusalem). “The greatest lyric poet Germany ever had” (G. Benn) was the daughter of a Jewish banker. In 1894 she married Berthold Lasker, a physician, with whom she moved to Berlin. There through Peter Hille ( Das Peter Hille Buch, 1906) and the Neue Gemeinschaft, founded by Heinrich and Julius Hart, she came into contact with the bohemian world of Berlin. During a second marriage (1903–1912) to Georg Lewin, whom she gave the pseudonym Herwarth Walden – the background of her autobiographical Mein Herz (1912)…

Laski, Jan

(302 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut
[German Version] (à Lasco; 1499, Łask – Jan 8, 1560, Pińczów). The scion of high Polish nobility, Laski received a broad Humanistic education as a young man. A period of study with Erasmus of Rotterdam in Basel in 1525 left an indelible impression on him. Political circumstances prevented a career in the church hierarchy of Poland. Contacts with Melanchthon in 1537 and A. Hardenberg in 1539 indicated his sympathy for the Reformation, which was recognized in 1542 when he was appointed superintenden…

Lassalle, Ferdinand

(290 words)

Author(s): Jähnichen, Traugott
[German Version] (to 1846: Lassal; Apr 11, 1825, Breslau [Wrocław] – Aug 31, 1864, Geneva, following a duel). On May 23, 1863, Lassalle became president of the first German labor party, the General German Workers' Association, one of the two parties that later formed the Social Democratic Party. He came from a well-to-do merchant family of liberal, assimilated Jews in Breslau. As a student of law and philosophy in Breslau, Berlin, and Paris, he was attracted to the left-wing Hegelians. During the …

Lasso, Orlando di

(376 words)

Author(s): Körndle, Franz
[German Version] (Orlandus Lassus, Orlando de Lassus; 1532 probably at Mons, Spanish Hainaut – Jun 14, 1594, Munich), Franco-Flemish composer. Taken into the service of Ferdinando Gonzaga, viceroy of Sicily, he came to Italy (Mantua, Genoa, Palermo, Naples, and Rome), where in 1553/1554 he was director of music for the Basilica of St. John Lateran. In 1554, however, he returned to his homeland. After a brief stay in England, he worked in Antwerp, where he published his first book of motets. From there he was summoned to Munich in 1556 by Duke Albrecht V of ¶ Bavaria, as a tenor and compose…

Last Judgment

(2,320 words)

Author(s): Hjelde, Sigurd | Sauter, Gerhard | Klein, Peter K.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Dogmatics – III. Art History I. History of Religions The Last Judgment is a divine judgment of all humankind that takes place at the end of time (End of the world). Unlike the particular judgment of each individual immediately after death, it is necessarily associated with the idea of universal history, which plays a fundamental role in Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra) as well as in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Here the understanding of reality is shaped by the eon…

Last Sacraments

(9 words)

[German Version] Anointing of the Sick

Late Antique Religions

(575 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Johannes
[German Version] The “Constantinian turn” in 312 ce, after which Christianity and the church were massively promoted by the state, was not matched by a general decline of pagan (polytheistic) cults in Late Antiquity and the centuries immediately following. The 2nd and 3rd centuries had witnessed new religious developments such as the invasion of Eastern cults, worship of the sun, and the increasing popularity of oracles. Now in the 4th century, despite growing imperial pressure (conflict over the altar…

Late Antiquity

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
[German Version] Ever since C.-L. de Montesquieu and E. Gibbon, Roman history of the 4th and 5th centuries has been viewed primarily as a history of decadence and decline. The centuries preceding the fall of the Roman Empire in the West were interpreted consistently as a period of deterioration that affected architecture, art, and literature as well. In 1764 Johann J. Joachim Winckelmann spoke of a deterioration of sculpture and painting in the period after Commodus, and J. Burckhardt was referring explicitly to architecture, art, and literature when he used such terms as aging, senilit…

Lateran Councils

(2,427 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] The Lateran Councils, which were held in the papal palace in Rome, the Lateran, belong among the so-called “papal councils,” because they were convened and largely defined by the bishop of Rome. In the wake of the Counter-Reformation they were counted as the 9th-12th and the 18th ecumenical councils. First Lateran Council. Called in June 1122 by Pope Callistus II, this synod, which met Mar 27–28, 1123 and was attended only by Western representatives, set out to continue the Gregorian “reforms,” after the Concordat (Concordats) of …

Lateran Treaties

(401 words)

Author(s): Hollerbach, Alexander
[German Version] The Lateran Treaties were an agreement, signed in the Lateran Palace on Feb 11, 1929, by cardinal secretary of state P. Gasparri and Mussolini, between the Apostolic See and the Kingdom of Italy, comprising a trattato (treaty) and the Italian concordat. A special financial agreement formed an integral part of the trattato. The major purpose of the agreement was to resolve the so-called Roman question, which had become urgent since the dissolution of the Papal States – in other words, to clarify the position of the Holy See in the …

Latermann, Johannes

(167 words)

Author(s): Wartenberg, Günther
[German Version] (Feb 7, 1620, Gellershau- sen, Coburg – 1662, Austria), studied in Helmstedt (G. Calixtus, K. Horneius). During the 1645 Conference of Thorn, he joined C. Dreier and M. Behm from Königsberg. Latermann represented their concerns consistently and, in a vigorous disagreement with the Lutheran clergy of the city under C. Myslenta, sparked the “Latermann Affair” that culminated in the Syncretistic Controversy. Sponsored by Elector Frederick William I, he became associate professor at t…

Latimer, Hugh

(177 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485, Thurcaston, Leicestershire – Oct 16, 1555, Oxford). The son of a free peasant, Latimer studied theology from 1506 onward at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A. 1510, M.A. 1514). Having initially defended the old faith as a preacher and university lecturer, he joined the Reformation around 1524 under the influence of T. Bilney. Highly esteemed at the court of Henry VIII for a time (appointment as bishop of Worcester in 1535), he fell out of favor from ¶ 1539 during the turmoil surrounding Anne Boleyn; he delivered his most famous sermons under Edward VI. …

Latin

(773 words)

Author(s): Moreschini, Claudio
[German Version] When the Christian message expanded beyond the boundaries of Palestine between 50 and 120 ce, it used the language spoken in the eastern part of the Empire, especially by the Jews in Palestine and the Diaspora (II, 1) – Koine Greek. Here there was a Greco-Jewish literature, which included the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint (Bible translations). Under Claudius and Nero, groups of Greek-speaking Christians were already forming in Rome and in Italy; they used Greek texts th…

Latin America

(5,448 words)

Author(s): Dreher, Martin N.
[German Version] I. General; Geopolitics – II. Religious Affiliation – III. Christianity I. General; Geopolitics America, with an area of over 42,000,000 km2, is generally divided into North America, Central America, and South America. Latin America, a substantial part of the continent, comprises the countries originally colonized by Spain, France, and Portugal. The term covers South America and Central America together with Mexico. First used between 1862 and 1867 during the French intervention in Mexico, it was …

Latin American and Caribbean Church Music

(280 words)

Author(s): Young, Carlton R.
[German Version] In the course of the colonization of and mission work within Latin America, indigenous music styles developed from the contact of European church music with indigenous elements. Spanish missionaries introduced Spanish-style worship song. Cathedral choir schools and choirs were established in centers such as Buenos Aires, Caracas, Mexico City, and Rio de Janeiro. Native musicians thus came into contact with Andalusian and Castilian liturgical music as well as settings of the mass r…

Latin American Bishops' Plenary Council

(306 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] (Rome, 1899). The plenary council of the Latin American bishops was the most significant event in the Catholic ¶ Church of Latin America in the 19th century. Pope Leo XIII convened the council with the papal missive Cum diuturnum of Dec 25, 1898; it met in the Latin American College in Rome from May 5 to Jul 9, 1899. The 13 archbishops rotated as chairmen of the assembly of 40 bishops from 18 countries; those who could not attend the council were able to express themselves in writing. In the course of 29 general congr…

Latin America, Theology in

(1,714 words)

Author(s): Brandt, Hermann
[German Version] I. Recognition of the Regionality of Theology – II. Periods and Foci of Interest – III. The Ecumenical Picture – IV. Permeability I. Recognition of the Regionality of Theology Because the major religions have crossed linguistic, cultural, and political boundaries, they have always reflected the tension between their message, which claims universality, and the development of regional and local traditions. Latin America's interest in the question of the local, regional, and even continental shape of Christi…

Latitudinarianism

(480 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] Latitudinarianism, from Lat. latitudo (“breadth”), a moderate teaching, confessionally tolerant and open to the insights of modern science, introduced in the 17th century by Anglican clergy at Cambridge. It was opposed by both the Puritan (I) teachers at the universities and conservative high-church royalists (High Church movement). The advocates of Latitudinarianism were first identified in a letter written by Simon Patrick, a leading member of the party (later bishop of Chichester, then Ely), published under the title A Brief Account of the New Sect of “…

Latomus, Jacobus

(198 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Jacques Masson; around 1475, Cambron, Belgium – May 29, 1544, Leuven), studied the artes liberales in Paris and earned his master's after 1500 in Leuven. Awarded the Dr. theol. in 1519, he became rector of the University of Leuven in 1537. Latomus participated as a theological adviser in the ¶ proceedings of the Inquisition against Jacobus Praepositus and W. Tyndale. In his De trium linguarum et studii theologici ratione dialogus (1518), he attacked the philological method of Erasmus of Rotterdam and opposed it with the ecclesial tradition. In 152…

Latourette, Kenneth Scott

(317 words)

Author(s): Ross, Andrew C.
[German Version] (Aug 9, 1884, Oregon City, OR – Dec 26, 1968, Oregon City, OR) was an American historian of China and of the expansion of Christianity. After studying and graduating at Yale and after working as travel administrator for the Student Volunteer Movement (SVM) for one year, Latourette went as a missionary to Hunan Province in China in 1910, to teach at the China branch of Yale. He returned to the United States in 1912 after a severe illness. In 1916 he began teaching at Dennison Unive…

La Tour, Georges du Mesnil de

(215 words)

Author(s): Tümpel, Christian
[German Version] (1593, Vic sur Seille, Lorraine – Jan 30, 1652, Lunéville) was only rediscovered in the 20th century as the most significant and individual Caravaggesque artist of France. Under whose guidance he was trained is unknown. In 1617, he married the noblewoman Diana Le Nerf from the city of Lunéville in Lorraine and settled there (definitively in 1622). It was in this city that he very successfully (1639: court painter) created his dream-like and yet also realistic nocturnal paintings. …

Latvia

(6 words)

[German Version] Baltic Countries

Laubach, Frank Charles

(183 words)

Author(s): Bonk, Jonathan J.
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1884, Benton, PA – Nov 6, 1970, Syracuse, NY) was an American Congregational missionary (Congregationalism) to the Philippines between 1915 and 1931. Educated at Princeton University, Union Theological Seminary, and Columbia University, Laubach began his missionary career on Mindanao, Philippines, pioneering the literacy method that now bears his name. The method associates sounds with phonetic symbols by means of simple illustrated charts, utilizing primers to encourage r…

Lauds

(8 words)

[German Version] Liturgy of the Hours

Laud, William

(275 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1573, Reading, England – Jan 10, 1645, London), archbishop of Canterbury. Educated at St. John's College, Oxford, he opposed, early in life, the prevailing Calvinistic theology. Of considerable talent and learning, he was appointed to a rapid succession of ecclesiastical appointments, including dean of Gloucester (1616), bishop of St. David's (1621), Bath and Wells (1626), and London (1628), and finally archbishop of Canterbury (1633). His various attempts to impose liturg…

Laughter and Weeping

(373 words)

Author(s): Gilhus, Ingvild Sælid
[German Version] Laughter and weeping are usually regarded as exclusively human expressions. They involve basic physiological processes, appear in social contexts and reflect culturally specific meanings. Laughter and weeping may appear as elements in myths and rituals. Sometimes they are obligatory, other times restricted. Laughter may be a characteristic of the divine world. The gods of ancient Greece laughed boisterously. Apuleius of Madaura and Plutarch both mention a god of laughter and, in a…

Laura

(326 words)

Author(s): Perrone, Lorenzo
[German Version] In Eastern monasticism, a laura (or lavra) is a particular type of monastic community; it differs from cenobitic monasticism (Cenobites) in practicing a moderate form of anachoretic life (Anchorites). Greek λαὑρα/ laúra means “alley” or “passage”; originally it denoted a colony of hermits consisting of scattered cells connected by a path. The term came into use in Byzantine Palestine in the 4th century. The lavrite system is associated with the name of Chariton, who established monastic life in the Judean Deser…

Laurentius Andreae

(326 words)

Author(s): Jarlert, Anders
[German Version] (Lars Andersson; c. 1470 – Apr 14, 1552, Strängnäs, Sweden). After studies at Rostock, Andreae received his M.A. from Leipzig in 1498. In 1501/1502 he was appointed secretary to the bishop of Strängnäs and papal nuncio in Rome; c. 1518–1538 he served as archdeacon in both Strängnäs and Uppsala. In 1523 he was made secretary to King Gustav and a member of the Council of the Realm. He was dismissed in 1531 and condemned to death in Örebro, along with O. Petri, on the charge of lèse majesté; he ¶ was pardoned after paying a fine. The king's letter of Nov 2, 1523 proposing…

Lausanne Covenant

(281 words)

Author(s): Fiedler, Klaus
[German Version] (1974). The Lausanne Covenant is the most significant document of Evangelical missionary theology and an important instrument of Evangelical cooperation (Evangelicalism: IV). It was presented in 1974 at the Congress for World Evangelism in Lausanne ( Let the Earth Hear His Voice), organized by Billy Graham, to be signed by participants and sympathizers as a personal covenant with God and each other “to pray, to plan and to work together for the evangelization of the whole world.” Not only in its emphasis on the authority…

Lausanne, University

(555 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] A year after the annexation of Vaud in 1536, the Bernese council established an academy in Lausanne, whose primary purpose was the training of Reformed clergy for the Francophone territories under Bernese rule. Until the Academy of Geneva (II) was founded in 1559, Lausanne was the only school of Protestant theology in the Francophone region, in which theology was taught along with the propaedeutic philosophical and humanistic subjects. At the outset, P. Viret taught theology and K…

Laval, François de Montmorency

(185 words)

Author(s): Ellens, Jacob P.
[German Version] (Apr 30, 1623, Montigny-sur-Aure, France – May 6, 1708, Quebec, Canada) was the first bishop of Quebec. Laval was trained for the priesthood in the premier Jesuit schools and was sent as vicar apostolic (Vicar, Apostolic) to New France in 1659. In Quebec he established the parish system, built schools, and founded the Seminary of Quebec, the heart of his design to build a Catholic culture. He struggled with merchants and politicians who resisted his attempts to stop the trade in l…

Lavater, Johann Kaspar

(421 words)

Author(s): Weigelt, Horst
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1741, Zürich – Jan 2, 1801, Zürich). After studying theology at the Collegium Carolinum, Lavater undertook an educational tour to Germany, staying several months in Barth with J. Spalding and in Berlin, where he visited ¶ M. Mendelssohn. During his lengthy period of candidacy he was an active writer. Around 1768 Lavater – up to this point symphatetic to a moderate Enlightenment – underwent a religious reorientation: his attention became focused on Christ, whose continued work both in history and in the presen…

Lavigerie, Charles Martial Allemand

(301 words)

Author(s): Gründer, Horst
[German Version] (Oct 31, 1825, Huire, near Bayonne – Nov 25, 1892, Algiers), cardinal (1881) and missionary. Lavigerie, whose father was a middle-class government official, was ordained priest in 1849 and appointed to a professorship in ¶ church history at the Sorbonne in 1854. Besides being a scholar, he was both an effective church politician and missionary organizer. Appointed archbishop of Algiers in 1867, a year later he founded the missionary society of the White Fathers, followed a year later by the White Sisters. In 1884 h…

Law and Church

(9 words)

[German Version] Canon Law/Church Law

Law and Gospel

(2,755 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] The distinction between law and gospel has its theological setting in Luther's discovery at the dawn of the Reformation; from that beginning, it informed the debates within Lutheranism during the Reformation, the attempt to resolve them in the Lutheran articles of faith (I), and the deliberations of Reformed theology. Only in the context of the theological confessionalization in the 19th century and even more in the theological, ecclesiastical, and political debates of the 20th ce…

Law and Jurisprudence

(7,535 words)

Author(s): Loos, Fritz | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Schiemann, Gottfried | Lindemann, Andreas | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept and Legal Definition – II. History of Religion – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. Greco-Roman Antiquity – V. New Testament – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Ethics of Law – VIII. Sociology of Law I. Concept and Legal Definition There is no generally accepted definition of law. At most, there is a consensus that law is basically to be understood as the politically institutionalized order of human relations. The observance of the (general) rules (i.e. compliance or sanctioning of transgressions) emanatin…

Law and Legislation

(7,555 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Otto, Eckart | Räisänen, Heikki | Sparn, Walter | Starck, Christian
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics and Ethics – V. Politics and Jurisprudence I. History of Religion Laws are generally regarded as formulated, i.e. sentential and often codified rules of life and coexistence; this ¶ refers especially to principles of nature (Law/Natural law) and norms of action (Commandment, Ethics). For the modern age, the validity of natural laws arises from hypothetical laws that have been verified through observation and experiments, and have thereby been proven or j…

Lawes, William George

(273 words)

Author(s): Ahrens, Theodor
[German Version] (Jul 1, 1839, Aldermaston, England – Aug 6, 1907, Waverly, Australia). Lawes was sent to Niue (Savage Island, dependent on New Zealand) by the London Missionary Society (LMS). During his time there (1861–1872), he taught, translated biblical texts, and developed a local craft organization. He took his experience on Niue with him to Papua (Papua New Guinea) in 1874, where he strengthened the newly begun work of the LMS. In cooperation with Polynesian missionaries, especially Ruatok…

Law, Islamic

(6 words)

[German Version] Islam

Law, Liturgical

(7 words)

[German Version] Liturgical Law

Law/Natural Law

(1,619 words)

Author(s): Evers, Dirk
[German Version] I. Natural Science – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics I. Natural Science The term “natural law” refers to a general norm of the order of nature that reveals regularities or causal relationships between the phenomena of a specific process area. A natural law has an explanatory and prognostic function, and thus constitutes the basis of calculated intervention in the processes it describes. In the natural sciences, a natural law is understood as the norm of a constant relationship between different classes of natural phenomena that can be depicte…

Lawrence, David Herbert

(151 words)

Author(s): Rylance, Rick
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1885, Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, England – Mar 2, 1930, Vence, France) was a controversial writer and the son of free-thinking Congregationalists (Congregationalism). An enquiring spirit led Lawrence quickly to dissent. He explored evolutionary thinkers like C. Darwin and W. James, but eventually himself rebelled against materialism. Thereafter, he formulated no settled opinions but remained passionately committed to the spiritual significance of sexuality, articulated wi…

Lawrence of Brindisi (Saint)

(264 words)

Author(s): Pfnür, Vinzenz
[German Version] (Giulio Cesare Rossi; Jul 22, 1559, Brindisi – Jul 22, 1619, Lisbon) was proclaimed Doctor apostolicus of the Church on Mar 19, 1959, having been canonized on Dec 8, 1881 (commemoration day: July 21). A Capuchin friar (from 1575), he officiated as provincial superior (Tuscany: 1590–1592; Venice: 1594–1596; Genoa: 1613–1616), commissary general of the Austrian-Bohemian province (founding monasteries in Innsbruck, Salzburg, Prague, Vienna, and Graz), as well as definitor general and…

Lawrence of Novara

(189 words)

Author(s): Bracht, Katharina
[German Version] was probably, in the second quarter of the 5th century, bishop of Novara (northern Italy). Three homilies are preserved: De duobus temporibus (also: De paenitentia), De eleemosyna, and De muliere chananaea, the latter probably being the free translation of a sermon of J. Chrysostom (PG 52, 449–460). In De duobus temporibus, Lawrence of Novara developed a theology of penance according to which two different modes of the remission of sins correspond to two different periods of time: in the first instance, remission is ¶ granted as a gift by God in baptism through t…

Lawrence of Rome (Saint)

(222 words)

Author(s): Bracht, Katharina
[German Version] (died 258 ce). Lawrence, a deacon under the Roman bishop Sixtus II, died as a martyr in the Valerian persecution (Persecutions of Christians: I) and was buried in a crypt on the Via Tiburtina. As early as the reign of Constantine the Great, a chapel had already been erected on the saint's tomb – later San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, today one of the seven principal churches of Rome. Very early on, Lawrence was revered as a saint in both East and West (feast day Aug 10) and included in th…

Law, William

(253 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1686, King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire – Apr 9, 1761, King's Cliffe), Nonjuror and English theologian. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1711. In 1714, upon the accession of George I, Law refused the Oath of Allegiance, was deprived of his fellowship, and joined the Jacobites (Jacobitism). He later served as private tutor to the Gibbons family in Putney. In 1740, he retired to his birthplace, where he became domestic chaplain to a small ho…

Lay Abbot

(106 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] A lay abbot in the narrow sense, is a layman who is entrusted with the conduct and use of a monastery without being a member of its convent or even a monk. In the Frankish Empire of the 9th and 10th centuries and its successor states, members of the nobility were particularly frequently vested with this function. In a secondary meaning, lay abbot also designates the clerical holder of a commendam, who does not have the status of a monk (frequent from the High Middle Ages to the early modern period). Ulrich Köpf Bibliography F.J. Felten, Äbte und Laienäbte im Frankenreich, 1980.

Lay Apostolate

(1,005 words)

Author(s): Eisenkopf, Paul
[German Version] The term “lay apostolate” became common at the turn of the 19th to the 20th centuries in the Catholic Church for the manifold activities that Catholics had developed in the first half of the 19th century. The Enlightenment and secularization had ¶ brought significant restrictions on the church and the clergy. On the other hand, they opened possibilities for the Catholic laity to avail themselves of the new rights of freedom that were gradually being offered to the benefit of the life of the church. A number of association…

Lay Brothers

(426 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] ( conversi) are, in the narrower sense, members of a religious community who are not ordained. In the course of history, however, the name fratres laici or conversi has designated various groups of persons. In the early medieval period, conversi were monks who, in contrast to ( pueri) oblati (Oblates: I) who were consigned to a monastery already as children, entered the monastery only as adults. In addition to this so-called “older institution of conversi,” a “younger institution of conversi” arose in the 11th century. It included members of the monastic familia who wer…

Lay Church Drama

(412 words)

Author(s): Klie, Thomas
[German Version] Religious amateur theater as a way of dramatizing biblical motifs of the Christian faith has its roots in the liturgy. There is evidence of Easter plays as early as the 9th century; their nucleus was the so-called Easter trope ( Quem queritis: Luke 24:5b). Later passion plays and Christmas plays were presented, as well as eschatological plays (portraying the Antichrist and the Last Judgment) and saints' plays. In the Middle Ages, liturgical and didactic interests rendered obsolete the earlier Christian polemic against the ludi theatrales; as a rule, clergy provid…

Lay Communities/Lay Orders

(273 words)

Author(s): Haering, Stephan
[German Version] Lay associations within the Catholic Church trace their traditions far back in the church's system of orders, confraternities, and communities. Vatican II emphasized the importance of lay communities for implementation of a Christian vocation and participation in the apostolate (PC 10, AA 18–21). The faithful are urged quite generally to hold such associations in high esteem ( CIC/1983 cc. 327, 574 §1; CCEO c. 411). Canon law distinguishes lay communities recognized as religious orders (lay religious and secular institutes, societies of the …

Lay Confession

(400 words)

Author(s): Sattler, Dorothea
[German Version] Since biblical times, the community of believers has considered the experience that sins hidden within the heart burden sinners, robbing them of vital energy and nurturing fears of divine judgment (Ps 32:3–6). Candid confession of guilt restores confidence and assurance. Talking about sins brings insight into implications that would otherwise remain hidden, opens paths to reconciliation, and gives comfort in situations of hopeless despair. Mutual confession of sins has therapeutic power (Jas 5:16). In the history of theology, lay confession has gone th…

Laye, Camara

(240 words)

Author(s): Spindler, Marc R.
[German Version] (Jan 1, 1928, Kouroussa, Guinea – Feb 4, 1980, Dakar, Senegal) was one of the first African novelists of international repute. A member of one of the most influential casts, Laye was educated in Guinea and France. His award-winning first novel L'enfant noir (1953; ET: The Dark Child, 1954) is a romanced autobiography staged in an idyllic African village. Le regard du Roi (1954; ET: The Radiance of the King, 1956) is a phantasmagoric story of Clarence, a white man without qualities, going a long way toward initiation into the mystery of grace. Clare…

Laying-On of Hands

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Lips, Hermann v. | Biehl, Peter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The laying-on or imposition of hands is a physical gesture usually performed in the context of a ritualized series of actions or as a symbol by itself. It can be ascribed to a divine being conceived anthropomorphically. The ritual gesture is attested in many cultures, especially in the ancient Near East, but it is not universal – it is unknown, for example, in Buddhism and Islam. Its mean…

Laymen's Foreign Missions Inquiry

(222 words)

Author(s): Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] (1932). The so-called Laymen's Report comprises Re-Thinking Missions: A Laymen's Inquiry after One Hundred Years, by a commission chaired by W. Hocking, and a seven-volume Supplementary Series, containing detailed reports from the Protestant missions to Asia and their American sponsors. The report, which provoked much controversy, is a masterpiece of missiology (Mission studies) in both method and substance. Written by and for laymen, it sought to define the meaning of Christianity and missions…

Lay Movement

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Rolf | Schroeter-Wittke, Harald
[German Version] I. Catholicism – II. Protestantism I. Catholicism The Catholic lay movement is understood as the joint involvement of Catholic men and women in political, social, and cultural issues of the day, based on premises that have been worked out in discussion and dialogue. The beginnings of the organized Catholic lay movement in Germany came in the middle of the 19th century. In 1848 Franz Adam Lennig founded the first Piusverein für religiöse Freiheit (Pius Association for Religious Freedom,…

Laynez, Diego

(237 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] (Lainez; 1512, Almazán, Castile – Jan 19, 1565, Rome) studied at the University of Alcalá from 1528 onward (B.A., 1531; M.A., 1532), and later went to Paris, where he soon became the most zealous and closest disciple of Ignatius of Loyola. He did the spiritual exercises and took his vows on Montmartre on Aug 15, 1534. After further theological studies in Paris and Rome and ordination in Venice in 1537, he was dispatched to the Council of Trent in 1546, where he participated in all the Council's sessions. There, he strongly opposed the (Augustinian) doctrine of the duplex iust…

Lay Offices

(605 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter
[German Version] In Catholic theology the term “office” is reserved primarily for the office of the ordained, that is, the office of the bishop, the priest, and the deacon (Office VI, 3). In addition, there are traditional ecclesiastical duties, especially in the realms of administration and diakonia, that are performed voluntarily on a full or part-time basis, and that are understood in the broader sense of the word “office.” Officially they are called “services” or “ministries” as distinct from offices. Although biblically the term “laity” refers to all believers in Chris…

Lay Preaching

(533 words)

Author(s): Jörns, Klaus-Peter
[German Version] Because preaching is tied to Scripture and liturgy, the question whether individuals without ordination (and usually also without theological training) may preach in worship always raises the question whether those who preach have special status and how they should be trained. The Methodists have been most consistent in adhering to the insight of the early Reformers that baptism ordains all the faithful through the Holy Spirit. With respect to proclamation of the gospel, however, …

Layritz, Friedrich

(178 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] (Lairitz; Jan 30, 1808, Nemmersdorf – Mar 18, 1859, Unterschwaningen), Lutheran theologian and hymnologist. After studying theology and philosophy in Leipzig (Dr.phil. 1829) and Erlangen, where he was tutor at the faculty theology from 1833 to 1837, Layritz served as a parish priest in Merkendorf-Hirschlach, Bayreuth (St. Georgen), and Unterschwaningen. In a programmatic “Open Missive” and the edition of compilations of church hymns, Layritz spoke out for a revival of church music…

Lay Theology, Russian

(358 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] The expression Russian lay theology is really inadequate to describe a phenomenon that is unique to Russian Orthodoxy. It is neither a theology by and for laity as such nor a theology contrary to the doctrinal decisions reached by episcopal synods. It is in fact antonymic to the Russian scholastic theology that in the 19th century was still strongly shaped by the doctrinal content and ways of thinking of Western Scholasticism and was felt to be cut off from reality. There was a desire…

Lazarists

(5 words)

[German Version] Vincentians/Lazarists

Lazarus

(346 words)

Author(s): Reinmuth, Eckart
[German Version] Lazarus, is a literary figure in Luke and John (Gk from Heb. Eleazar, “God helps”; cf. Matt 1:15). While John 11:1–12:11 identifies Lazarus as the brother of the sisters Mary and Martha (cf. Luke 10:38ff.), the parable in Luke 16:19–31 portrays him as a fictitious person whose fate after death is contrasted with that of an unnamed rich man. Since the use of a personal name in parables is atypical and unique in the New Testament, the significance of the theophorous sentence-name “Lazarus” (“Go…

Lazarus, Moritz

(160 words)

Author(s): Römer, Nils
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1824, Filehne, Poznán – Apr 13, 1903, Meran), was initially professor at the University of Bern, where he later became director of the department of philosophy and finally rector of the university. In 1873, he was appointed honorary profes-¶ sor at the University of Berlin, while he also lectured at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums (Colleges and universities, Jewish). Together with his brother-in-law H. Steinthal, he published the journal Zeitschrift fürVölkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft (1860–1886). In Ethik des Judenthums (189…

Leade, Jane

(311 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] ( née Ward; 1623/1624, Norfolk – Aug 19, 1704, London). Born as the twelfth child of a wealthy tobacco trader, Leade soon developed an exceptional religious sensibility and attained a secure faith after years of inner conflict. In 1644, she married the London tradesman William Leade (died 1670). From 1663 onward, she began studying the writings of J. Böhme under the guidance of J. Pordage, in the course of which she came into contact with the Philadelphians. Since the death of her …

League of Nations

(394 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] The notion of a league of nations – drawn in part from motifs of Judeo-Christian eschatology (Isa 2:2–4) – goes back to widely broadcast plans for an organization devoted to world peace that were developed in the early 14th century (Pierre Dubois), in the 17th century (Maximilien de Sully, W. Penn), and at the beginning of the 18th century (Abbé de St. Pierre), but above all in I. Kant's philosophical tract Zum ewigen Frieden (1795; ET: Perpetual Peace, 1915). Against this background, even during World War I but especially in his Fourteen Points of Jan 18,…

Leander of Seville (Saint)

(235 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (c. 540, Cartagena, Spain – Mar 13, between 599 and 601 [on this, see Fontane, 113], Seville), was the brother of St. Florentina, of Fulgentius (bishop of Ecija), and of the church father Isidore of Seville. He was the son of an illustrious Romanized family and became archbishop of Seville after the death of Pope Stephen II around 578. He succeeded in converting the Visigoth (Goths) Hermenegild to the Catholic faith, who led an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against his father Leo…

Learning

(880 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Concept and History – II. The Present – III. Religious Education and Theology I. Concept and History It has often been observed that the term learning is highly ambiguous, in large part because until recently it has only been used colloquially. Since ancient times, the shifting concepts of learning have derived from the concepts of teaching and instruction, as well as the concepts of education, formation (Education/Formation), ¶ and school. The concepts of knowledge and understanding (Epistemology) debated in Greek philosophy (Sophistic schoo…

Learning, Autonomous

(442 words)

Author(s): Berg, Horst Klaus
[German Version] Both the German term Freiarbeit (“free work”) and the concept of autonomous ¶ learning have their roots in the pedagogical reform movement (Progressive education). M. Montessori (Montessori education), Peter Petersen, Hugo Gaudig, and Célestine Freinet advocate – with differing emphasis – the basic thesis that learning should be conceived as an open process in which, with self-direction, children (Child/Childhood) and young people (Youth/Adolescence) appropriate what they need for their development (III) and orientation in life. Contemporary approaches t…

Lebanon

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Suermann, Harald
[German Version] The name “Lebanon,” if from the Semitic, could be translated as “white” mountain, but it may also be of pre-Semitic origin. The Lebanon Mountains, together with the coastal plain and the Bekaa Valley, constitute the heartland of the modern state of Lebanon. The crest of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains is the border with Syria, which also constitutes the northern boundary. In the south, Israel is the border. With a length of 220 km and a width of 40–70 km, the state of Lebanon has a surface area of 10,400 km2. The highest peak rises to 3,088 m. The majority of the populati…

Lebbaeus

(7 words)

[German Version] Twelve, The (Disciples)

Lebbe, Frédéric Marie

(256 words)

Author(s): Malek, Roman
[German Version] (also Frédéric-Vincent, Chinese name Lei Mingyuan; Aug 17, 1877, Ghent , Belgium – Jun 24, 1940, Chongqing, China) was one of the most prominent China missionaries of the 20th century. He was ordained priest in Peking in 1901. In 1923, he created the Unio Catholica Iuventutis Sinensis in Paris, and in 1927 the Société des Auxiliaires des Missions ¶ (SAM) in Belgium. Lebbe fought against Europeism and introduced a modern (so-called “Tianjin”) mission strategy. He founded the Chinese-language daily newspaper Yishibao (Social Welfare) in 1915. In 1928, he founde…

Lebedev, Aleksey Petrovič

(183 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (1845, Governorate of Moscow – Jul 14, 1908, Moscow), earned his Dr.theol. at the Moscow Spiritual Academy (Moscow: II) in 1879 with a dissertation on “The Ecumenical Councils of the 4th and 5th Centuries.” He was professor of the history of the Early Church at the Academy from 1874 to 1896 and accepted an appointment at the University of Moscow in 1908. Lebedev is one of the most prominent representatives of the Historical School of Russian theology (A. Gorsky). In his patristic …

Le Bouthillier de Rancé, Armand-Jean

(13 words)

[German Version] Rancé, Armand-Jean Le Bouthillier de

Le Bras, Gabriel

(343 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Jul 23, 1891, Paimpol, Côtes-du-Nord, France – Feb 18, 1970, Paris), jurist, historian, and sociologist of religion. Le Bras studied jurisprudence and philosophy in Rennes from 1908 to 1911 as well as at the university and the École des Hautes Études in Paris from 1911 to 1914. He earned a doctorate in politics and business sciences in 1920, and in jurisprudence in 1922. He was professor of Roman law in Strasbourg from 1922 and in Paris from 1929, where he was awarded a professor…

Lebus

(291 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] Lebus, a small town approx. 10 km north of Frankfurt an der Oder, on the left bank of the river, shares its name – which recalls the Lutiz prince Lub (Lubosłav) in the 9th century – not only with its vicinity but also with the diocese bequeathed in 1124 by the Polish duke ¶ Bolesłav III Krzywousty. The diocese kept the name, although in the years 1276 to 1326 the see was in Göritz (Górzyca), to the right of the Oder approx. 10 km upstream, and since 1385 it was in Fürstenwalde on the Spree, where the Marienkirche was elevated to a ca…

Leclercq, Henri

(198 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus
[German Version] Leclercq, Henri, OSB (Dec 4, 1869, Tournai, Belgium – Mar 23, 1945, London, England), church historian and historian of liturgy. After briefly serving in the French army, he entered Solesmes Abbey in 1893 and transferred to the daughter house of Farnborough in Hampshire in 1896. With the superior there, F. Cabrol, he edited, from 1902, the Reliquiae Liturgicae vetustissimae and from 1903 the (initially unnamed) Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie. The career he had thus begun as lexicographer and editor – which was connected with th…

Leclercq, Jean

(248 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1911, Avesnes, France – Oct 27, 1993, Clervaux, Luxembourg), a Benedictine monk, was one of the most prolific medievalists of the second half of the 20th century. Having studied in Rome and Paris, he also lectured in various places (esp. in Rome). In 1941, after conducting research on the Scholasticism of the 13th to 15th centuries, Leclercq turned to the partly still unpublished monastic literature of the Middle Ages, especially of the 11th and 12th centuries. His extens…

Le Corbusier, Charles-Édouard Jeanneret

(321 words)

Author(s): Prange, Regine
[German Version] (actually Charles-Édouard Jeanneret; Oct 6, 1887, La Chaud-de-Fonds, Switzerland – Aug 27, 1965, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, near Nice). Le Corbusier educated himself by means of reading, traveling and practical activity in the architects' offices of Auguste Perret in Paris and Peter Behrens in Berlin and settled in Paris in 1917, where he initially worked as a painter and sculptor with Amédé Ozenfant. In 1922 he founded an architects' office with his nephew Piere Jeanneret, and in 192…

Lecot, Victor Lucien Sulpice

(196 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Hermann-Josef Große
[German Version] (Jan 8, 1831, Montecourt-Lizerolles – Dec 19, 1908, Chambéry), French cardinal. In 1886 he was appointed by the French government as bishop of Dijon, and in 1890 he became archbishop of Bordeaux. Lecot became the most important mediator between the Holy See and the French Republic. He founded worker kitchens, took the part of the working class, and promoted the newly growing socio-political activities of French Catholics within the framework of the Raillement policy of Leo XIII, in order to overcome – through practical social engagement – the ideologi…

Lectern

(342 words)

Author(s): Bock, Ulrich
[German Version] (Lat. analogium, lectorium, pulpitum), a support for liturgical books, either as a free-standing piece of church furniture (choir and altar lecterns) or as a permanent attachment affixed to an ambo, jube or pulpit for the Gospel readings on ecclesial feast days. In the case of free-standing choir lecterns, a distinction must be made between the onesided lecterns flanking the altar or the choir entrance, which are used during the Gospel and Epistle readings, and the frequently two- to…

Lectio divina

(307 words)

Author(s): Pfeifer, Michaela
[German Version] Monastic lectio divina is the prayerful, holistic reading of Scripture; together with the liturgy and labor, it shapes the everyday monastic routine. It is the basis of monastic theology, which reached its highest development in the 12th century (William of Saint-Thierry). Repetitive reading with the goal of memorization was already among the mental exercises cultivated as a way of life by ancient philosophy. It continued on in early Christian monasticism and in the Jewish practice of murmured meditation of the Psalms. Central to lectio divina was the passion of …

Lectionary

(1,230 words)

Author(s): Aland, Barbara | Baldovin, John F.
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Liturgy I. Bible A lectionary is a book containing biblical readings or lections for the services of the church year. The lectionaries of the Greek church are the Synaxarion , with readings for all the moveable feasts, starting with Easter Sunday, and the Menologion (Menologies) for the fixed saints' days of the secular calendar, starting with Sep 1. For the period from Easter to Pentecost, the Synaxarion provides daily readings from Acts and John. After Pentecost readings are provided only for Saturday and Sunday: to the Feast of t…

Ledesma, Martin de

(122 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (c. 1509, Ledesma, Spain – Aug 15, 1574, Coimbra), Dominican friar and Spanish theologian. A student of F. of Vitoria and the teacher of M. Cano in Salamanca, he was professor of theology in Coimbra from 1540 to 1562, a major representative of the School of Salamanca in Portugal, and a commentator of Thomas Aquinas ( Expositiones in universam D. Thomae Summam, unpubl.; Commentaria in quartum librum Sententiarum, 2 vols., 1555–1560). Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography F. Stegmüller, Filosofia e teologia nas Universidades de Coimbra e Évora no século XVI, 1956 M.A. Ro…

Leese, Kurt

(389 words)

Author(s): Bendrath, Christian
[German Version] (Jul 6, 1887, Gollnow [Goleniów], Pomerania – Jan 6, 1965, Hamburg), Protestant theologian and philosopher of religion; friend of Paul Tillich. From 1906 to 1910 Leese studied theology at Bethel, Rostock, Strasbourg, and Berlin, where in 1910 he passed his first examination in theology and in 1912 his second. In 1912 he also received his Lic.theol. from Kiel. From 1912 to 1932 he served as pastor in Danzig (Gdansk), Berlin, and Hamburg, with a military chaplaincy during the war. I…

Leeser, Isaac

(149 words)

Author(s): Brinkmann, Tobias
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1806, Neuenkirchen, Westphalia, Germany – Feb 1, 1868, Philadelphia, PA), Jewish preacher and journalist. After attending the Gymnasium in Münster, Leeser emigrated to Richmond, Virginia, in 1824. Between 1829 and 1850 he served as Hazzan (cantor) and preacher at the congregation Mikveh-Israel in Philadelphia. Leeser attempted to unite American Jewry on an institutional level. He founded the first national American-Jewish paper, the monthly The Occident (1843–1869). As editor and author of The Occident Leeser visited many Jewish communities in …

Leeuw, Gerardus van der

(305 words)

Author(s): Hofstee, Willem
[German Version] (Mar 18, 1890, The Hague, The Netherlands – Nov 18, 1950, Utrecht, The Netherlands) was professor in Groningen (1918–1950) and studied theology and religious studies in Leiden under William Brede Kristensen and others, in Berlin, and in Göttingen under J. Bousset. In 1916 Van der Leeuw received his doctorate in Leiden with a dissertation on images of gods in ancient Egyptian pyramid texts. His interest lay in the universal structure in religious thinking. To this end he compared E…

Lefebvre, Marcel

(393 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1905, Tourcoing, France – Mar 25, 1991, Martigny, Switzerland) studied at the Gregoriana in Rome from 1923 to 1930 (Dr.phil. 1925; Dr.theol. 1929), was ordained to the priesthood in 1929, and subsequently served as parish curate in a suburb of Lille. He joined the Congregation of the Holy Spirit (Spirit; Order of the Holy Spirit, CSSp, Spiritans) in 1931 (member until 1968) and worked as a missionary in Gabon from 1932 to 1947. In 1948, he was appointed apostolic delegate…

Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jacques

(407 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Faber, Jacob Stapulensis; c. 1455/1460, Étaples – 1536, Nérac). Lefèvre d'Étaples, a humanist and Reform theologian, is credited with having rediscovered Aristotle, whom he considered to be divinely inspired and whose texts he edited in newer translations beginning in 1492 with commentary added partly in his own hand and partly by his student, Jodocus Clichtoveus (c. 1472–1543). Lefèvre also edited writings by the church fathers (Patristics) and medieval authors. He was especiall…

Leffler, Siegfried

(168 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1900, Azendorf – Nov 10, 1983, Hengersberg, Bavaria). Together with J. Leutheuser, the pastor Siegfried Leffler moved from Bavaria to Thuringia in 1927, where in 1928/1929 they both founded the National Socialist Church Party of the (Thuringian) Deutsche Christen (German Christians), who propagated an interdenominational German national church. He became its Reichsleiter (Reich chairman) in 1936. In 1933, Leffler was granted leave from his ecclesial duties and joined the ministry of national education in Weimar. In 1939, he…

Le Fort, Gertrud, Baroness von

(628 words)

Author(s): Hildmann, Philipp W.
[German Version] (Oct 11, 1876, Minden, Westphalia – Nov 1, 1971, Oberstdorf) was a prominent representative of the literary Renouveau catholique (“Catholic Revival”). Her poetic oeuvre envisages the divine order of the world as being configured under the sway of love for Christ and his cross, ¶ and expresses the hope for a renewal of Christian-Western humanity. Le Fort was a student of E. Troeltsch, whose “doctrine of faith” she published posthumously in 1925. She converted to Catholicism in Rome in 1926, a step already hinted at in her Hymnen an die Kirche (1924; ET: Hymns to the Church, 1…

Legal Capacity of the Church

(145 words)

Author(s): Germann, Michael
[German Version] As juridical persons, ecclesiastical corporations (Protestant regional churches, Catholic dioceses, local churches, etc.) are recognized by law as having legal rights and duties. In the context of the churches' own law this goes without saying (Legal capacity under church law). Germany's Basic Law, art. 140, with Weimar Constitution (WRV) art. 137, IV, recognizes the legal capacity of “religious bodies” “according to the general provisos of civil law”; WRV art. 137, V recognizes t…

Legal Capacity under Church Law

(302 words)

Author(s): Germann, Michael
[German Version] The legal capacity under church law is the ability to be addressed as a subject of rights and duties by the norms of church law. It neither presupposes nor necessarily follows from legal capacity under state law (Legal capacity of the church). The intrinsic criterion for the legal capacity under church law is involvement in the mission and promise of the church. It manifests itself in baptism (Matt 28:19–20: “Go” – “I am with you”). People thus acquire the legal capacity under chu…

Legality

(5 words)

[German Version] Morality
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