Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Lacordaire, Jean Baptiste Henri

(304 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus
[German Version] (name in religion: Henri-Dominique; May 5, 1802, Recey-sur-Ource – Nov 21, 1861, Sorèze), OP, preacher. After studying law in Dijon and brief legal practice in Paris, Lacordaire experienced a conversion and entered the seminary at Issy in 1824 (ordained to the priesthood in 1827). During the July Revolution of 1830, together with C. de Montalembert, he joined H. de Lamennais to found the newspaper L'Avenir with the motto “God and Freedom.” Its ideas were condemned in 1832 in the encyclical Mirari Vos. Lacordaire submitted, and broke with Lamennais. With his 18…

Lactantius, Lucius Caecilius Firmianus

(447 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (c. 250–325), Christian Latin writer. Lactantius pursued extensive literary and philosophical studies; one of his teachers was Arnobius the Elder. At some time prior to 300, he was summoned to Nicomedia by Diocletian to teach rhetoric. At the outset of persecutions of Christians under Diocletian (303), he resigned from his teaching position and began to write as an apologist for the Christian religion. Because of his polished Latin, he has been called a “Christian Cicero.” Circa 314/315, Constantine brought him to Trier to tutor Crispus. In the treatise De opificio D…

Lacunza y Díaz, Manuel de

(270 words)

Author(s): Delgado, Mariano
[German Version] (Jul 19, 1731, Santiago de Chile – Jun 17, 1801, Imola, Italy). Lacuza joined the Jesuits in 1747 in Santiago, where he preached and taught. In 1767, when the Jesuits were outlawed, he went into exile in Imola (then in the Papal States). There under the pseudonym Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra he composed an extensive work on the second coming of Christ and the conversion of the Jews, in which he espoused a moderate chiliasm (Millenarianism/ Chiliasm). It first appeared in print in 1824, u…


(133 words)

Author(s): Zauzich, Maria-Christine
[German Version] 1. Spanish-speaking Indios (Native American Indians); in Mexico and Central America, “mestizos” of white and Indian parentage. 2. In Latin America, also synonymous with “devious, crafty” ( ladino). 3. Jews in the Mediterranean region who speak the Judeo-Spanish language. 4. Obsolete name for Rhaetians. 5. In Guatemala today, all whites or people of mixed ancestry. There is an ethnic conflict between the Ladino minority and the indigenous Maya. Originally the Maya discriminated against the Ladinos as “bastar…

Laestadius, Lars Levi

(249 words)

Author(s): Laasonen, Pentti
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1800, Piteå, Sweden – Feb 21, 1861, Pajala). From 1825 to 1848, Laestadius served as pastor in Karesuando, a village in northern Sweden where most of the people spoke Finnish or Northern Sami; from 1826 to 1849, he served as pastor in Pajala. There he began a vigorous campaign against ¶ the widespread alcoholism in Sámpi. He was a strict preacher of repentance, who attacked “whoremongers and drunkards,” but he was also an elegant pulpit orator, employing nuanced verbal imagery. Having experienced a conversion in Pajala, in …

La Faye, Antoine

(193 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Martin
[German Version] (1540, Châteaudun – Sep 1615, Geneva [plague]), Reformed theologian. Little is known of his youth and education. La Faye arrived in Geneva in 1561 and became a citizen in 1568. Enjoying the patronage of T. Beza, La Faye's career is characterized by a steady but controversial advancement: lecturer at the Collège, doctor of medicine in Padua (1574), director of the Collège (1575), lecturer in philosophy at the academy, professor of philosophy (1578–1580), professor of theology (1581…

Lafitau, Joseph-François

(203 words)

Author(s): Zorn, Jean-François
[German Version] (May 31, 1681, Bordeaux – Jul 3, 1746, Bordeaux), Jesuit missionary in Québec. From 1712 to 1717 and from 1727 to 1729, Lafitau worked among the Native American Indians (II, 1; Hurons, Iroquois) in the mission at Sault Saint-Louis. After returning to France in 1717, he published a memoir on his discovery of ginseng in America and in 1724 his Mœurs des sauvages amériquains comparées aux mœurs des premiers temps, in which he contrasted his observations to those of other ethnographers as well as the missionary reports ( Relations) of the Jesuits. He compared the ethos o…

Lagarde, Paul Anton de

(574 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (to 1854: P.A. Bötticher; Nov 2, 1827, Berlin – Dec 22, 1891, Göttingen), Near ¶ Eastern scholar and cultural philosopher. Lagarde may be considered a classic representative of modern intellectual religiosity (Religiousness among intellectuals); thanks to his great sensitivity to the antagonism between social modernization and purposive-rational conduct of life, he sought through religio-historical research to instigate a national religious renewal of German culture. An unhappy childhood resulted in a labile psychological constitution and a pr…

Lagerkvist, Pär

(317 words)

Author(s): Sandberg, Hans-Joachim
[German Version] (May 23, 1891, Växjö, Sweden – Jul 11, 1974, Stockholm). Lagerkvist grew up with a conflicted relationship to the narrowness and protectiveness of Free Church religiosity. His childhood fear of the numinous laid the groundwork for an oeuvre dominated by the dark side of human existence. His endeavor to survive the acid test of life, to see good triumph over evil, is manifest in the range of his titles: Ångest (Anguish;1916); Kaos (Chaos;1919); Onda sagor (Evil yales;1924); Det besegrade livet (The triumph over life; 1927); Bödeln (1933, dramatized 1934; ET: “The H…

Lagerlöf, Selma Ottilia Lovisa

(350 words)

Author(s): Sander, Ulrike-Christine
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1858, Mårbacka estate, Värmland – Mar 16, 1940, Mårbacka), Swedish author and Nobel laureate (1909). Her very first novel, Gösta Berlings saga (1891; ET: The Story of Gösta Berling, 1898), in neo-Romantic style, attracted national and international attention. The initial misestimation of her as a “naïve” author drawing unconsciously on oral tradition soon yielded to the realization that she was employing an advanced, artistically mature, architectonically detailed narrative technique (intertextuality,…

Lagrange, Marie-Joseph

(155 words)

Author(s): Schlosser, Jacques
[German Version] (Albert-Marie-Henri; Mar 7, 1855, Bourg-en-Bresse – Mar 10, 1938, Saint-Maximin), OP, exegete. Lagrange worked in Jerusalem as a scholar and teacher from 1890 to 1935. There he founded the École pratique d'études bibliques (1890), the Revue biblique (1892), and the series Études bib-¶ liques (1903). His scholarly oeuvre is impressive, amounting to some 16,000 pages, mostly published in the Études bibliques: commentaries (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Romans, Galatians), introductory studies on the New Testament (canon, textua…

Lahusen, Friedrich

(172 words)

Author(s): Roser, Matthias
[German Version] (Mar 22, 1851, Bremen – Oct 17, 1927, Bremen). After curacies in Rome and at the Berlin cathedral, as well as pastorates in Mettmann, Hamm, and Bremen, in 1899 Lahusen succeeded Ernst Hermann v. Dryander at the Dreifaltigkeitskirche in Berlin. After being named to the High Consistory in 1910, he was appointed general superintendent in 1912. In 1918 Lahusen became Wirklicher Geheimer Oberkonsistorialrat (high privy councilor) and clerical vice-president of the Evangelical High Cons…


(1,376 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred | Germann, Michael | Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] I. General Church History – II. Europe – III. Latin America I. General Church History Laicism (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”; Laity) originated in 19th-century France ( laïcisme) as an aggressively anticlerical concept; originally it proposed absolute separation of the state, secular culture, and the church (esp. the Catholic Church; Church and state), opposing all public influence on the part of the church. Its intellectual roots were in the Enlightenment and especially the French Revolution – although it r…


(337 words)

Author(s): Potz, Richard
[German Version] Laicization means deprivation of the clerical state – by current canon law acquired at ordination to the diaconate. It is regulated by CIC/1983 ¶ cc. 290–293 and CCEO cc. 394–398. Once validly received, ordination (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication: I) can never be invalidated ( character indelibilis). Loss of the clerical state by suspension of membership in the clergy and return to the lay state (Laity: III, 1) can result from the penalty of dismissal lawfully imposed or, as a boon, by rescript of the Apostolic See. Th…


(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…

Lakatos, Imre

(253 words)

Author(s): Murphy, Nancey
[German Version] (1922, Lipschitz, Hungary – Feb 2, 1974, London), mathematician and philosopher of science. He was a member of the Hungarian resistance to the German occupation during World War II. Lakatos pursued a political career until his arrest in 1950, fled to Vienna in 1956 and to Cambridge where he earned a second doctorate under Richard Bevan Braithwaite. He was appointed to a lectureship at the London School of Economics where he taught until his death. In Lakatos's novel account of mat…

Lake, Frank

(170 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Jun 6, 1914, Aughton, Lancashire – May 10, 1982, Nottingham). After studying medicine at Edinburgh, from 1937 to 1951 Lake worked for the Church Missionary Society as a doctor in India. ¶ Upon returning to England, he trained as a psychiatrist. In the late 1950s, he wove together psychoanalytic (Psychoanalysis) and (revivalistic) theological insights to form what he called “clinical theology.” Its central elements included the idea of a dynamic cycle (Life, Cycle of), drawn from the life of Jesus and his relati…


(879 words)

Author(s): Powers, William K.
[German Version] is a self-designated term for a group of Native American Indians, otherwise known as Teton or western Sioux (“snakes,” a pejorative description of people who have no language). The indigenous Lakota originate from the region of present-day Minnesota, but moved to the Great Plains at the start of the 18th century, where they mainly lived off buffalo hunting after having acquiried horses. In the 19th century the Lakota were considered the “typical” representatives of Indian warriors…


(517 words)

Author(s): Böll, Verena
[German Version] Lālibalā is a famous group of monolithic churches in the Wollo (Lasta) region of Ethiopia (Church architecture: V, 2). The site (formerly called Roha), at an elevation of 2,600 m, was made the capital of the Zagwe Dynasty (c. 1137–1270) during the reign of King Lālibalā (c. 1181–1221). Ethiopian tradition ascribes to him the construction of the eleven churches, each hewn out of a single block of reddish rock (tuff). His gadl (vita of a saint) recounts that God commissioned Lālibalā to re-create Jerusalem in Ethiopia. The names and configuration of th…


(6 words)

[German Version] Tibetan Buddhism


(351 words)

Author(s): Berg, Christian
[German Version] Lamarckism is a theory of the evolution of biological organisms that goes back to J.-B. de Lamarck. Around 1800 Lamarck broke with the established notion that biological species represented groups of living creatures unchanged since the dawn of creation. Drawing in part on fossil evidence, he explained graduated similarities between different complex organisms along with structural and functional differences as a consequence of ongoing modification in which species continually mut…

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Antoine Pierre de Monet, Chevalier de

(268 words)

Author(s): Berg, Christian
[German Version] (Aug 1, 1744, Bazentin – Dec 18, 1829, Paris), French naturalist. Lamarck was the youngest of eleven children in an impoverished aristocratic family. During voluntary military service, he became a self-taught botanist; later he studied medicine. In 1778 he published a highly regarded work on the flora of France, in which he introduced a new method of identifying plants. In 1793 he was made professor of “insects, worms, and microscopic animals” in the newly created National Museum of Natural History. He introduced the term invertebrates for this group of fauna and…

Lambert, Franz

(411 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (1487, Avignon – Apr 18, 1530, Frankenberg an der Eder), Reformer in Hessen, author of numerous works in which he demonstrated independence, but repudiated Humanism and finally Lutheranism. After becoming a Franciscan in 1501, he became an itinerant preacher expounding biblical texts. In 1522 he went to Switzerland and discussed theology with Zwingli. Their conversation led him to go to Wittenberg to work at the center of the Reformation. Though initially hesitant, Luther accepted…

Lambert of Hersfeld

(136 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (before 1028 – shortly after 1081). Educated in Bamberg, Lambert entered the Hersfeld monastery in 1058 and in 1081 became abbot of Hasungen, near Kassel. Besides a life of Lullus of Mainz, the founder of Hersfeld, Lambert is noted primarily for his Annales, a historical work that begins with creation and from 1040 to 1077 becomes a detailed presentation of contemporary history. Stylistically echoing Livy and Sallust, Lambert describes the reigns of Henry III, whom he revered, and Henry IV, whom he virtually hated. He was…

Lambeth Conferences

(569 words)

Author(s): Bray, Gerald Lewis
[German Version] Lambeth Conference is the name given to meetings of the bishops who are in communion with the archbishop of Canterbury. The name is derived from Lambeth Palace in London, which is the archbishop's official residence. The first Lambeth ¶ Conference was held in 1867 in order to resolve doctrinal and disciplinary problems which had arisen in different Anglican churches (Anglican Church) around the world, but especially in South Africa. The initiative was taken by the Canadian church, which wanted to establish an internati…

Lamb (of God)

(1,219 words)

Author(s): Taeger, Jens-Wilhelm | Benga, Daniel | Frenschkowski, Marco
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Eastern Liturgy – III. Christian Art I. New Testament Apart from Luke 10:3 and John 21:15, where it designates the disciples and the community (otherwise sheep), the word lamb appears only in christological contexts. Its Old Testamant associations are clear in 1 Cor 5:7, where Paul refers to Christ as “our paschal lamb that has been sacrificed,” whose death – according to the context – sets Christians free for new life, and in Acts 8:32–35, where a quotation from Isa 53:7f. LXX is applie…

Lambourne, Robert Alfred

(171 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (often called Bob; Jun 5, 1917, Edgbaston, Birmingham – Apr 2, 1972, Edgbaston). From 1945 to 1961, Lambourne worked as a general medical practitioner; after additional studies in theology and psychology, including work with Michael Balint (1896–1970), he served from 1964 until his death as lecturer in pastoral studies (Pastoral theology) in the department of theology of the University of Birmingham. He was interested in the salutary impact of the gospel in the broadest sense. Fro…


(517 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Weiß, Otto
[German Version] 1. Luigi (baptismal name: Emanuele Nicoló; May 16, 1776, Sestri Levante – May 12, 1854, Rome), Barnabite. Lambruschini was appointed to the Curia in 1814; at the Congress of Vienna, he served as an adviser to E. Consalvi (concordats with France, Bavaria, and Naples). In 1819 be became archbishop of Genoa; from 1826 to 1830 he served as papal nuncio in Paris (opposing H. de Lamennais). In 1831 he was made Cardinal and from 1836 to 1846 served as papal secretary of state. In the 1846 …

Lamech/Song of Lamech

(8 words)

[German Version] Primordial History

Lamennais, Hugues Félicité Robert de

(193 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] (or La Mennais; Jun 19, 1782, Saint Malo – Feb 27, 1854, Paris), Catholic priest and theological and political writer. Lamennais, whose father was a ship-owner ennobled by Louis XVI, was ordained priest in 1816 without a theological education. In the spirit of French traditionalism, ¶ as a teacher and writer he initially attacked Gallicanism (France, Theology in). In 1830 he founded the daily L'Avenir, whose campaign for freedom of belief and conscience soon made it the voice of liberal Catholicism in France. Lamennais's criticism of the inner…


(3,175 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Janowski, Bernd | Bayer, Oswald | Baldermann, Ingo | Kuhn, Peter
[German Version] Lament I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Systematic Theology – IV. Practical Theology – V. Judaism I. Religious Studies Lament has its roots in human experience; it gives voice to suffering and mourning, in ritual, poetic, or informal form. Its end is not theoretical, like theodicy, but practical: people react to the experience of situations perceived as mentally, physically or socially painful and process these experiences individually or collectively. The prototypical occasion for mournin…

Lamentations of Jeremiah, The

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Levin, Christoph
[German Version] The book of Lamentations is a collection of five elegies on the destruction of Jerusalem: four alphabetic acrostics (Lam 1–4) and one poem with the same number of verses as the Hebrew alphabet (Lam 5). In the Hebrew Bible the book is called אֵיכָה/ʾ êkāh, “How…,” for the first word in chs. 1, 2, and 4. In the Talmud ( b. B. Bat. 15a) it is called קִינוֹת/ qînôt, “Lamentations,” and ascribed to the prophet Jeremiah to vouch for its canonicity. This tradition may be based on 2 Chron 35:25, which says that Jeremiah sang a lament for Josiah, which is r…

Lamentations Rabbah (Rabbati)

(182 words)

Author(s): Becker, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] ( Ekha Rabba[ ti]). An exegetical midrash on the book of Lamentations, divided into over 30 prooemia and five major sections. The verse-by-verse interpretation sometimes includes extensive narratives, especially concerning the destruction of Jerusalem, since Lamentations is read and interpreted in the synagogues on the 9th of the month of Ab (Av), the day on which the destruction of the temple is commemorated. Along with Bereshit Rabbah ¶ ( Gen.R.), Lam. Rab. is the oldest exegetical midrash of Palestinian Judaism. The process of its compilation and …

La Mettrie, Julien Offray de

(345 words)

Author(s): Kronauer, Ulrich
[German Version] (Nov 23, 1709, Saint-Malo – Nov 11, 1751, Berlin), French physician, philosopher, and an adherent of materialism. La Mettrie studied in Paris and Leiden, worked as a physician in Saint-Malo from 1734 to 1742, where he initially published medical works, and then went to Paris. He took part in the Austrian War of Succession as a military surgeon. In 1745, he anonymously published the Histoire naturelle de l'âme which elicited reactions from the censors, as did most of La Mettrie's ensuing publications. The already famous/infamous author avoided imp…

Lamparter, Eduard

(218 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1860, Geislingen, Württemberg – Feb 24, 1945, Stuttgart), pastor in Stuttgart, president of the Evangelische Arbeitervereine of Württemberg, from 1913 Landtag deputy and from 1919 a delegate to the Landeskirchenversammlung (meeting of regional churches) drafting a constitution for the regional church. In the 1920s, Lamparter became active in the Verein zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus. In 1928 a collection of his essays was published under the title Evangelische Kirche und Judentum. He demanded legal and social equality for Jews, emphasized the…

Lampe, Friedrich Adolf

(283 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1683, Detmold – Dec 8, 1729, Bremen) was the most influential German Reformed theologian of the 18th century. Educated at the academic Gymnasium in Bremen under C. de Hase in the spirit of Reformed Precisism (G. Voetius), Lampe completed his theological studies in Franeker under C. Vitringa, who acquainted him with the chiliastically transformed covenant theology of J. Cocceius. In 1703, he became preacher in Weeze ¶ near Kleve, in 1706 parish priest in Duisburg, and from 1709 parish priest at St. Stephani in Bremen. In 1720, he became pro…

Lamy, Jean Baptiste

(186 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Oct 11, 1814, Lempedes, France – Feb 13, 1888, Santa Fe, NM). Lamy was ordained in 1838, became an assistant pastor in Chapre, France, in 1838/1839, and then a missionary priest in Ohio and Kentucky (1839–1850). In 1850 he was named vicar apostolic of New Mexico, then bishop (1853–1875), and archbishop of Sante Fe until his retirement (1875–1885). Lamy secured the assistance of the Sisters of Loreto for Catholic schooling (1852), the Sisters of Charity (1856; first hospital and o…

Lancaster, Sarah Jane

(210 words)

Author(s): Hutchinson, Mark
[German Version] (Jun 3, 1858, Williamstown, Victoria, Australia – Mar 6, 1934, Melbourne) was a Pentecostal evangelist. Lancaster was initially a school ¶ teacher and Methodist, influenced by international holiness literature, particularly reports of the Sunderland revival (1907). Lancaster experienced baptism in the Holy Spirit and healings in 1908, and in 1909 she established the Good News Hall (GNH), Australia's first permanent Pentecostal congregation. Pentecostal leaders (Pentecostalism) such as William Sloan, W…

Lance, Holy

(242 words)

Author(s): Worm, Peter
[German Version] The Holy Lance is reputed to be the spear with which, according to John 19:34f., a soldier pierced the side of Christ. In the light of Matt 27:54 and the legend of the centurion in charge of the execution detail as the “first convert,” it is also called the Lance of Longinus. It was discovered by the empress Helena together with the cross of Christ (IV) and brought to Constantinople in 614, whence it came to the court of the French king Louis IX in 1241. Another Holy Lance was dis…

Lancelot, Claude

(192 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth
[German Version] (1615, Paris – Apr 15, 1695, Quimperlé, Département Finistère, France). Lancelot was one of the men who settled as solitaries near the Parisian Cistercian Abbey of Port-Royal. The group, known as the Messieurs de Port-Royal, included prominent members of the Arnauld family; they were supporters of Jansenism and published works on theology, philosophy, and education. They also devoted themselves to practical instruction in schools they operated. It was in this context that Lancelot…

Landa, Diego de

(194 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Nov 12, 1524, Cifuentes, Spain – Apr 29, 1579, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico), OFM. De Landa, of an aristocratic family, entered the monastery of San Juan de los Reyes in Toldeo. Ordained to the priesthood in 1549, he went to Yucatán, which had just been conquered by Francisco de Montejo. In 1552 he was appointed guardian of the Mission San Antonio de Izamal and in 1561 provincial for San José de Yucatán and Guatemala. On Aug 12, 1562, De Landa carried out an auto-da-fé in Maní during which Mayan illuminated manuscripts were burned. Accused of rigid inquisitorial me…

Landau, Ezekiel

(158 words)

Author(s): Silber, Michael K.
[German Version] (Oct 8, 1713, Opatow, now Voivodship of Kielce, Poland – Apr 29, 1793, Prague) was the preeminent rabbi of the last decades of the 18th century. He served in Jampol before his election to the chief rabbinate of Prague. Thousands studied in his academy. Landau composed influential novellae on various talmudic tractates ( Tziyun le-nefesh Chaya), sermons ( Derushei ha-Tzlach), and glosses on the Shulchan Aruch ( Dagul me-Revava). His Responsa, Noda bi-Yehuda (1776/1811), established his reputation as the greatest authority of his time in the field of th…

Land of Israel

(3,019 words)

Author(s): Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Küchler, Max | Gafni, Isaiah | Dan, Joseph
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Antiquity – IV. Middle Ages and the Modern Period I. Old Testament 1. Terminology and boundaries The terminology used for the land of Israel (cf. Israel), in the sense of the OT view of the land itself, and the definition of its borders varies greatly. The texts appear in the context of particular literary and theological concepts in which “the land” constitutes a thematic focus. Hebrew has two words for land: (a) אֶרֶץ/ ʾereṣ, denoting the earth as a whole and its individual territories from a geographical and po…

Landownership Rights in the Old Testament.

(561 words)

Author(s): Fleischer, Gunther
[German Version] The law of landownership in ancient Israel – regulations governing allocation or acquisition, inheritance, and sale of real property – must be reconstructed in part from narrative and prophetic texts. Hence the historical process by which the clans and tribes of Israel came into possession of their land remains obscure. The description of the distribution of the land by lots in Josh 13ff. and some passages in the prophets (Mic 2:5; Amos 7:17) may reflect a historical process in ea…

Lands, Church (in Germany).

(671 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Land holdings as part of the property of the church can be traced back to the dotations of the Carolingian period. According to the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae (775-790), every newly erected church was to be endowed with two hides of land (= 7.6 hectacres); in the 819 ecclesiastical capitulary of Louis the Pious, the dotations were augmented by one so-called imperial hide. The lands were intended to serve the needs of the local church, i.e. its worship and maintenance (church lands) as well as to suppo…

Landstad, Magnus Brostrup

(152 words)

Author(s): Bergheim, Irene
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1802, Måsøy, Finnmark, Norway – Oct 8, 1880, Oslo), Norwegian pastor and hymnodist. In 1852 Landstad was commissioned by the ministry of culture to produce a new hymnal for the Norwegian church. His qualifications for this task were challenged. The culturally sensitive clergyman was strongly committed to nurturing Norway's cultural heritage; in 1853 he published a collection of Norwegian folk hymns, Landstads kirkesalmebok, ¶ which was officially authorized in 1869. Posterity has recognized the quality of Landstad's work. His artistic ta…


(301 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1010, Pavia – May 28, 1089, Canterbury). After studying the artes liberales in Italy until 1030, Lanfranc taught in Burgundy and Normandy. In 1042 he entered Le Bec, a Benedictine abbey in Normandy, where he served as prior from 1045 to 1063. Anselm of Canterbury began studying at Lanfranc's monastic school in 1059. In 1049/1050, 1067, and 1071, Lanfranc resided at the papal court. In debate with Berengar of Tours over the nature of the Eucharist, he contributed to the …

Lang, Albert

(159 words)

Author(s): Niemann, Franz-Josef
[German Version] (Oct 5, 1890, Falkenberg, Upper Palatinate – Jul 23, 1973, Bonn), Catholic theologian. Lang began teaching at Regensburg as an associate professor in 1929; in 1935 he went to Munich as a full professor, and from 1939 to 1958 he taught at Bonn. The focus of his research was the history of apologetics and theological epistemology in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. His textbook Fundamen-¶ taltheologie, based on traditional Neoscholasticism, drew on insights from immanence apologetics; in its fourth edition (after Vatican II), it no longe…

Lang, August

(303 words)

Author(s): Kuhn, Thomas
[German Version] (Feb 26, 1867, Huppichteroth, Bergisches Land – Dec 24, 1945, Halle), Reformed theologian and church historian. Lang was born into a peasant family steeped in Bergian Pietism. After studies at Bonn and Berlin, in 1893 he was appointed Reformed preacher in Halle cathedral, and he received his Habilitation from Halle in 1900. In 1909 the universities of Geneva and Halle awarded him an honorary doctorate, followed by the universities of Debrecen and Sárospatak. In the same year, his university promoted him to titular professor an…


(354 words)

Author(s): Wennemuth, Heike | Steinmann, Michael
[German Version] 1. Johann Peter (Apr 10, 1802, Sonnborn, near Elberfeld – Jul 8, 1884, Bonn). After studying theology at Bonn from 1822 to 1825, Lange became a Reformed pastor. In 1841 he was appointed professor of dogmatics and church history at Zürich (where he wrote an attack on D. Strauß). From 1854 to 1884 he was professor of systematic theology in Bonn. Lange wrote fundamental works in every theological discipline, including Das Leben Jesu nach den Evangelien dargestellt (3 vols., 1844–1847; ET: The Life of the Lord Jesus Christ, 1864), and was active in the life of the churc…
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