Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Leade, Jane

(311 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] ( née Ward; 1623/1624, Norfolk – Aug 19, 1704, London). Born as the twelfth child of a wealthy tobacco trader, Leade soon developed an exceptional religious sensibility and attained a secure faith after years of inner conflict. In 1644, she married the London tradesman William Leade (died 1670). From 1663 onward, she began studying the writings of J. Böhme under the guidance of J. Pordage, in the course of which she came into contact with the Philadelphians. Since the death of her …

League of Nations

(394 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] The notion of a league of nations – drawn in part from motifs of Judeo-Christian eschatology (Isa 2:2–4) – goes back to widely broadcast plans for an organization devoted to world peace that were developed in the early 14th century (Pierre Dubois), in the 17th century (Maximilien de Sully, W. Penn), and at the beginning of the 18th century (Abbé de St. Pierre), but above all in I. Kant's philosophical tract Zum ewigen Frieden (1795; ET: Perpetual Peace, 1915). Against this background, even during World War I but especially in his Fourteen Points of Jan 18,…

Leander of Seville (Saint)

(235 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (c. 540, Cartagena, Spain – Mar 13, between 599 and 601 [on this, see Fontane, 113], Seville), was the brother of St. Florentina, of Fulgentius (bishop of Ecija), and of the church father Isidore of Seville. He was the son of an illustrious Romanized family and became archbishop of Seville after the death of Pope Stephen II around 578. He succeeded in converting the Visigoth (Goths) Hermenegild to the Catholic faith, who led an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against his father Leo…


(880 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Concept and History – II. The Present – III. Religious Education and Theology I. Concept and History It has often been observed that the term learning is highly ambiguous, in large part because until recently it has only been used colloquially. Since ancient times, the shifting concepts of learning have derived from the concepts of teaching and instruction, as well as the concepts of education, formation (Education/Formation), ¶ and school. The concepts of knowledge and understanding (Epistemology) debated in Greek philosophy (Sophistic schoo…

Learning, Autonomous

(442 words)

Author(s): Berg, Horst Klaus
[German Version] Both the German term Freiarbeit (“free work”) and the concept of autonomous ¶ learning have their roots in the pedagogical reform movement (Progressive education). M. Montessori (Montessori education), Peter Petersen, Hugo Gaudig, and Célestine Freinet advocate – with differing emphasis – the basic thesis that learning should be conceived as an open process in which, with self-direction, children (Child/Childhood) and young people (Youth/Adolescence) appropriate what they need for their development (III) and orientation in life. Contemporary approaches t…


(1,209 words)

Author(s): Suermann, Harald
[German Version] The name “Lebanon,” if from the Semitic, could be translated as “white” mountain, but it may also be of pre-Semitic origin. The Lebanon Mountains, together with the coastal plain and the Bekaa Valley, constitute the heartland of the modern state of Lebanon. The crest of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains is the border with Syria, which also constitutes the northern boundary. In the south, Israel is the border. With a length of 220 km and a width of 40–70 km, the state of Lebanon has a surface area of 10,400 km2. The highest peak rises to 3,088 m. The majority of the populati…


(7 words)

[German Version] Twelve, The (Disciples)

Lebbe, Frédéric Marie

(256 words)

Author(s): Malek, Roman
[German Version] (also Frédéric-Vincent, Chinese name Lei Mingyuan; Aug 17, 1877, Ghent , Belgium – Jun 24, 1940, Chongqing, China) was one of the most prominent China missionaries of the 20th century. He was ordained priest in Peking in 1901. In 1923, he created the Unio Catholica Iuventutis Sinensis in Paris, and in 1927 the Société des Auxiliaires des Missions ¶ (SAM) in Belgium. Lebbe fought against Europeism and introduced a modern (so-called “Tianjin”) mission strategy. He founded the Chinese-language daily newspaper Yishibao (Social Welfare) in 1915. In 1928, he founde…

Lebedev, Aleksey Petrovič

(183 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (1845, Governorate of Moscow – Jul 14, 1908, Moscow), earned his Dr.theol. at the Moscow Spiritual Academy (Moscow: II) in 1879 with a dissertation on “The Ecumenical Councils of the 4th and 5th Centuries.” He was professor of the history of the Early Church at the Academy from 1874 to 1896 and accepted an appointment at the University of Moscow in 1908. Lebedev is one of the most prominent representatives of the Historical School of Russian theology (A. Gorsky). In his patristic …

Le Bouthillier de Rancé, Armand-Jean

(13 words)

[German Version] Rancé, Armand-Jean Le Bouthillier de

Le Bras, Gabriel

(343 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Jul 23, 1891, Paimpol, Côtes-du-Nord, France – Feb 18, 1970, Paris), jurist, historian, and sociologist of religion. Le Bras studied jurisprudence and philosophy in Rennes from 1908 to 1911 as well as at the university and the École des Hautes Études in Paris from 1911 to 1914. He earned a doctorate in politics and business sciences in 1920, and in jurisprudence in 1922. He was professor of Roman law in Strasbourg from 1922 and in Paris from 1929, where he was awarded a professor…


(291 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] Lebus, a small town approx. 10 km north of Frankfurt an der Oder, on the left bank of the river, shares its name – which recalls the Lutiz prince Lub (Lubosłav) in the 9th century – not only with its vicinity but also with the diocese bequeathed in 1124 by the Polish duke ¶ Bolesłav III Krzywousty. The diocese kept the name, although in the years 1276 to 1326 the see was in Göritz (Górzyca), to the right of the Oder approx. 10 km upstream, and since 1385 it was in Fürstenwalde on the Spree, where the Marienkirche was elevated to a ca…

Leclercq, Henri

(198 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus
[German Version] Leclercq, Henri, OSB (Dec 4, 1869, Tournai, Belgium – Mar 23, 1945, London, England), church historian and historian of liturgy. After briefly serving in the French army, he entered Solesmes Abbey in 1893 and transferred to the daughter house of Farnborough in Hampshire in 1896. With the superior there, F. Cabrol, he edited, from 1902, the Reliquiae Liturgicae vetustissimae and from 1903 the (initially unnamed) Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie. The career he had thus begun as lexicographer and editor – which was connected with th…

Leclercq, Jean

(248 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1911, Avesnes, France – Oct 27, 1993, Clervaux, Luxembourg), a Benedictine monk, was one of the most prolific medievalists of the second half of the 20th century. Having studied in Rome and Paris, he also lectured in various places (esp. in Rome). In 1941, after conducting research on the Scholasticism of the 13th to 15th centuries, Leclercq turned to the partly still unpublished monastic literature of the Middle Ages, especially of the 11th and 12th centuries. His extens…

Le Corbusier, Charles-Édouard Jeanneret

(321 words)

Author(s): Prange, Regine
[German Version] (actually Charles-Édouard Jeanneret; Oct 6, 1887, La Chaud-de-Fonds, Switzerland – Aug 27, 1965, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, near Nice). Le Corbusier educated himself by means of reading, traveling and practical activity in the architects' offices of Auguste Perret in Paris and Peter Behrens in Berlin and settled in Paris in 1917, where he initially worked as a painter and sculptor with Amédé Ozenfant. In 1922 he founded an architects' office with his nephew Piere Jeanneret, and in 192…

Lecot, Victor Lucien Sulpice

(196 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Hermann-Josef Große
[German Version] (Jan 8, 1831, Montecourt-Lizerolles – Dec 19, 1908, Chambéry), French cardinal. In 1886 he was appointed by the French government as bishop of Dijon, and in 1890 he became archbishop of Bordeaux. Lecot became the most important mediator between the Holy See and the French Republic. He founded worker kitchens, took the part of the working class, and promoted the newly growing socio-political activities of French Catholics within the framework of the Raillement policy of Leo XIII, in order to overcome – through practical social engagement – the ideologi…


(342 words)

Author(s): Bock, Ulrich
[German Version] (Lat. analogium, lectorium, pulpitum), a support for liturgical books, either as a free-standing piece of church furniture (choir and altar lecterns) or as a permanent attachment affixed to an ambo, jube or pulpit for the Gospel readings on ecclesial feast days. In the case of free-standing choir lecterns, a distinction must be made between the onesided lecterns flanking the altar or the choir entrance, which are used during the Gospel and Epistle readings, and the frequently two- to…

Lectio divina

(307 words)

Author(s): Pfeifer, Michaela
[German Version] Monastic lectio divina is the prayerful, holistic reading of Scripture; together with the liturgy and labor, it shapes the everyday monastic routine. It is the basis of monastic theology, which reached its highest development in the 12th century (William of Saint-Thierry). Repetitive reading with the goal of memorization was already among the mental exercises cultivated as a way of life by ancient philosophy. It continued on in early Christian monasticism and in the Jewish practice of murmured meditation of the Psalms. Central to lectio divina was the passion of …


(1,230 words)

Author(s): Aland, Barbara | Baldovin, John F.
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Liturgy I. Bible A lectionary is a book containing biblical readings or lections for the services of the church year. The lectionaries of the Greek church are the Synaxarion , with readings for all the moveable feasts, starting with Easter Sunday, and the Menologion (Menologies) for the fixed saints' days of the secular calendar, starting with Sep 1. For the period from Easter to Pentecost, the Synaxarion provides daily readings from Acts and John. After Pentecost readings are provided only for Saturday and Sunday: to the Feast of t…

Ledesma, Martin de

(122 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (c. 1509, Ledesma, Spain – Aug 15, 1574, Coimbra), Dominican friar and Spanish theologian. A student of F. of Vitoria and the teacher of M. Cano in Salamanca, he was professor of theology in Coimbra from 1540 to 1562, a major representative of the School of Salamanca in Portugal, and a commentator of Thomas Aquinas ( Expositiones in universam D. Thomae Summam, unpubl.; Commentaria in quartum librum Sententiarum, 2 vols., 1555–1560). Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography F. Stegmüller, Filosofia e teologia nas Universidades de Coimbra e Évora no século XVI, 1956 M.A. Ro…

Leese, Kurt

(389 words)

Author(s): Bendrath, Christian
[German Version] (Jul 6, 1887, Gollnow [Goleniów], Pomerania – Jan 6, 1965, Hamburg), Protestant theologian and philosopher of religion; friend of Paul Tillich. From 1906 to 1910 Leese studied theology at Bethel, Rostock, Strasbourg, and Berlin, where in 1910 he passed his first examination in theology and in 1912 his second. In 1912 he also received his Lic.theol. from Kiel. From 1912 to 1932 he served as pastor in Danzig (Gdansk), Berlin, and Hamburg, with a military chaplaincy during the war. I…

Leeser, Isaac

(149 words)

Author(s): Brinkmann, Tobias
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1806, Neuenkirchen, Westphalia, Germany – Feb 1, 1868, Philadelphia, PA), Jewish preacher and journalist. After attending the Gymnasium in Münster, Leeser emigrated to Richmond, Virginia, in 1824. Between 1829 and 1850 he served as Hazzan (cantor) and preacher at the congregation Mikveh-Israel in Philadelphia. Leeser attempted to unite American Jewry on an institutional level. He founded the first national American-Jewish paper, the monthly The Occident (1843–1869). As editor and author of The Occident Leeser visited many Jewish communities in …

Leeuw, Gerardus van der

(305 words)

Author(s): Hofstee, Willem
[German Version] (Mar 18, 1890, The Hague, The Netherlands – Nov 18, 1950, Utrecht, The Netherlands) was professor in Groningen (1918–1950) and studied theology and religious studies in Leiden under William Brede Kristensen and others, in Berlin, and in Göttingen under J. Bousset. In 1916 Van der Leeuw received his doctorate in Leiden with a dissertation on images of gods in ancient Egyptian pyramid texts. His interest lay in the universal structure in religious thinking. To this end he compared E…

Lefebvre, Marcel

(393 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1905, Tourcoing, France – Mar 25, 1991, Martigny, Switzerland) studied at the Gregoriana in Rome from 1923 to 1930 (Dr.phil. 1925; Dr.theol. 1929), was ordained to the priesthood in 1929, and subsequently served as parish curate in a suburb of Lille. He joined the Congregation of the Holy Spirit (Spirit; Order of the Holy Spirit, CSSp, Spiritans) in 1931 (member until 1968) and worked as a missionary in Gabon from 1932 to 1947. In 1948, he was appointed apostolic delegate…

Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jacques

(407 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Faber, Jacob Stapulensis; c. 1455/1460, Étaples – 1536, Nérac). Lefèvre d'Étaples, a humanist and Reform theologian, is credited with having rediscovered Aristotle, whom he considered to be divinely inspired and whose texts he edited in newer translations beginning in 1492 with commentary added partly in his own hand and partly by his student, Jodocus Clichtoveus (c. 1472–1543). Lefèvre also edited writings by the church fathers (Patristics) and medieval authors. He was especiall…

Leffler, Siegfried

(168 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1900, Azendorf – Nov 10, 1983, Hengersberg, Bavaria). Together with J. Leutheuser, the pastor Siegfried Leffler moved from Bavaria to Thuringia in 1927, where in 1928/1929 they both founded the National Socialist Church Party of the (Thuringian) Deutsche Christen (German Christians), who propagated an interdenominational German national church. He became its Reichsleiter (Reich chairman) in 1936. In 1933, Leffler was granted leave from his ecclesial duties and joined the ministry of national education in Weimar. In 1939, he…

Le Fort, Gertrud, Baroness von

(628 words)

Author(s): Hildmann, Philipp W.
[German Version] (Oct 11, 1876, Minden, Westphalia – Nov 1, 1971, Oberstdorf) was a prominent representative of the literary Renouveau catholique (“Catholic Revival”). Her poetic oeuvre envisages the divine order of the world as being configured under the sway of love for Christ and his cross, ¶ and expresses the hope for a renewal of Christian-Western humanity. Le Fort was a student of E. Troeltsch, whose “doctrine of faith” she published posthumously in 1925. She converted to Catholicism in Rome in 1926, a step already hinted at in her Hymnen an die Kirche (1924; ET: Hymns to the Church, 1…

Legal Capacity of the Church

(145 words)

Author(s): Germann, Michael
[German Version] As juridical persons, ecclesiastical corporations (Protestant regional churches, Catholic dioceses, local churches, etc.) are recognized by law as having legal rights and duties. In the context of the churches' own law this goes without saying (Legal capacity under church law). Germany's Basic Law, art. 140, with Weimar Constitution (WRV) art. 137, IV, recognizes the legal capacity of “religious bodies” “according to the general provisos of civil law”; WRV art. 137, V recognizes t…

Legal Capacity under Church Law

(302 words)

Author(s): Germann, Michael
[German Version] The legal capacity under church law is the ability to be addressed as a subject of rights and duties by the norms of church law. It neither presupposes nor necessarily follows from legal capacity under state law (Legal capacity of the church). The intrinsic criterion for the legal capacity under church law is involvement in the mission and promise of the church. It manifests itself in baptism (Matt 28:19–20: “Go” – “I am with you”). People thus acquire the legal capacity under chu…


(5 words)

[German Version] Morality

Legal Policy

(827 words)

Author(s): Starck, Christian
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Actors and Procedure – III. Criteria and Context I. Definition Legal policy is the guiding force behind legislation in the modern state (III). It seeks to respond to social situations, interests, and needs by analyzing and assessing the situations, defining the interests, and evaluating the needs. Today the shaping of society embodied in policy (Politics) is largely accomplished through legislation. The tax policy that affects the revenue of the state is embodied in tax legislation. The policies with the ¶ greatest expenditures involve the …

Legal Positivism

(393 words)

Author(s): Hruschka, Joachim
[German Version] Legal positivism is the jurisprudential doctrine that only effective statutory (“positive”) law (Law and jurisprudence) can be called “law in the strict sense” (see also positivism). Here there is a need to distinguish between sociological and normative legal positivism. Sociological positivism examines the facts of the real organization of a society. Normative positivism emphasizes instead the deontic aspects of positive law. Current debate is focused on normative positivism. ¶ In his posthumous (1861) Lectures on Jurisprudence, Austin, building on Gust…

Legal Protection

(269 words)

Author(s): Germann, Michael
[German Version] is the – especially judicial – assertion of subjective rights, i.e. of individual, legally guaranteed claims to the realization of an interest. Legal protection is an essential feature of the rule of law. The legal protection of the claims established by civil law has always been a central aspect of judiciary. Legal protection against governmental actions only became a practicable legal construction from the second half of the19th century with the dogmatic conception of public leg…


(197 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (apostolic), from Lat. legare (“to dispatch/send someone”), are representatives of the Apostolic See in local churches, states, as well as at international organizations and conferences. Conciliar reform impulses ( CD art. 9f.) led to a reorganization through Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum (Jun 24, 1969; AAS 61, 1969, 473–484) and the CIC/1983 (cc. 362–367). The primary function of the legates is to enable communication between the pope and the local churches (c. 364); their secondary function is to act as…


(1,218 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The word legend (from Middle Lat. legenda [ sc. vita or acta]) originally denoted a text to be read during worship or within a monastic community, especially at mealtime, in walkways set aside for reading, or in the chapter house. The subject matter was the life and deeds of one or more saints (Saints/Veneration ¶ of the saints: II). For the most part, the legend was regularly read in whole or in part on the festival of the particular saint. In conjunction with the functionalization of the cult of the saints, which had already begun i…

Legio fulminata

(165 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut
[German Version] (or fulminatrix, fulminea), literally “thunderbolt legion,” the name given to the Twelfth Legion since the time of Augustus. The name is associated with a meteorological miracle: during the Marcomannic Wars, thanks to a prayer, a thunderstorm blew up that saved the Roman army from dying of thirst and drove back the enemy. The event itself is probably historical, since it is represented on the column of Marcus Aurelius. Interpretations varied according to the religion of the interpre…

Legion of Mary

(458 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] The Maria Legio Church of Kenya, also known as Legio Maria) is one of the largest African Instituted Churches (AICs) to have broken away from the Roman Catholic Church. Its base is in western Kenya, but it extends to the neighboring districts of Tanzania. The majority of adherents belong to the Luo people, but the Church understands itself to be a multi-ethnic community and includes adherents from the Kisii and Luyia peoples. It has parishes in urban areas, including the Kenyan ca…


(7 words)

[German Version] Law and Legislation

Legislation, Church

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Pirson, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Historical Development – II. Current Church Polity I. Historical Development 1. A distinctly legislative function within the church became common only after a long process of development. From the start, the church established rules, commonly called canons, governing the behavior of its members and the performance of their duties. These rules were not understood as the result of legislative decisions but as an expression of what was considered mandatory by virtue of the authority of Chr…


(535 words)

Author(s): Starck, Christian
[German Version] In addition to its general adjectival use in relation to legislation, this term is used of law-giving authority as a function of the state, also designating the institutions that enact laws (Law and legislation: V) through specific procedures (for the ecclesiastical legislative, cf. Legislation, Church). Rooted in common usage, the generally accepted precedence of the “good old law” in the Middle Ages was replaced by the priority of state legislation, which – following the ideas o…


(427 words)

Author(s): Anzenbacher, Arno
[German Version] Legitimacy relates to the justification of norms, institutions, legal entitlements, and claims to authority, together with their basis in moral and legal philosophy. With specific reference to the acceptance of authority (Dominion/Rule), M. Weber distinguished sociologically between traditional, charismatic, and rational or legal legitimacy. The discussion of the Sophists as to whether right is based solely on convention ( thései) or is established by nature ( phýsei) already distinguished between the positivistic reduction of legitimacy to lega…

Lehmann, Gottfried Wilhelm

(91 words)

Author(s): Claußen, Carsten
[German Version] (Oct 23, 1799, Hamburg – Feb 21, 1882, Berlin) was a copperplate engraver and a Baptist preacher. In 1837, he established the first Prussian Baptist congregration (Baptists) in Berlin. He cofounded the German branch of the Evangelical Alliance in 1852. Together with J. Oncken and Julius Köbner, he was one of the founding fathers of the continental European Baptists. Carsten Claußen Bibliography Works include: Offenes Sendschreiben an den Deutschen Evangelischen Kirchentag, 1854 On Lehmann: H. Luckey, Gottfried Wilhelm Lehmann und die Entstehung einer deut…

Lehmann, Johannes Edvard

(228 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Astrid
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1862, Copenhagen – Mar 23, 1930), earned a Dr.phil. in 1896 with a dissertation on the Avesta, the sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra/Zoroastrianism), and was lecturer in the history of religion at the University of Copenhagen from 1900 onward. In 1910, he was appointed to the first German professorship for the “general history of religion and philosophy of religion” at the Protestant theological faculty of the University of Berlin, from which he resigned in …

Lehmus, Adam Theodor Albert Franz

(249 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1777, Soest – Aug 18, 1837, Nuremberg), theologian. As a student in Halle an der Saale and Jena, Lehmus was enthused by Rationalism, I. Kant's criticism, and J.G. Fichte's idealism. A deacon from 1807 in Dinkelsbühl and Ansbach, he initially espoused, with F. Schelling and G. Hegel, a speculative theology in order to prove the internal rationality of the symbols of faith. After his appointment in 1814 as associate professor of theology and preacher at the university church…

Lehnin Prophecy

(161 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] These 100 rhymed Latin hexameters were first attested in 1693 and became better known in the early 18th century. They were attributed to the Cistercian monk Hermann von Lehnin in Brandenburg (c. 1300). The verses describe suggestively the Brandenburg rulers beginning with the house of Askanier; the last figures with identifiable traits are Prince Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and his successor. The Reformation, with the abolition of the monastery, marks the turn for the worse. Until…

Leibholz, Gerhard

(265 words)

Author(s): Stolleis, Michael
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1901, Berlin – Feb 19, 1982, Göttingen) was an expert in constitutional law and a representative of German Cultural Protestantism in exile. Leibholz studied philosophy and law. In 1925, he supported the position – new at the time – that legislators were also bound by the equality clause of the constitution. In Das Wesen der Repräsentation (1929), he declared that “genuine” representation is incompatible with political parties and mass democracy. He also wrote studies on fascist constitutional law (1928), studies on the right to vote (1931), and on the Auflösung…

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Hartmut
[German Version] (Jun 21/Jul 1, 1646, Leipzig – Nov 14, 1716, Hanover). As the son of a Leipzig professor of ethics, Leibniz came from orthodox Lutheranism. After studying in Leipzig and Jena, he was awarded the Dr.iur. in Altdorf in 1667. He turned down the professorship offered to him, and entered the service of the prince elector of Mainz as a legal adviser. In 1672, he went to Paris on a diplomatic mission; the four years spent there, in contact with A. Arnauld, Christian Huygens, N. Malebranc…

Leibowitz, Yeshayahu

(262 words)

Author(s): Bar-Chen, Eli
[German Version] (Jan 28, 1903, Riga – Aug 18, 1994, Jerusalem). Born into an orthodox Jewish family, Leibowitz studied in Berlin and Cologne. He emigrated to Palestine in 1935 and worked as a biochemist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, although he became known as a philosopher. Leibowitz's philosophy may be characterized as a synthesis of ¶ his scientific insights, of his extensive knowledge in the field of Jewish philosophy and Jewish literature, and of the European intellectual tradition in general. Influenced by M. Maimonides and I. Kant in …

Leiden, University

(559 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Wishing that the formation of pastors and jurists should not be left to the Catholic University of Leuven, William of Orange founded the first university of the northern Netherlands in Leiden in 1575. In addition to the theological and juridical fields of study, departments of philosophy and literature as well as medicine were also planned. From the very beginning, the university was characterized by a strong orientation to Humanism (III) and Calvinism. The Humanist philologists J…

Leile, George

(144 words)

Author(s): Parris, Garnet A.
[German Version] (Liele; 1750?–1825?) was the first black ordained minister in the United States. Born a slave in Virginia, Leile was converted in 1773 at his master's church, where he was baptized and accepted into membership. Shortly thereafter he was given a license to preach. In 1775 he was ordained, although he had already organized the first black Baptist church in the USA in 1773. (D. George was among the members.) Granted his freedom, Leile went to Jamaica in 1783, where his preaching to slaves there met with immediate success. By …
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