Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Help us improve our service

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see


(319 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] (“holy”), a short Hebrew-Aramaic prayer handed down in various versions and containing supplications for the coming of the kingdom of God and for peace, in addition to doxological formulae. The “Half Qaddish” is recited in alternation with a prayer leader at the beginning and especially at the conclusion of the main sections of the liturgy (Prayer: XI; in the latter case often with an additional Aramaic. supplication for peace as “Complete Qaddish”); mourners pray slightly altered…


(236 words)

Author(s): Lohlker, Rüdiger
[German Version] There is evidence that the term qāḍī was already in use in the pre-Islamic period, but the qāḍī did not become the central figure of the Islamic legal system until the Abbasid period. In theory he is understood as a representative of the caliph authorized to speak on legal matters. As an individual judge, he is qualified to issue a judgment according to Šarīʿa (see also Islam: ¶ II, 4). Besides the qāḍī, the administration of justice was in the hands of a number of additional authorities who worked alongside the qāḍī. It seems appropriate to a…

Qalaat Seman

(309 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] Qalaat Seman, major early Christian pilgrimage (III) site in northern Syria, some 40 km from Aleppo. The focus of the site was the pillar on which the monk Simeon Stylites the Elder spent his life from 415 to 459 ce in stasis, i.e. “standing.” It was said ultimately to have been some 18 m tall. Simeon was already famous during his lifetime and drew many pilgrims. Pictures of him were found as far away as Rome. After his death, probably between 475 and 491 ce, the site was developed on a grand scale; the whole complex measures some 450 by 250 m. Around the pillar …