Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Rebaptism Controversy

(483 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea
[German Version] Cyprian of Carthage and Stephen II of Rome, over whether baptism (III) performed in a heretical or schismatic body should be recognized and whether a convert from such a body should be treated as already baptized. Following longstanding North African tradition (Tert. Bapt. 15; Council of Carthage under Agrippinus c. 200: Cyp. Ep. 71.4; 73.3; Eus. Hist. eccl. VII 7) and the practice of other regions such as Asia Minor (Cyp. Ep. 75; Eus. Hist. eccl. VII 5.7), Cyprian answered negatively and was supported by African councils in 255 and 256 (Cyp. Ep. 70 and 72; Sententiae episco…


(5 words)

[German Version] Regeneration

Rebmann, Johannes

(187 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1820, Gerlingen – Oct 4, 1876, Korntal), trained at the Basel Mission seminary, subsequently took Anglican orders and was sent by the Church Missionary Society to East Africa in 1846. With J.L. Krapf, he lived in Rabai among the Mijikenda, in the hinterland of Mombasa (Kenya), hoping that these people would prove more receptive to the gospel than the Swahili-speaking Muslim population on the coast. Like Krapf, Rebmann came from a ¶ pietist tradition. He conducted a number of exploraty journeys to the Chaga people and was the first to report the…


(2,613 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes | Pirson, Dietrich | Pemsel-Maier, Sabine
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology During recent decades, the concept of reception, originally at home in aesthetics and literary studies, has developed into a highly successful fundamental concept of communication; it emphasizes the decisive role of the recipient in the process of communication (Iser, Jauß). In this sense it also concerns theology, to which the concept is not new but has had its meaning and role more clearly defined. A fundamental distinction must be made. First, there is reception…

Reception History

(8 words)

[German Version] Effective History/Reception History


(284 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Georg
[German Version] The Rechabites (Heb. רֵכָבִים/ rekābîm) are mentioned only in Jer 35. They traced their descent to Jehonadab, son of Rechab (2 Kgs 10:15, 23), who played a supporting role in Jehu’s revolt (9th cent. bce). The etymology of the name is unexplained. The Rechabites’ lifestyle was unusual: they drank no wine and built no houses, living only in tents; they never sowed seeds or planted vineyards. They ascribed these restrictions to the command of Jehonadab ( Jer 35:6f.), which they followed faithfully. God contrasted them in th…

Rechenberg, Adam

(162 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1642, Leipsdorf, Saxony – Oct 22, 1721, Leipzig). After studying philosophy, history, and theology, Rechenberg began teaching in 1665 at the University of Leipzig; in 1677 he was appointed professor of philology and history. Through his fourth marriage (1686), to P.J. Spener’s eldest daughter Susann Catharina, he had close ties with Pietism. His appointment to succeed J.B. Carpzov (2) as professor of theology in 1699 effected a reversal in the attitude of the Leipzig theological faculty, which had been hostile to Pietism. His 1700 disputation De gratiae revo…


(493 words)

Author(s): McLeod, Hugh
[German Version] Since the French Revolution of 1789, political, cultural, and intellectual changes have all played a part in undermining the dominant role of the church in Europe and America. Christian societies have become increasingly pluralistic (Pluralism) and sometimes secular (Secularism). Some governments have tried to “dechristianize” the people by force (Dechristianization). The pioneer was revolutionary France in 1793/1794 (France). The slogan of rechristianization has had most resonanc…


(165 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] Recitative is a style of vocal music intermediate between speaking and singing. The idea and employment of Sprechgesang is found in many cultures. In Europe recitative became an important element of serious music with the emergence of opera. Its origin in spoken language is central: it determines the melodic line and above all leads to rhythmic freedom in performance, allowing for a better representation of the text’s drama and emotion. This ability to go beyond the text allowed recitative to beco…

Recke-Volmerstein, Adelbert von der

(93 words)

Author(s): Sollbach, Gerhard E.
[German Version] (May 28, 1791, Overdyck, near Bochum – Nov 10, 1878, Kraschnitz, Silesia [today Krośnice, Poland]), the “father” of the Inland Mission in the Ruhr. An enthusiastic believer in the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), he established a private “refuge” for poor, orphaned, and neglected children at Overdyck, his family estate, in 1891 and another in Düsselthal, near Düsseldorf, in 1822, thus creating the first diaconal educational institutions in Westphalia and the Rhineland. Gerhard E. Sollbach Bibliography G. Viertel, Anfänge der Rettungshausbewegu…


(442 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Recluses or hermits are men and women who do penance by shutting themselves (or having themselves shut) into a cell, either for a specific period (usually at the beginning of their lives as ascetics) or for the rest of their lives. This extreme form of asceticism surfaced in the Early Church in all regions of the East where there were monastic settlements (e.g. in Egypt, John of Lycopolis; esp. common in Syria) and came to the West in the 6th century, but it reached its climax in …

Reclusive Orders

(82 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (eremitic orders, anchoritic orders). Most of these orders, of both men and women, were established in the 11th century; their traditions go back to the early Christian anchorites. Unlike monastics living a common life (Cenobites), their members largely lived in isolation, requiring a special monastery complex ( eremitorium), highly developed among the Camaldolese and Carthusians. Reclusive strains are also found among the Celestines, Carmelites, and Servites. Manfred Eder Bibliography K.S. Frank, “Einsiedler, Eremit,” LThK  3 III, 1995, 557–559 (bibl.).


(6,443 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparison with expiation (I), reconciliation is defined more specifically; as a rule, its goal is to restore a personal relationship undermined by guilt or sin. In reconciliation we are dealing with a category rooted in ¶ the Judeo-Christian tradition that cannot be translated readily into other contexts. In comparison with Western Christianity, the understanding of reconciliation in Judaism displays several distinctive features. As in Christianity, the concept of reconciliation is complementar…

Reconciliation (in Canon Law)

(164 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth
[German Version] From ancient canon law to CIC/1917, reconciliation (Lat. reconciliatio) denoted the (liturgical) absolution required for a church, cemetery, or altar to be used again after desecration or profanation ( CIC/1917 cc. 1172–1177; 1207). It also denotes reconciliation with God and the church through the sacrament of penance (Repentance: IV, 3.a); cf. CIC/1983 cc. 959f. and CCEO cc. 718 and 720 §1) and specifically restoration to full communion with the church through lifting an excommunication incurred through apostasy (Apostate), heresy, …


(1,117 words)

Author(s): Vones, Ludwig
[German Version] The term Reconquista was adopted by modern French historians to denote the Christian recapture of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain [see also map], Portugal) between the 8th century and the end of the 15th century, after Arab and Moorish armies had brought down the Visigothic kingdom in 711, bringing the peninsula almost completely under their control and establishing Muslim kingdoms in Al-Andalus south of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains. The Reconquista took place in three pha…


(654 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] I. Judaism Reconstructionist Judaism is the most recent major school of modern Judaism (III) and the only one born ¶ in America. It was founded by the rabbi M.M. Kaplan, who defined Judaism as a “civilization” embracing not just religion but also areas of life like art and music. The movement began as an intellectual tendency in the progressive wing of Conservative Judaism. Only gradually was it able to establish an autonomous organizational structure and independent institutions. The opening of the…


(5 words)

[German Version] Correctness

Recursus ab abusu

(415 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] ( appel comme d’abus) is an appeal of civil authorities against an abuse of power by an ecclesiastical authority transgressing the boundaries drawn by civil law; it was thus (along with the placet) a particularly effective instrument of secular supremacy. It achieved its distinctive form in France in 1539, when it served primarily as a defense against encroachments on Gallican liberties (Gallicanism). The French model also inspired its use in Spain and the Netherlands. Initially legal title was vested in royal church advocacy (Church advocate). The recursus came in…

Recursus hierarchicus

(271 words)

Author(s): May, Georg
[German Version] denotes a complaint lodged with the hierarchical superior of the person who has issued (or should have issued) a decree, charging a legally significant injury. Such an appeal must be brought within a time-limit of 15 days. The regulations governing administrative recourse appear in CIC/1983 cc. 1772–1739 and CCEO cc. 996–1006. Special rules governing recursus also appear in CIC cc. 166 §§2, 700, and 1740–1752. The complaint must be preceded by an attempt at an equitable solution; as a rule, it must be preceded by a petition to the author…

Redaction Criticism of the Bible

(1,133 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Hans-Christoph
[German Version] I. Definition In the context of historical biblical scholarship, redaction criticism examines the growth of a text from its first appearance in writing through possible editorial stages to the form reconstructed by text criticism. This process of textual transformation described by redaction criticism is called redaction history. Here redaction means the written revision of a text (either formerly retold orally or already in writing) and its recasting as a new whole. When it is understood in this sense, a distinction between “c…

Red Cross

(866 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. The International Red Cross Movement. Sympathy and concern for the victims of war first reached a substantial public in the Crimean War (1854–1856), when a report of the British nurse F. Nightingale (who had spent some time at Kaiserswerth, during her training) drew attention throughout Europe to conditions in the Crimea. Her report also made an impression on Henry Dunant (1828–1910), a businessman from an upper-class family in Geneva. At the end of June in the same year, he vis…


(4,527 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Roloff, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Religious studies has adopted the term redeemer from the biblical language of Christianity to represent Latin redemptor (Vulgate) and Greek ῥυόμενος/ rhyómenos or λυτρωτής/ lytrōtḗs (Job 19:25; Isa 63:16; Acts 7:35; Rom 11:26). Luther used Erlöser (“redeemer”) in these cases, but Heiland (“savior”) to represent Latin salvator and Greek σωτήρ/ sōtḗr. The terms are synonymous in both German and English. The worldwide use of the term in non-Christian contexts has increasingly made it part of the metalinguistic te…


(10,262 words)

Author(s): Gunton, Colin | Filoramo, Giovanni | Spieckermann, Hermann | Popkes, Wiard | Hübner, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology All the major concepts in soteriology have biblical roots. Of central importance today is the notion of reconciliation (II), which bridges the theological and secular realms. The original Greek word καταλλαγή/ katallagḗ involves the notion of exchange, which was early taken to imply that Christ takes the place of the sinner before God, so realizing atonement (at-one-ment) and making expiation. Associated ideas include substitution and representation, which conceive Christ as standing in for the sinner before God. Particular theolo…

Redemptive Religion

(9 words)

[German Version] Typology of Religion, Redemption/Soteriology

Redemptorists (Liguorians)

(434 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris; CSR). The order was founded in 1732 in Scala, near Naples, by A.M. Liguori together with the Carmelite nun and mystic M. Celeste Crostarosa (1696–1755) and Tommaso Falcoia (1663–1743), bishop of Castellammare di Stabia. It is a congregation of priests who take simple life vows; its aim is sanctification through faithful discipleship and apostolic work. The members are to engage in extraordinary pastoral …

Redenbacher, Wilhelm

(145 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jul 12, 1800, Pappenheim – Jul 14, 1876, Dornhausen) studied Protestant theology at Erlangen from 1819 to 1823 and became a pastor in Bavaria, where he wrote numerous short works and popular tales. From 1830 to 1834 he edited the Nördlinger Sonntagsblatt. In 1843 he was suspended from office on account of his appeal to Protestant soldiers during the so-called kneeling controversy (over an order requiring them to kneel before the Catholic consecrated host). Redenbacher moved to Saxony as a pastor but was able to return to a pastorate in Bavaria in 1852. Ulrich Schwab Biblio…


(772 words)

Author(s): Deckmann Fleck, Eliane Christina
[German Version] (Indians in Latin America). The term reduction (Span. reduccion) was used in three senses in America: (1) the process of gathering Indians into settlements or villages, (2) the settlement itself, and (3) the whole territory of the settlements, based on geographical or missionary criteria. The reduction project was designed to concentrate the indigenous population in settlements to be integrated into a “political and human life,” which presupposed giving up certain practices incompatible w…

Reed, Luther Dotterer

(232 words)

Author(s): Miller, Ronald R.
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1873, North Wales, PA – Apr 3, 1972, Philadelphia, PA), began a pastoral ministry in Pennsylvania in 1895, then became a professor at the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, director of its library, and also its president. He also held the first chair in liturgics and church art in a Lutheran seminary in the United States. He founded the Lutheran Liturgical Association and was a member of the American Guild of Organists, the Hymn Society of America, and the joint committee that prepared the text and music of the Common Service Book of 1917. He chaired …


(469 words)

Author(s): Schnepf, Robert
[German Version] In everyday language, reflection is synonymous with contemplation or critical consideration. In this usage, it loses the specific element of reflexivity (self-reference) that it has by etymology (Lat. reflectere, “bend back”) and has been central to its philosophical use. Reflectio was used in this sense in the High Middle Ages (e.g. by Thomas Aquinas) as an alternative to reditio in seipsum to translate Greek epistrophḗ, which Neoplatonists like Proclus used for the return of the mind to itself. Later thinkers like Nicholas of Cusa could make reflectio an organiz…


(7,266 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Terminology Today we limit the term Reformation (from Lat. reformatio) exclusively to the events set in motion by M. Luther, ¶ U. Zwingli, and other Reformers, which led in the course of the 16th century to a cleavage within Western Christendom that has lasted to this day. Until well into the 19th century, however, the term still had its original, broader sense of reform (Reform, Idea of), under which the event we call the Reformation was subsumed. It was the appearance of the French word réforme in the 17th century, borrowed into German in the course of the 19t…

Reformation Day

(308 words)

Author(s): Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich
[German Version] To commemorate Luther’s posting of his theses on the eve of All Saints’ Day in 1517, the continental churches of the Reformation and the Lutheran churches in the United States observe Oct 31 (or the following Sunday) as Reformation Day (officially Gedenktag der Reformation, “Commemoration Day of the Reformation”). The choice of this date goes back to the sesquicentennial celebration of the theses in 1667 as decreed by John George II of Saxony. Previously the Reformation had often been commemorated on the anniversary of its…

Reformation of Sigismund

(267 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Tilman M.
[German Version] The Reformation of Sigismund ( Reformatio Sigismundi) is an anonymous program of reform, written in German, which was published in 1439 under the name of the emperor Sigismund during the Council of Basel. It comprises a preface, a program of ecclesiastical and imperial reform, Sigismund’s dream vision, and two appendices. The document bemoans abuses throughout the Empire, which have arisen from the entanglement of spiritual and secular power; it therefore demands that the whole church c…

Reform Catholicism

(1,223 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus
[German Version] I. Terminology Reform Catholicism was described by the Catholic theologian and man of letters Joseph Müller in his Der Reformkatholizismus, die Religion der Zukunft (1899), which combined conspicuous orthodoxy with criticism of Neoscholasticism and demands for disciplinary reform (including synods, vitalization of the laity, social work, an end to confessional polemic, modern training of the clergy, reform of the Index, and keeping political Catholicism at arm’s length). The book was placed on the Index in 1891, and the pope commended the polemic of Pa…

Reformed Christianity

(7 words)

[German Version] Reformed Churches

Reformed Churches

(9,343 words)

Author(s): Busch, Eberhard | Plasger, Georg | Strohm, Christoph | Guder, Darrell | Veddeler, Berend | Et al.
[German Version] I. History and Theology 1. Terminology. For programmatic theological reasons, the Reformed churches rejected the exonym Calvinist churches. They referred to themselves as Reformed churches because they did not think of themselves as new churchdoms alongside the one holy church but as a part of that church, albeit as part of it renewed according to God’s Word in Holy Scripture. In speaking of themselves, therefore, they eschewed references to a theological founder or a particular place of origin. The 17th-century formula ecclesia reformata semper reformanda means …

Reformed Colleges in Germany

(481 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] One of the central demands of the Wittenberg and Swiss Reformation was thorough theological education of all future clergy. In Lutheran territories, Reformed theological faculties in ¶ the existing universities served this function, but initially in Reformed territories such institutions were largely lacking. Only three existing comprehensive universities intermittently offered Reformed instruction: Heidelberg from 1559 to 1578 and from 1583 to 1662, Marburg between 1605 and 1624 and again after 1653, Frank…

Reform, Idea of

(2,727 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] In classical Latin, the verb reformare and the associated noun reformatio already denoted a transformation for the better: restoration of an earlier human condition, since lost (morality e.g. Pliny the Younger Panegyricus 53.1: “corruptos depravatosque mores . . . reformare et corrigere”; bodily health e.g. Theodorus Priscianus Euproiston 1.38: “oculorum aciem reformare”), or physical objects (e.g. Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium 40.5: “templum reformare”) or improvement without regard to the past (e.g. Sen. Ep. 58.26: “reformatio morum”; Ep. 94.5…

Reformierter Bund

(973 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph | Schilberg, Arno
[German Version] I. History The Reformed League (Reformierter Bund) was founded in August 1884 at a conference in Marburg commemorating the 400th anniversary of Zwingli’s birth; as a registered association, its purpose was defined as “preservation and cultivation of the goods and bounties of the Reformed Church.” It was conceived as a loose association of churches, congregations, and individual members, seeking to strengthen Reformed identity in light of the Lutheran preponderance in Germany, which…

Reform Judaism

(575 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Michael A.
[German Version] The Reform movement in Judaism (III) emerged as a religious response to the increasing intellectual, social, and political integration of Jews in Central Europe, especially Germany, during the first decades of the 19th century. The debate with the Enlightenment had raised questions as to the viability of traditional Judaism in the modern world and evoked a clearly perceptible need to adapt Judaism to the new conditions of Jewish life outside the medieval ghetto. Reforms were introduced in worship, including greater emphasis on external norms of conduct…

Refugee Aid

(690 words)

Author(s): Micksch, Jürgen
[German Version] The Bible can be called a book by refugees for refugees. The patriarch Abraham was himself a refugee. A famine drove him to journey to Egypt to survive (Gen 12:10). His descendants were exploited and oppressed in Egypt. The exodus from Egypt shows that God protects refugees, accompanying them and identifying with them. In their confession of faith, the people of Israel recall their experiences as refugees (Deut 26:5ff.). It followed that they would not oppress aliens in their own land. The New Testament speaks of Jesus’ flight to Egypt with his family (Matt 2:…

Refugee Issue

(986 words)

Author(s): Münz, Rainer
[German Version] Refugees are people who leave their native region or country out of justified fear of persecution on account of their political beliefs or ethnic background. In recent years, persecution on account of one’s sex has also been recognized as grounds for flight. If flight or departure is imposed by force, we speak of displaced or deported persons. According to the Geneva Convention on Refugees, individuals who flee to another country may in principle claim asylum or have their applica…


(2,576 words)

Author(s): Betz, Hans Dieter | Frey, Jörg | Marquardt, Manfred | Thiede, Werner | Pierard, Richard
[German Version] I. Religious History 1. Since the dawn of time, human birth has been associated with many religious ideas, rituals, and customs, including the idea of rebirth or regeneration. As a rite of passage (Rites of passage), birth is not merely a natural process; it can repeat a previous birth, view death as a passage to new life, or distinguish within a lifetime between a corporeal and a spiritual birth, separated by a ritual death. The Greek terminology is not uniform, using ἀναγεννᾶν/ anagennán, ἀναβιοῦν/ anabioún, μεταγεννᾶν/ metagennán, πάλιν γίνεσϑαι/ pálingínesthai, an…


(644 words)

Author(s): Schmid, Alois
[German Version] (Ratisbon). In the 4th/5th century, the Roman legionary fortress Castra Regina, established in 179 ce, and its associated civilian settlement were already home to a Christian community (without a bishop). There is sparse evidence of continuity into the early Middle Ages. As the principal residence of the dukes of Bavaria, Regensburg became a center for the activity of several court and missionary bishops (St. Emmeram, Erhard). The canonical erection of the bishopric took place in 739; in 798 it…

Reger, Max

(302 words)

Author(s): Brembeck, Reinhard J.
[German Version] (Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian; Mar 19, 1873, Brand, Bavaria – May 11, 1916, Leipzig), composer. Reger was born to a lower middle class family. Familiar with L. van Beethoven and J. Brahms at an early age, he was deeply moved by a visit to Bayreuth in 1888. In 1890 he began studying music with H. Riemann. These years were marked by existential crises; later, too, he had to battle against depression and alcoholism. He married in Munich in 1902; in 1907 he moved to Leipzig and in 1911 to Meiningen. He was influenced only peripherally by R. Wagner and program music. Hi…

Regino of Prüm

(209 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (died 915, Trier) appears for the first time in sources in 892, when he was elected abbot of Prüm. He was driven from office in 899 and found refuge in Trier, where the archbishop appointed him abbot of St. Martin’s. He is buried in the abbey of St. Maximin in Trier. Regino is noted as the author of a handbook on canon law (906), intended for use in visitations by the bishop’s synodal court, and a world chronicle from the birth of Christ to the year 906 (completed in 908); its con…

Regional Bishop

(7 words)

[German Version] Episcopal Titles

Regional Church

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Görisch, Christoph
[German Version] The term regional church (Ger. Landeskirche) denotes a church of or within a particular territory. Against the background of the church’s claim to be universal, of course, such a circumscription is ecclesiologically problematic. The semantic scope of the term is therefore limited to describing manifestations of the visible church in the sense of legally constituted bodies. We are therefore dealing here with a term and concept of church law, both ecclesiastical and (esp. in historical perspective) civil. Catholic church polity with its hierarchical structur…

Regional Deanery

(194 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth
[German Version] Regional Deanery, also called a district deanery, is a coalition of neighboring deaneries (Dean) to foster pastoral care through common action. Their legal basis is CD 30, the motu proprio Ecclesiae Sanctae I, 19 §1; the Directorium Apostolorum successores, 2004, no. 2; and CIC/1983 c. 374 §2. The Gemeinsame Synode der Bistümer der Bundesrepublik Deutschland had already provided for midlevel regional deaneries above the local deanery level, without making them mandatory. The function of regional deaneries, their relationsh…

Regional Superintendent

(134 words)

Author(s): Barth, Thomas
[German Version] In Reformed churches (Lippe, Evangelisch-Reformierte Kirche), a regional superintendent (Ger. Landessuperintendent) is a member of the clergy in the administration of the regional church; unlike the Präses (Synod, Head of ), his office is not rooted in presiding over the synod but in belonging to the church’s administrative body. The additional functions of religious leadership assigned to him in Lippe make the office of regional superintendent there rather like that of a bishop. Beyond the ambit of the Re…


(276 words)

Author(s): Hausmann, Jost
[German Version] Register, from Latin regerere (“record, list”). A register is a form of indexing by an editor that summarizes the content and the most important source-critical data of an archival manuscript or early modern document. Archival registers were already in use by medieval registrars. As a form of index, a register is intended to take the inquirer to the source by recording the substantial and legal content of documents and their provenience, not to replace the use of the sources themselves. Comprehensive diplomatic treatment is not the goal. Editions of registered archi…
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