Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Religious Economics

(274 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] While studying the ecumenical movements of the 20th century, the sociologist Peter L. Berger developed “A Market Model for the Analysis of Ecumenicity” (1963). His theory stated that a termination of confessional culture clashes and processes of ecumenical cooperation between traditionally rivaling confessional churches followed goal-oriented and pragmatic partisan calculations, among others. Inspired by the Neoliberal Chicago School of Economics, religious economists such as Roge…

Religious Education

(5,807 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Lachmann, Rainer | Link, Christoph | Schröder, Bernd | Heine, Peter
[German Version] I. History Religious education (RE) in schools, in modern usage of the term (for RE in a broader sense see Christian doctrine classes, Confirmation classes), is the result of the general differentiation process that led to the promotion of religious learning beyond the contexts of family and worship. The schools of the European cultural sphere arose largely in the area of the church (School and church, Church schools, Monastery schools); for a long time, schooling was essentially based on religious texts. Since each country established its own particular forms…

Religious Education for Children

(414 words)

Author(s): Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] (from a legal perspective). Religious education for children encourages the religious/ideological development of the child’s personality. According to German law, various persons ¶ responsible for religious education for children are entitled to encourage personality development in this manner. The religious education (VII, 2) of a child is primarily determined by the free agreement of the parents. This results in part from the parental rights defined in German Basic Law art. 6 §2, and in part from the …

Religious Education, Science of

(4,242 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Ziebertz, Hans-Georg | Schreiner, Peter
[German Version] I. Protestantism 1. Concept and subject area Religionspädagogik (RP), as the German technical term designating the science of ¶ religious education or pedagogics, is first attested in 1889 in the writings of Max Reischle (1858–1905), a disciple of A. Ritschl (Bockwoldt, 9f.). The first professorship for (Protestant) RP was instituted in 1924 in Göttingen (Roggenkamp-Kaufmann, 119f.). The term denotes “a ‘modern’ German science situated between theology and educational theory (Education, Theory of)” …

Religious Experience

(2,499 words)

Author(s): von Brück, Michael | Sparn, Walter | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Experience is a process occurring directly in the conscious mind, whereby the perceiving subject and internal as well as external objects of the conscious mind link up to form an experience, representing a separate category, which is connected episodically with the moment in which a particular perception occurs. (Religious) experience (Ger. Erlebnis) is the subjective perception of an experience (Ger. Erfahrung). An experience is participation in an event; the accumulation of experiences generates knowledge. An event is c…

Religious Instruction

(505 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Heinz
[German Version] Classes in religion that exclude denominational or confessional bias are designated as religious instruction (Ger. Religionskunde). Such classes are based on comparative religious studies and not on theology. In terms of content, religious instruction looks at widespread religious patterns of interpretation that have some effect on politics, on the basis of observation of religious rites, doctrines, and daily practice (cf. recommendation of the European Parliament no. 1202, 1993), in order “to w…

Religiousness Among Intellectuals

(356 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Astrid
[German Version] The importance of the religiousness of intellectuals in the history of religions was analyzed by M. Weber in his studies on the development of redemptive religions (Typology of religion). He sought the origins of such religions not only in the underprivileged social classes’ hope of salvation in the here-and-now that arose from their material distress, but also in the intellectual desire of the educated to provide rationally satisfying answers to the problem of theodicy. According…

Religious Objects

(7 words)

[German Version] Sacred Objects

Religious Offenses

(345 words)

Author(s): Radtke, Henning
[German Version] 1. Religious offenses are penal provisions of state law with a bearing on religion or ideologies. They prohibit either behaviors that discredit the religious convictions of the population or a segment thereof, or disruptive interferences in the practice of religion (Freedom of religion). The concrete nature of religious offenses in the respective national criminal law is essentially determined by the general relationship (for the most part constitutionally regulated) between state and religion, or religious communities. 2. The historical development of r…

Religious Priests

(156 words)

Author(s): Haering, Stephan
[German Version] is a (non-official) collective designation for Catholic priests who belong to a religious institute or one of the societies of apostolic life, and as such are not subject to a bishop but to the superior of their own order. If, however, priests of a religious order undertake an external apostolic activity (e.g. pastoral care) they also come under the bishop (cf. CIC/1983 cc. 678–683, 738; CCEO cc. 415, 554). Priests of a religious order who perform a task in the bishopric have, like diocesan priests, electoral rights with regard to the priests’ council ( CIC/1983 c. 498 §1 2°; C…

Religious Socialists

(2,564 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut | Westhelle, Vítor
[German Version] I. Europe European Religious Socialists share the general view that the core statements of Christian faith and ethics have structural affinities to socialism and its politics, and that combining them should bring about the dismantling of old forms of social order and the construction of new ones, appropriate to human needs. Religious Socialists differ in their conceptual parameters, in the significance of this affinity, and in the development of praxis models. 1. Religious Socialism is rooted in biblical social norms, Christian traditions of the Middl…

Religious Societies (Germany)

(948 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] 1. History. The concept originated in the rational Enlightenment doctrine of natural law (IV), and especially in the state-church law theory of collegialism. “Religious societies” is thus a short formula for the outside view of the churches, and later of all religious confessional societies from the vantage point of the religiously neutral state, which no longer concerns itself with the issue of religious truth and is therefore committed in principle to equal treatment. It was in this form that the concept found its way via the Prussian Civil Code, the Paulskirchenverf…

Religious Studies

(4,620 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Seiwert, Hubert | Hock, Klaus
[German Version] I. History 1. The history of religious studies, or the science of religion (Ger. Religionswissenschaft) is a function of its definition or conception; it is thus somewhat ambiguous at ¶ times and is viewed in a variety of ways. Strictly speaking, religious studies did not acquire a more or less fixed framework of tasks and standard methods in Europe until the 20th century; this framework subsequently gained acceptance throughout the world, especially through the efforts of the International Association for the…

Religious Studies in German Schools

(786 words)

Author(s): Fauth, Dieter
[German Version] Educational-didactic draft outlines for “LER” (Ger. Lebensgestaltung – Ethik – Religionskunde [Lifestyle – Ethics – Religious Instruction]) in the German school curriculum grew out of the educational reform movement of the German Democratic Republic’s final year (1989/1990), initially in reaction to standard education imbued with socialist ideology at school, which systematically excluded all issues pertaining to the individual conduct of life. From this point on, by contrast, the conduct of life was to stand “at the center of general education” (1989). This ¶ a…

Religious Wars

(1,363 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
[German Version] The term “religious war” or “war of religion” first came into use during the intra-Christian armed conflicts of the 16th/17th centuries, in connection with the formation of the early modern European territorial states. As indicated by the alternative designations “faith war” and “confessional war,” its usage is frequently still restricted to this period and area, although it may also be applied in an unspecific sense to all armed conflicts in which religion played, or plays, an im…


(885 words)

Author(s): Bock, Ulrich
[German Version] A reliquary is a repository, usually artistically wrought, for relics (Lat. reliquiae, “remains”). Reliquaries contain and represent primary relics, i.e. bodily remains of saints (Saints/Veneration of the saints) or beatified persons (bones, teeth, nails, or hair); they may also contain secondary or “contact” relics, i.e. objects that were closely linked to the venerated persons during their lifetime (clothes, writing implements, instruments of torture) or had direct contact with the primary relics. As early as the 4th/5th century, the church father …

Rembrandt, Harmenszoon van Rijn

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1606, Leiden – Oct 4, 1669, Amsterdam), painter and graphic artist. Among the leading European masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt was the chief religious artist of the Protestant tradition. His works were profoundly influenced by those of Caravaggio, Adam Elmsheimer, and P.P. Rubens, especially with regard to advancing tenebrism and dramatic theatricality. Renowned as a portrait painter, he was able to transfer his gift of projecting onto canvas his psychological pene…

Remedial Education

(879 words)

Author(s): Klein, Ferdinand
[German Version] is the theory and practice pertaining to the education of those children and youths for whom conventional educational methods are not, or are no longer, adequate, owing to problematic circumstances. Additional and special measures are required that take into account the individual, somatic, psychological, and psychosocial circumstances of education and strive to enable the child’s social and vocational (re-)integration. In remedial education, the whole question of education acquir…

Remigius of Auxerre (Saint)

(119 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (after 841 – May 2, probably 908, Paris), a monk from the monastery of St. Germain in Auxerre, where he succeeded his teacher Heiric ( Heiricus). Remigius was involved in the renewal of the school of Reims around 893 and taught in Paris from 900 onward. He authored more than 20 works that were widely read in the Middle Ages, although most of them have never been printed: commentaries on ancient and early medieval grammarians and poets, on Genesis and the Psalms, and on Boethius’s De consolatione philosophiae and Opuscula sacra; he also wrote an exposition of the mass. Ulrich Kö…

Remigius of Lyon

(105 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (archbishop from 852 to 875). Particularly significant in terms of theological history is the position Remigius adopted in the dispute over predestination, which was discussed at a number of synods attended by him, notably in Valence (855). However, two works attributed to him that deal with this topic and attack the position of Hincmar of Reims and of John Scotus Eriugena, were not written by him but by his deacon, Florus of Lyon. Wilfried Hartmann Bibliography W. Hartmann, Die Synoden der Karolingerzeit im Frankenreich und in Italien, 1989, 261–266 K. Zechiel-Eckes, F…

Remigius of Reims

(325 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Gerhard Philipp
[German Version] (c. 440–533), bishop. Scant biographical information on Remigius may be gleaned from two hagiographically overlaid lives of saints. The first vita, which was written shortly after his death, was used by Gregory of Tours, while the second, written by Hincmar of Reims (9th cent.), has more to say about its author. Four letters by Remigius have been preserved, which headed the compilation of Epistulae Austrasicae around 600. He was born into a family of senatorial rank; his brother Principius was bishop in the neighboring town of Soissons, and wa…


(8 words)

[German Version] Arminians, Dort, Synod of


(211 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth
[German Version] refers to the right of bishops to “bring forward opposing arguments” (Lat. remonstratio) against papal laws. Going back to the decretals of Pope Alexander III (Corpus Iuris Canonici [ CIC]: Liber extra I, 3, 5), this privilege has a suspensive effect on the contentious laws until the further decision of the pope. Although it was not included in the CIC of 1917, the right of remonstration was regarded doctrinally as an integral part of prevailing law and is still recognized by some as valid, and even expanded by some as the right of any co…


(9,034 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Cancik, Hubert | Buttler, Karen | Imorde, Joseph | Mohr, Hubert
[German Version] I. Concept The French term “Renaissance,” which was also borrowed by German and English, belongs to the large group of organic metaphors applied to historical occurrences. Used from the 19th century in sole reference to animal/human life and understood in the sense of “rebirth,” it is assigned in recent research (since Jost Trier) more appropriately to the botanical sphere and explained as “renewed growth,” i.e. as a renewed sprouting of shoots ¶ from felled trees and bushes. Pre-Christian Latin already employed renasci (from nasci, “to be born, to become, to ar…

Renan, Joseph Ernest

(635 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1823, Tréguier, Brittany– Oct 2, 1892, Paris). Ernest Renan, French historian of religion and scholar of ancient New Eastern studies, began by studying Roman Catholic theology, philosophy, and philology at the ecclesiastical Grand Séminaire of St. Sulpice in Paris. Full of enthusiasm, he absorbed the works of German Idealist philosophy and of F.C. Baur’s Tübingen School, especially D.F. Strauß’s Leben Jesu. His youthful desire for freedom and knowledge caused him to leave the seminary in 1845, shortly before his ordination as subdea…

Renato, Camillo

(184 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Paolo Ricci, Lisia Fileno; c. 1500, Sicily – c. 1575, Caspano, Valtellina?), lived as a Franciscan friar in Naples, got into trouble with the Inquisition, worked as a private tutor in Bologna in 1538, became an advocate of psychopannychism (Soul), and was convicted and imprisoned in Ferrara in 1540 as a “Lutheran.” In 1542, he was able to flee to Chiavenna and to the Valtellina, which was at the time ruled by Graubünden, and worked there as a teacher. Excommunicated in Chiavenna …

Renaudot, Eusèbe

(199 words)

Author(s): Brakmann, Heinzgerd
[German Version] (Jul 20, 1648, Paris – Sep 1, 1720, Paris). Renaudot was born into a wealthy family with connections to the highest circles. A member of the French Oratory (Oratorians) from 1665 to 1672, he subsequently worked as a journalist and engaged in political activities; he was director of the Gazette de France from 1679 to 1720 and a highly respected scholar on account of his very extensive knowledge of foreign languages. Within Catholicism, he opposed the Jesuits (Chinese Rites controversy, Jansenism) and R. Simon. In the conflict with …


(543 words)

Author(s): Winkler, Eberhard | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] 1. Franz Martin Leopold (Aug 1, 1860, Gütergotz near Potsdam – Mar 17, 1937, Leipzig-Schleußig). After serving as a pastor in Westerland, Eisenach, and Preetz, Rendtorff directed the Preetz Predigerseminar from 1896 onward. He became a Privatdozent in practical theology in Kiel in 1902, honorary professor in 1906, and full professor for practical theology and New Testament in Leipzig in 1910, where he also became director of the Predigerkolleg in 1912 and rector of the university in 1924. He postulated a Liturgisches Erbrecht (1913, repr. 1969 [Liturgical law o…

Reni, Guido

(188 words)

Author(s): Buttler, Karen
[German Version] (Nov 4, 1575, Bologna – Aug 18, 1642, Bologna), one of the most important and influential Italian painters of the Baroque (III). After completing his apprenticeship under Denys Calvaert (1584–1594), Reni joined the Accademia dei Carracci in 1594. He worked in Rome from 1601 to 1614, where he contributed, among other things, to the decoration of the Cappella Paolina in Sta. Maria Maggiore (1610–1612) at the behest of Paul V, and where he also frescoed the Aurora (1614) for Scipione Borghese. After returning to his native city, Reni assumed the direction of the ¶ Bologna sch…

Renoir, Pierre-Auguste

(329 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1841, Limoges – Dec 3, 1919, Cagnes near Nice), French painter and sculptor. Renoir initially worked as a porcelain painter, but then studied to become a painter at Charles Gleyre’s studio in Paris and at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1862 to 1864. Under the influence of the school of Barbizon and Gustave Courbet, Renoir and his fellow students Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, and Frédéric Bazille turned to outdoor painting and to realistic subjects. Around 1869, in cooperation with Monet, Renoir developed Impressionism on the banks of the Seine ( La Grenouil…


(192 words)

Author(s): Hillengass, Eugen
[German Version] the solidarity initiative of German Catho­lics with people in Central and Eastern Europe, established in 1993 by the German Bishops’ Conference. The name Renovabis is derived from Ps 104:30: renovabis faciem terrae, “you will renew the face of the earth.” Renovabis provides assistance in 29 countries, helping to renew the living conditions of people in society and churches, and thereby to overcome spiritual and material distress. To this end, Renovabis promotes East-West dialogue, initiates and assists partners…


(5 words)

[German Version] Abjuration


(104 words)

Author(s): Martins, Maria Cristina Bohn
[German Version] (Span.) was a system for the exploitation of Latin American Indians as workers. It stipulated that the communities must provide a certain number of workers annually, who then carried out work for the Spanish over a legally defined period of time. Often used as a synonym of encomienda, repartimiento actually refers to a distinct form of compulsory labor. Repartimientos for the performance of personal services existed before the system of encomiendas was established and continued to exist after its introduction. Maria Cristina Bohn Martins Bibliography R. Konetzke, Am…


(11,471 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Oppenheimer, Aharon | Dan, Joseph | Weder, Hans | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Examination of repentance from the perspective of religious studies must confront the problem that the term itself has no culturally neutral meaning. Many of the phenomena in other religions that Christians tend to call repentance appear in a different light when viewed in the context of different anthropological presuppositions, ¶ so that due weight must be given to the religious anthropology in question. Generally speaking, it is true to say that in almost all non-Christian religions the notion of repentance c…


(5 words)

[German Version] Substitution


(406 words)

Author(s): Wahl, Heribert
[German Version] a concept formulated by J.F. Herbart (1806); cf. also “controlled forgetting” (Hermann Ebbinghaus, Über das Gedächtnis, 1885; ET: Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology, 1913). From the perspective of psychoanalysis, repression is not an arbitrary act for the avoidance of frustration (“suppression”) but a distinct defense mechanism that prevents from reaching consciousness libidinous, aggressive or self-(esteem-)related representations, drive impulses, and feelings that are conflict-laden or …

Reproaches (Improperia)

(179 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] chanted during the Good Friday liturgy, in which the crucified Christ pronounces reproaches (Lat. impropria) against the assembled congregation, identified with the people of God, for the injustices suffered in the Passion. The Reproaches go back to the lamentation of Christ and to corresponding passages in the Old Testament. In the medieval Roman Catholic tradition they were sung by two choirs during the Veneration of the Cross. They consist of twelve verses which ask questions about Christ’s …

Reproductive Science

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Schwinger, Eberhard | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Medicine Reproductive medicine encompasses research into female and male sterility and its treatment. The importance of reproductive medicine has greatly increased in recent years owing to the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. It has long been known that various morphological changes (e.g. malformations of the uterus, occlusions of the Fallopian tubes and seminal ducts) lead to male and female sterility. One possible therapy is attempted correction of the…


(112 words)

Author(s): Bohn Martins, Maria Cristina
[German Version] (“requirement, admonition”). Authored in 1512 by the Castilian royal councilor and jurist Palacios Rubios (1450–1524), the Requerimiento was written for the purpose of introducing a legally valid formula for the recognition of Spanish rule in the New World. Read aloud before the indigenous communities by the ¶ expeditionary captains, the Requerimiento established the formalities of a war of conquest: it demanded submission to Catholicism and threatened military conflict in the event of non-compliance. Maria Cristina Bohn Martins Bibliography B. Fernández He…

Requiem Mass

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner | Klek, Konrad
[German Version] I. Liturgy Until the liturgical reform that followed upon Vatican II, every celebration of mass for the deceased began with the Latin antiphon to the introit, Requiem aeternam, borrowed from 4 Ezra. This is why the term “requiem” came to designate any mass for the dead (also: mass for souls) that is celebrated with chant. The other special chants of the masses celebrated for the deceased were also fixed. Especially the sequence Dies irae and the offertory Domine Iesu Christe, along with other particularities (omission of Ps 43 [42] in the prayer at the foot …


(310 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth
[German Version] Following the example of Roman law, canonical law developed the rescript as a legal institution which differentiates between rescriptum iustitiae and rescriptum gratiae (cf. Corpus Iuris Canonici: Liber extra 1.3; Liber sextus [VI] 1.3). The rescript was regarded as a quasi-contractual relationship; the petitioner was required to accept it (cf. VI 3.7.1; 3.4.17). CIC/1917 abolished this requirement (c. 37) and the rescript became a unilateral act of jurisdiction in the ambit of the ordinaries ( CIC c. 36 §1). CIC/1983 limits the concept of the rescript to th…

Research Facilities

(566 words)

Author(s): Frühwald, Wolfgang
[German Version] With the emergence of the modern German research university in conjunction with the founding of the University of Berlin (1810), in which the three scientific units (the units of knowledge, of research and teaching, and of teachers and students) were established, various types of research witnessed a rapid development and led to the creation of various research facilities both within and outside the university. While the Seminar (which originally referred to the teaching method of scholarly debate between teachers and students, and later also de…

Resen, Hans Poulsen

(311 words)

Author(s): Jakubowski-Tiessen, Manfred
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1561, Resen, Jutland – Sep 14, 1638, Copenhagen). After studies in Copenhagen (from 1581), Resen went to Rostock in 1584 and to Wittenberg in 1586 (M.A., 1588); this was followed by stays in Italy and Geneva. Appointed professor for dialectics in 1591 and of theology in 1597 in Copenhagen, he then became bishop in Zealand in 1615. Resen’s theology was on the one hand rooted in Philippist tradition, which was predominant in Denmark, while on the other hand he also displayed…


(324 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is the restriction or deprivation of powers of a subordinate officeholder in accordance with an objection (devolution, prevention) pronounced by a higher authority (pope, bishop, episcopal conference). Decisions regarding ecclesiastical offices and church governance are reserved to the pope or Holy See (public associations: CIC/1983 c. 312 §1; particular churches: c. 373; ecclesiastical provinces: c. 431 §3; episcopal conferences: c. 449 §1; ecumenical councils: c. 338; the episcopal synod: c. 344; cardinals: c. 351; nuncio…

Reservatrechte (Reserved Rights in German Empire)

(187 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] In the Holy Roman Empire, reserved rights were the epitome of the (historically varying) rights enjoyed by the emperor without any requirement of approval by electors and the Reichstag. Borrowing from this usage, in the 19th century Reservatsrechte were those rights of church governance, rooted in the summepiscopate of the territorial prince, that he had reserved to be exercised personally (i.e. not by church officials acting in his name). The most important were: approbation of ecclesiastical legislation passed by synods, in ¶ some cases including the right to…

Resh Galuta

(282 words)

Author(s): Jacobs, Martin
[German Version] The Aramaic title רֵישׁ גַלוּתָא, “head of the Diaspora” (Diaspora: II, 1; also called exilarch), and its Hebrew equivalent rosh ha-gola denoted the official representative of Babylonian Judaism. As in the case of the nasi, his rival, the office was dynastic and was associated with a claimed descent from David (III). In the Babylonian Diaspora, the resh galuta was considered the highest legal authority and the supreme authority for appointment to office. His competence was nevertheless challenged by competing claims, for example those o…

Residence Obligation

(524 words)

Author(s): Tiling, Peter v. | Karle, Isolde
[German Version] I. Church Law Residence obligation is the requirement that people, especially clergy, live at their place of employment and if necessary move into an official residence, usually a ¶ parsonage. This obligation must be distinguished from mandatory presence, i.e. the obligation not to be away from one’s place of employment for extended periods except as specifically provided (vacation, special permission). Canon law and Protestant church law treat this obligation similarly. In both, stabilitas loci is intended to make sure the clergy can be reached at any…

Resistance, Indigenous

(839 words)

Author(s): Amjad-Ali, Charles
[German Version] The independence movements which began to emerge by the late 19th and early 20th century in Asia and Africa seriously challenged imperial colonialist policies (Imperialism, Colonialism/Neocolonialism). Furthermore, they encouraged resistance to the missionary enterprise that had been in operation since the 16th century (Colonialism and mission) and gave impetus to the establishment of churches independent of mission (Independent church movements, African Independent Churches). The…

Resistance, Right of

(2,921 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph | de Wall, Heinrich | Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. History Ever since classical antiquity, the theory of resistance and the right of resistance have been linked inseparably to the understanding of sovereignty and its limits in both civil society and the church. 1. In the Germanic tribal kingdom of Western, Central, and Northern Europe, three overlapping legal concepts legitimated a right of resistance: (1) the conviction that the ruler is not above the law but subject to the law (grounded in the tradition of the administration of justice by the community of all …

Resistance to National Socialism

(2,021 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Hans
[German Version] Resistance to National Socialism included measures and actions aiming to overthrow the Nazi system together with actions to save Jews and other persecuted groups. Resistance fell into four phases. From 1933 to 1938, it came from groups that formed around parties and organizations associated with the Weimar Republic. From 1938 to 1942, opposition was led by public figures who joined together in 1938 to try to prevent war. The civil opposition that developed after 1939 endeavored to persuade the generals to stage a coup d’état. The period from 1942 to Jul 20, 1944,…
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