Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Ranson, Charles Wesley

(153 words)

Author(s): Conway, Martin
[German Version] (Jun 15, 1903, Northern Ireland – Jan 13, 1988, USA), was ordained a Methodist minister in 1929 for service as a missionary in India. Appointed as secretary of the National Christian Council of India, Burma, and Ceylon in 1943, he became research secretary of the International Missionary Council (IMC) in 1945 and was elected to serve as general secretary at the IMC meeting in Whitby, Canada, in 1947. His years in that key post were dominated by the often sensitive and controversia…


(301 words)

Author(s): Amos, N. Scott
[German Version] Ranters, a derogatory term used to characterize a quasi-religious anti-nomian movement (Antinomism)¶ among radical English Protestants which is thought to have emerged sometime between 1649 and 1654, during the Interregnum. As a movement, the Ranters were anarchic rather than organized as a sect and consisted largely of members of the Parliamentary army along with the London poor, where the movement was centered. The term originated among those who were deeply offended by their behavior, whi…


(233 words)

Author(s): Siebald, Manfred
[German Version] began in the mid-1970s in New York as part of the complex, initially Afro-American and later international hip-hop movement, other expressions of which are DJing, breakdance, and graffiti. Rap (in the double sense of “utter vigorously” and “tap smartly”) is a rhythmic, mostly rhyming speech song with percussion accompaniment. It is thought to have arisen from Caribbean and African narrative traditions ( griot), from narrative Blues (Blues and religion), and from Black Power lyrics. The texts are about everyday social life of urban youth (esp…


(387 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (Raffaello Sanzio; probably Apr 6, 1483, Urbino – Apr 6, 1520, Rome), Italian painter and architect. He was probably apprenticed in 1494 to Perugino in Perugia. In 1504 he went to Florence for further training; in 1508 he went to Rome, where in 1514 he succeeded Bramante as supervising architect of the new St. Peter’s Basilica. His extensive workshop included included Giulio Romano and Pierino del Vaga. Several Madonnas embodying the quintessence of naïve devotion antedate his move to Rome ( Madonna of the Goldfinch, Madonna in Green, c. 1506/1507, both in the Uffiz…


(5 words)

[German Version] Angels

Raphael, Günter Albert Rudolf

(184 words)

Author(s): Brusniak, Friedhelm
[German Version] (Apr 30, 1903, Berlin – Oct 19, 1960, Herford). After studying music in Berlin (1922–1925), and supported by A. Mendelssohn and K. Straube, Raphael taught theory of music and composition from 1926 to 1934 at the Leipzig Conservatory, until he was compelled by racist persecution to withdraw to Meiningen (Thuringia) and in 1945 to Laubach (Hesse). After the war, the composer (who won the 1948 Liszt Prize in Weimar) began to teach again, as a lecturer in Duisburg (1949–1953) and from…

Rapoport, Solomon Juda Löb

(157 words)

Author(s): Brämer, Andreas
[German Version] (acronym: Shir; May 17 or Jun 1, 1790, Lemberg – Oct 16, 1867, Prague). In 1837 Rapoport accepted a call to become rabbi in Tarnopol, Galicia. The Prague Jewish community installed him in 1840 as their senior lawyer and in 1860 appointed him their chief rabbi. As a young man Rapoport accepted the ideas of the Jewish Enlightenment, under the influence of N. Krochmal. He was strictly faithful to the Law, opposing both the anti-rationalism of east European Hasidism and the Jewish ref…


(461 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter
[German Version] is a sudden transfer by means of divine power to a remote location, usually heaven (Ascension), or to a far-away country, on a mountain, etc. This may pro-¶ vide for temporary protection or enable an ecstatic reception of revelation. It is granted to those with a special relationship to God as an alternative to death. Because it involves the physical body and not just the taking up of the soul, the search for a body by those left behind is often futile, and there is no grave. Frequently, rapture is a way to cope with an unnatural or unsolved death. The raptured one …


(280 words)

Author(s): Moser, Heike
[German Version] (lit. “taste, essence”) is primarily a term from Indian aesthetics and poetics that includes archetypal moods, the essence of what can be experienced, and of human feelings as such. The oldest written source is thought to be the Nāṭyaśāstra, a dance and theater manual, dated to the 2nd century (Kūtiyāṭṭam, Indian ¶ dance). It already lists eight of the nine moods current today: śṛṇgāra, “erotic mood”; hāsya, “comic”; karuṇa, “compassion”; raudra, “terrifying”; vīra, “heroic”; bhayānaka, “terrible”; bībhatsa, “revolting,” and adbhuta, “wonderful”; the l…

Raselius, Andreas

(113 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[German Version] (Rasel, Raesel; 1563, Halmbach, Oberpfalz – Jan 6, 1602, Heidelberg), composer and musical theorist. In 1581 Raselius studied in Heidelberg, where in 1583 he became preceptor at the elector’s Pädagogium; in 1584 he became teacher and cantor in Regensburg; in 1600, court musical director in Heidelberg. He published two anthologies of songs (1591 and 1599), and two collections of German Gospel texts for Sundays and festivals (1594 and 1595). Raselius’s main work on the theory of music, Hexachordum seu quaestiones musicae practicae (1598), was of great importance…


(219 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] (Adret Solomon ben Adrat [Rashba is an acronym]; c. 1235, Barcelona – 1310, Barcelona), head of a school of Jewish law and Jewish mysticism in Barcelona, late 13th/early 14th century. A student of the Kabbalistic (Kabbalah) school of Girona, he was leader of a group of kabbalists in Catalonia. Before becoming a rabbi in Barcelona, he was a merchant, and traded with the king of Aragon, among others. More ¶ than 1,000 of his Responsa (7 vols.) have survived; they deal with daily problems and political matters, and with complicated questions of law as …


(386 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] (Solomon ben Isaac [Rashi is an acronym]; 1040, Troyes – 1105, Troyes), probably the most important exegete of the Bible and commentator on the Talmud in the 11th century; he studied in the 1060s in the Talmud academies in Mainz and Worms. After returning to Troyes, he opened a teaching institution for study of the Bible and Talmud, and directed it until his death in 1105. Rashi’s biblical commentaries are marked by a tendency to limit traditional rabbinic Midrash exposition – not by any means discarding it, but paying particular attention to the sensus litteralis of the v…


(7 words)

[German Version] Old Believers, Russian

Ras Shamra

(6 words)

[German Version] Ugarit


(151 words)

Author(s): Kamphausen, Erhard
[German Version] arose c. 1930 in Jamaica under the influence of the Afro-American nationalist M. Garvey. It is a pan-African new religion that venerates the Ethiopian emperor (Ras Tafari [Haile Selassie]) as the messianic liberator of the black race. The world of the whites is rejected as evil (Babylon). Since the Bible is considered to have been falsified by white Christendom, the black diaspora develops new theological theories, and hopes for a return to Africa (Zion). Special importance is att…

Ratherius of Verona

(174 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 890, region of Liège – Apr 25, 974, Namur), a difficult character who led an eventful life. He was three times (931–934, 946–948 and 962–968) bishop of Verona, and once, for a short time (953–955), bishop of Liège. Betweentimes he was in the monasteries of Aulne near Liège and Lobbes, where he was also buried. Among his few extant works, the Praeloquia (written 934–936) is noteworthy. It contains Christian moral teaching for laity and clergy. Of autobiographical interest are the Dialogus confessionalis and the Qualitatis coniectura, in which the old Ratherius p…

Rational Choice

(268 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] denotes a choice of behavior that leads to a chosen external target situation, better (more economically, more securely, with no, or fewer, unwanted side-effects) than other forms of behavior that could have been chosen at the same time. Such rationality of choice is related to the actor’s knowledge (of facts and rules), and to ethical convictions (e.g. excluding a goal attained by behavior that uses other persons only as means, not also as end in themselves [I. Kant]). Judgment o…


(3,896 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Steiger, Johann Anselm | Veltri, Giuseppe
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term rationalism is used in philosophy in a wider and a narrower sense. In its wider sense, it stands for all those antiskeptical positions (Skepticism: I) in the theory of being and its epistemology that see the only reliable source of certain knowledge not in sensory perception but in the activity of ratio, reason (I). The paradigm for reasoning activity that guarantees certainty (I) is provided by mathematical thought with its concepts of tautologies and deductive conclusions. In its narrower sense, Rationalism st…


(2,088 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Petzoldt, Matthias | Huxel, Kirsten | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Rationality is derived from Latin ratio (“calculation, consideration, reason”) and medieval Latin rationalitas (“reason, capacity for thought”). The term denotes various intellectual capacities that distinguish human beings as “rational animals” from the other more highly developed animals. In German, from the 18th century, these capacities were generally designated as Verstand (Intellect: I) and Vernunft (Reason: I). Under the influence of the English term rationality, and the usage of various scientific disciplines, especially s…


(707 words)

Author(s): Horyna, Břetislav | Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Rationalization is a relatively recent umbrella term with a variety of meanings; it denotes the replacement of traditional and fortuitous processes by planned, structured, and repeatable methods, according to criteria of functionality, effectiveness, and controllability. Since the effect of such methods is in principle always open to improvement, rationalization remains a never-ending process. In religious studies, rationality characterizes the epistemological “t…

Rational Proof

(828 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Eberhard
[German Version] Time and again, Christianity has felt compelled to submit its credibility to proof (Existence of God, Proofs of the), in the face of criticism from atheists, and from people who believe in God but distrust revelations together with claims of the uniqueness of Christianity. Recently the need for legitimation has been sharpened by the fact that, in a pluralist society, claims to truth made by the different philosophies are not thought to merit immediate belief (Pluralism). So what r…

Rational Theology

(7 words)

[German Version] Philosophical Theology

Ratke, Wolfgang

(376 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Günter R.
[German Version] (Ratichius; Oct 18, 1571, Wilster – Apr 27, 1635, Erfurt) described himself as a didacticus, and worked for a comprehensive restructuring of society through educational reforms, as, later, did his admirer J.A. Comenius. After studying philosophy and theology in Rostock, he worked in Amsterdam on oriental languages, and reflected on political and educational questions. In 1612 he submitted to the Reichstag in Frankfurt a Memorial intended to show how a harmonious language, a harmonious government, and, finally, a harmonious religion were to be …


(197 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Hannes
[German Version] (after 850 – before 912), was educated at Saint Gall Abbey and lived there as monk and teacher until his death. In the Middle Ages he was known as the author of liturgical poems in Latin, especially an All Saints Day litany. His Old High German Galluslied now survives only in the Latin retro-translation by Ekkehard IV. His Casus sancti Galli form the prelude to the Saint Gall house chronicle that was continued up to the 13th century. In it, Ratpert sketches the development of his abbey from the beginning, laying particular emphasis on the …


(172 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (died c. 870), monk at Corbie Abbey. He intervened in the first Eucharistic controversy with his writing De corpore et sanguine Domini (843), directed against Paschasius Radbertus; using dialectical method he opposed a sensory understanding of the Lord’s Supper, showing that the sacrament was always hidden as a mystery beneath a figura, and rejecting identification of the historical with the sacramental body of Christ. In this he influenced Berengar of Tours. In the books De praedestinatione (849/850), also commissioned by Charles the Bald, he opposed Hi…

Ratschow, Carl Heinz

(333 words)

Author(s): Bosse, Katrin
[German Version] (Jul 22, 1911, Rostock – Nov 10, 1999, Marburg), philologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. After beginning a course in oriental studies in Leipzig, Ratschow was redirected to theology by A. Alt’s lectures on Israel’s religious history. He continued the study of theology in Göttingen and Rostock, completing his studies in 1935. After obtaining his doctorate in theology under F. Brunstäd, on L. Klages’s vitalism, he returned to Göttingen, where in 1938 he gained his Habilitation with a thesis on the verb hayah, and a doctorate ( Magie und Religion, 1947). Af…


(314 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (Racesburg), an island town in Schleswig-Holstein, until 1545/1648 a bishopric; at the beginning of the 21st century, it had c. 13,000 inhabitants. From 1050 there stood opposite the Slav castle of Prince Ratibor (known as Race) a monastery under the Benedictine abbot Ansverus. The bishopric was founded after 1062 by Adalbert of Bremen, in the course of the Christianization of the Slavs. In the Slav revolt of 1066 the bishopric and monastery were destroyed, and Ansverus and his mo…

Ratze(n)berger, Matthäus

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1501, Wangen im Allgäu – Jan 3, 1559, Erfurt), deserves mention only for his notes on the history of his times, which are highly subjective, yet written from the vantage point of personal closeness to Luther and great veneration for him; he lived through Luther’s Reformation from the start of his studies in Wittenberg in 1516. He was distantly related to Luther by marriage, and in 1546 became one of the guardians of his children. From 1538 to 1546 he served Elector John Frederick…

Rauhes Haus

(8 words)

[German Version] Wichern, Johann Hinrich

Raumer, Karl von

(266 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1783, Wörlitz – Jun 2, 1865, Erlangen), studied jurisprudence and mineralogy in Göttingen, Halle, and Freiburg. In 1811 he became professor of mineralogy at Breslau University, but left the university in 1819 for political reasons. In 1827 he became professor of natural history and mineralogy at Erlangen University. Here he worked with C. Krafft in the Awakening movement (Revival/Revival movements: I, 7), and in 1824 founded a rescue center for boys in Nuremberg (the Veilhof). He was joint editor of E.W. Hengstenberg’s church newspaper and of the Erlangen Zeits…

Rauschenbusch, August Christian Ernst

(137 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (May 27, 1777, Bünde, Westphalia – Apr 19, 1840, Altena), 1801 pastor in Lüdenscheid, 1802 in Kronenberg, 1808 head of the Bürgerschule in Schwelm, between 1815 and 1840 pastor in Altena on the Lenne, from 1824 to 1827 superintendent in Iserlohn (1808 Dr.phil., Heidelberg). Rauschenbusch published numerous theological and historical works, including the Leben Jesu im Zusammenhange dargestellt (1837 [The life of Jesus presented in context]). He was joint editor of the hymnal, Bergisches Gesangbuch (1808), and author of a small reform education manual ( Erziehungsbü…

Rauschenbusch, Walter

(279 words)

Author(s): Toulouse, Mark G.
[German Version] (Oct 4, 1861, Rochester, NY – Jul 25, 1918, Rochester), pastor, theological teacher, and leading theologian of the Social Gospel ¶ movement. Rauschenbusch graduated in 1884 from Rochester University and in 1886 from Rochester Theological Seminary. During his studies he absorbed the critical tendencies of the writings of A. Ritschl and A. v. Harnack. As pastor in a rough area of Manhattan, he helped his church members to cope with the effects of poverty. This work led him into a circle of like-minded f…

Rautenberg, Johann Wilhelm

(174 words)

Author(s): Bendrath, Christian
[German Version] (Mar 1, 1791, Moorfleth near Hamburg – Mar 1, 1865, Hamburg); between 1820 and 1865 pastor at Sankt Georg (Hamburg); an outstanding preacher, hymn writer, and source of ideas for J.H. Wichern’s Inland Mission. Rautenberg’s revival piety developed during his theological studies. He studied from 1813 to 1816 in Kiel under A. Twesten, and from 1816 to 1817 in Berlin under F.D.E. Schleiermacher and A. Neander. In 1817 he took the regional church examination in Hamburg. In 1825, togeth…

Rautenstrauch, Franz Stephan

(173 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1734, Blottendorf, Bohemia – Sep 30, 1785, Erlau), entered the Benedictine monastery of Brevnov (Braunau) near Prague in 1750, and became its abbot in 1773. He was appointed director of the Vienna theological faculty, and in 1774, under the influence of Jansenism, put forward an outline for the improvement of theological schools according to the principles of Josephinism: the minister should be first of all an educator of the people. In 1782 Rautenstrauch, as a member of …

Raven, Charles Earle

(145 words)

Author(s): Bowler, Peter J.
[German Version] (Jul 4, 1888, London – Jul 7, 1964, Cambridge), was a leading Modernist theologian in the Anglican Church (England, Theology in) who promoted a natural theology based on a liberal interpretation of Christianity and a non-materialistic view of nature. He was ordained in 1909 and served as canon of Liverpool 1924–32 and as Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge from 1932. He wrote popular books on natural history, a biography of the 17th-century naturalist John Ray, and numerous accounts of his own teleological vision of nature and evolution. Peter J. Bowler Bibliograp…


(800 words)

Author(s): Nauerth, Claudia
[German Version] I. Early Church and Archbishopric Ravenna is one of the earliest churches (2nd/3rd cent.), but its founding by Apollinaris of Ravenna is legendary. The beginnings go back to the city itself, not the harbor town of Classe (Deichmann). The earliest secure date is 343 (Bishop Severus at the imperial council in Sardica [Homoeans]). Before the middle of the 5th century, the city had already achieved the status and jurisdiction of a metropolitan see, subordinate to Rome. Peter Chrysologus (from 432) composed numerous homilies. The temporary presence of the imperial court ¶ (G…

Rawls, John

(436 words)

Author(s): Höffe , Otfried
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1921, Baltimore, MD – Nov 24, 2002, Lexington, MA). The English-speaking world owes to the philosopher Rawls the most important 20th-century contribution to political ethics. His monumental work A Theory of Justice (1971, 21999) succeeds in making a change of paradigm comprising five aspects: 1.While meta-ethical studies had dominated up to that point, Rawls turned directly to a normative theme, namely justice (II; IV; VI). 2. Inasmuch as the anglophone world discussed normative questions, it favored utili…

Raymond of Aguilers

(92 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter
[German Version] (died after 1100), a canon in Le Puy (France) and he took part in the first Crusade as chaplain to Duke Raymond IV of St-Gilles. In his Liber ( Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, before 1105), he wrote about the Crusade and especially about the duke, stressing the religious background: visions, discoveries of relics, and the intervention of God and the saints. Ernst-Dieter Hehl Bibliography Le “Liber” de Raymond d’Aguilers, ed. J.H. Hill & L.L. Hill, 1969 J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, 1986.

Raymond of Capua

(196 words)

Author(s): Heusinger, Sabine v.
[German Version] (de Vineis; c. 1330, Capua – 10 May, 1399, Nuremberg), important reformer of the Dominican order. While Raymond was studying law from 1345 to 1348 in Bologna, he entered the order in Orvieto. From 1363 to 1366, and in 1374, he was chaplain to the sisters in Montepulciano, where he completed the Legend of Agnes in 1366. From 1367 to 1370, and in 1378, he was prior of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva in Rome, and from 1374 lector in Siena. There he was the confessor and later biographer of Catherine of Siena. In 1379 he became provincial in …

Raymond of Peñafort, Saint

(184 words)

Author(s): Heusinger, Sabine v.
[German Version] (c. 1180, Villafrance del Panadés, near Barcelona – Jan 6, 1275, Barcelona), important canonist. Raymond studied law in Barcelona and Bologna, where he is believed to have taught from 1218 to 1221 as doctor decretorum. In 1222 he entered the Dominican order in Barcelona. From 1238, as master general, he reworked the constitutions of the order. From 1240 he assumed tasks in the areas of pastoral care, the politics of the order, and mission. Gregory IX entrusted Raymond in 1230 with the compilation of the Decretals, which from 1234, as Decretales Gregorii IX or Liber Extra (C…

Raymond of Sabunde

(194 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Sebundus, Ramon Sibiuda; died Apr 29, 1436, Toulouse), taught philosophy, medicine, and theology in Toulouse, where he was also rector of the university. In his main work, Scientia libri creaturarum (1434/1435; in later eds., Theologia naturalis), he develops a natural theology based on experience, in the Franciscan tradition and oriented to Augustine and Anselm of Canterbury: since humanity is the center of creation, self-knowledge is the key to knowledge of God; theology is a practical science, necessary because…

Raymond of Toledo

(166 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (died Aug 20, 1152, Toledo), originally from Gascony; he was appointed to the chapter of Toledo. Raymond became bishop of (Burgo de) Osma in 1109, and in 1124/1125 archbishop of Toledo and primate in Spain. In 1148 he took part in the Synod of Reims. After the end of Islamic rule (1085), Toledo became a center for translation from Arabic to Latin, around 1136, with Plato of Tivoli. The Corpus Toletanum, inaugurated by Peter the Venerable, includes the complete Qurʾān translated in 1143 by Robert Ketton and Hermann Dalmata. Still more than Raymond, h…

Raynaldi, Oderico

(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Reinaldus; 1595, Treviso – 1671, Rome), theologian, historian, from 1680 Oratorian, between 1650 and 1656 superior general. He continued¶ the 12-volume Annales ecclesiastici of the Oratorian C. Baronius with nine further volumes, bringing it up to 1564 (Rome, 1676f.; his ninth vol., vol. XXI of the Annales, appeared posthumously). The quality of his work is superior to that of his predecessors. Thus Catholics could put forward a work equal in value to the Protestant Magdeburg Centuries. Rolf Decot Bibliography Annales ecclesiastici, ed. G.D. Mansi, 15 vols.,…

Ray, Satyajit

(169 words)

Author(s): Bauschulte, Manfred
[German Version] (May 2, 1921, Calcutta – Apr 23, 1992, Calcutta). At the age of 20, Ray took over an advertising agency; he then had the opportunity to study Shantiniketan art at the university directed by R. Tagore. His first film, Pather Panchali (1955), was already a world success. It forms the first part of the Apu trilogy ( Aparajito, 1956; Apur Sansar, 1959). In the style of Indian Neorealism, based on work with non-professional actors, it recounts the life of Apu, the son of a Brahman, who cannot feed his family, and discovers by a circuitous route…

Reader (Lector)

(672 words)

Author(s): Steck, Wolfgang | Petzolt, Martin | Neijenhuis, Jörg
[German Version] I. Catholic Church It seems that there was a synagogue tradition in antiquity of lay persons undertaking the reading in public worship of lessons other than those taken from the Gospels. From the early Middle Ages, readers were given clerical status (Clergy and laity), and assigned to one of the so-called minor orders at the preparatory stage before ordination of priests. Since the reordering of liturgical services by Paul VI’s apostolic decree Ministeria quaedam (Aug 15, 1972), readers are assigned to the laity (as they were orig.), the office of read…

Reading Tone

(206 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The reading tone is the model for musical recitation of liturgical lessons (cantillation). The speaking of lessons was unknown in the Early Church; recitation with “raised voice” denotes the special nature and standing of the Word of God and promotes better understanding. Elements of the reading tone are: recitation tone ( tenor); intonation; and¶ cadences ( flexa for short phrases, metrum for half-verse or long phrases, punctum for the end of the verse). These clarify the grammatical structure of a sentence acoustically, as also in the oration …


(4,743 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael | Großhans, Hans-Peter | Kitschen , Friederike | Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Realism in a given area B means the ontological thesis that names or terms used in a theory of B refer to things that exist independently of human thought. For example, in natural realism the existence of stones, trees, and ¶ tables is assumed; in scientific realism, that of electrons, force fields, and quarks (see V below); in mathematical realism, that of numbers and quantities; or in ethical realism, that of moral values. Critics of realism object, for example, that moral values are an expression of value…


(1,324 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Meister Eckhart used a term corresponding to “reality” to translate the Aristotelian ἐνέργεια/ enérgeia (Capacity). According to Aristotle, reality derives its name from working, from having an effect (cf. Metaphysics Θ 1050 a 21ff.). The form that a living being produces or brings about through the power of the soul’s ¶ entelechy, and within the possibilities it aims for, is hence real. Because of this, two meanings always resonate in Wirklichkeit, the German word for “reality.” In the most general sense, it denotes on the o…

Real Presence

(638 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] In the first instance, the expression real presence means a position that takes the words of institution (“This is my body/blood”) literally, arguing that “in, with, and under” the elements of the Eucharist, the body and blood of Jesus Christ are actually received, in contrast, say, to the position of Berengar of Tours and Zwingli, which interprets the words of institution metaphorically and considers the elements signs representing the humanity of Christ, seated at the right hand of God…


(3,956 words)

Author(s): Neijenhuis, Jörg | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy Traditional epistemology considers reason primarily to be a discursive faculty (Gk διάνοια/ diánoia; λόγος/¶ lógos; Lat. ratio), in part to distinguish it from intellect as an intuitive faculty (Capacity). This distinction also implies a ranking: the discursive faculty either proceeds syllogistically as “demonstration” (ἀπόδειξις/ apódeixis) based on ultimate principles that cannot themselves be deduced by reasoning (Arist. Eth. Nic. 1139b) or else leads to them, roughly in the sense of movement from the presuppositions made…
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