Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Telephone Counseling

(460 words)

Author(s): Wieners, Jörg
[German Version] I After beginnings in the United States in the early 20th century, telephone crisis lines became more important in the 1950s. In Europe Chad Varah was the first to create a viable organization, the Samaritans (London, 1953). In Germany there followed three foundations based on different ideas. In October of 1956, at the instigation of Klaus Thomas, the number of the Ärztliche Lebensmüdenbetreuung was published; this date is generally considered the beginning of telephone counseling…


(1,920 words)

Author(s): Wehmeier, Stefan | Eurich, Claus | Hartmann, Reinold | Haberer, Johanna
[German Version] I. Socioeconomics The deregulation of German broadcasting in 1984 added a commercial dimension to Germany’s television programming, which had until then been conceived of in sociocultural terms. Both dimensions are part of the so-called dual broadcasting system (Radio and television): public television networks provide the basic services, finance themselves mostly through fees, and do not operate on a profit-oriented basis; commercial networks provide additional television services,…


(771 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] 1. Romanus (Feb 21, 1703, Leipzig – Apr 5, 1750, Leipzig), began studying philosophy and theology in Leipzig in 1719, receiving his M.A. in 1721. In 1723 he was appointed catechist at the church of St. Peter and in 1727 Saturday preacher at the church of St. Thomas, both in Leipzig. In 1730 he was appointed deacon at the church of St. Maximus in Merseburg, in 1731 catechist at the church of St. Peter, in 1737 deacon, and in 1745 pastor of St. Thomas in Leipzig. After receiving his B…


(8 words)

[German Version] Teleology, Ends and Means

Tempels, Placide

(163 words)

Author(s): Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1906, Berlaar, Belgium – Oct 9, 1977, Hasselt, Belgium), influential, sometimes controversial Franciscan theologian in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo, Democratic Republic; 1933–1962) and founder of Jamaa. Tempels criticized the colonial mentality and traditional mission methods. By taking indigenous concepts such as “fertility” and “vital force” seriously ( Bantoe-Filosofie, 1945/1946, many trans.; ET: Bantu Philosophy, 1959), he sparked a dialogue between theology and African ontology ( Notre rencontre, 1962). Church authorities w…

Templar Order

(549 words)

Author(s): Sarnowsky, Jürgen
[German Version] (Sacra Domus Militiae Templi Hierosolimitani) I. Beginnings The Order of the Temple emerged c. 1118/1119 from a community of knights who lived in the milieu of the patriarch of Jerusalem – probably like the much later Knights of Malta and the Canons of the Holy Sepulcher. Under Hugues de Payns (died 1136/1137), they dedicated themselves to the protection of pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem and were given lodgings by King Balduin II in the palatium or templum Salomonis (Al-Aqṣā Mosque), from which the community took its name. In 1127 Hugues traveled to the…

Templar Society, German (Tempelgesellshaft)

(423 words)

Author(s): Perry, Yaron
[German Version] The Templar Society originated in the Pietist movement (Pietism) that rose in Germany during the 17th century and tried to infuse a new spirit in the Protestant Church. C. Hoffmann and Georg David Hardegg (1812–1879) gathered thousands of Württemberg’s subjects and founded in 1854 the Gesellschaft für Sammlung des Volkes Gottes in Jerusalem. Disputes with the Evangelical Church led to schism in 1861 and the establishment of the German Temple with the aim of social reform and the d…


(9,630 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard | Berlejung, Angelika | Steimle, Christopher | Bieberstein, Klaus | Zellentin, Holger | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The English word temple derives from Latin templum. In the technical vocabulary of religious studies, it is more specialized than sanctuary, shrine, cult site, or place of worship. The usage of the originally Latin term beyond the sphere of classical antiquity is well established, particularly for structures that appear comparable in regard to their architectural form (monumentality, stone construction) or religious function (dwelling place of a god or goddess). But this usage does not reflect a precise defi-¶ nition it is based primarily …

Temple in Buddhism

(7 words)

[German Version] Monastery

Temple Scroll

(877 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
[German Version] I. Manuscripts and Influence at Qumran Three manuscripts of the Temple Scroll have survived: 4QT (4Q524), 11QTa, b (11Q19 and 11Q20). The assignment of 11Q21 (11QTc) to the Temple Scroll is uncertain. Paleography and damage patterns link 4Q365a (4QT?) to the manuscript 4Q365 (4QRPc). The manuscript 11QTa, with remnants of 66 columns (8.148 meters out of what was originally about 9 meters), is the best preserved. The earliest surviving manuscript, 4QT, can be dated paleographically to the period between 150 and 125 bce (Puech, 87f.). With minor variations, the t…

Temple, William

(162 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Oct 15, 1881, Exeter – Oct 26, 1944, Westgate-on-Sea). After leaving Oxford, Temple rose quickly through a succession of senior appointments in the Church of England, including bishop of ¶ Manchester (1921) and archbishop of York (1929), before being elevated to Canterbury (1942). His contributions to the various debates over social, international, and economic issues were especially respected. Active in the early ecumenical movement, he helped to advance both the Faith and Order and the Life and Work Movemen…

Temporalities, Church

(165 words)

Author(s): Wall, Heinrich de
[German Version] The term temporalities refers to the “temporal” assets of the church – goods and privileges that differ from “spiritualities” in having no immediate spiritual character. Historically, the separation of temporalities from spiritualities was of particular significance in resolving the Investiture Controversy, when a distinction was made between installing bishops in their spiritual office and endowing them with their secular rights and privileges. In Roman Catholic canon law, the law of church property is still dealt with in CIC/1983 under the heading De bonis e…


(446 words)

Author(s): Mesch, Walter
[German Version] a fundamental concept in M. Heidegger’s existential analysis of human Dasein. Dasein, according to Heidegger, possesses the structure of care, because “in its being it is concerned about its very being” ( Sein und Zeit, 1927, §4; ET: Being and Time, 1962, 1996). It projects itself onto possibilities from which it understands itself in its total existence (§31). And temporality is the “ontological meaning” of this care, because – against the tendency of Dasein to misunderstand itself as being just like intraworldly entit…


(2,036 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Arneth, Martin | Feldmeier, Reinhard | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Temptation is a theologoumenon of many religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It arises in the presence of free will when evil makes its appearance as fascinating, enticing cajolery, often insinuating. There are various forms of temptation: by a deity, by human individuals, by demons, in a nontheistic con-¶ text, and even human temptation of a deity. Temptation is often interpreted as the work of a demonic power that takes on symbolic significance – for example Māra in Buddhism; cf. e.g. Saṃyut…


(215 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] is a Hebrew midrashic technique (Midrash) in which any letter in a biblical verse can be substituted by another one, in order to reveal new layers of meaning in the divine language of the Scriptures. Its origin is biblical: Jeremiah twice calls the city of Babylon (Heb. “Bavel”) “Sheshach” (Jer 25:26; 51:41). This was achieved by the temurah technique called ETBSh, in which the 22 letters of the alphabet are written in one column from beginning to end, and from end to the beginning in the parallel column. Thus the first letter א (aleph) is substituted by (ת (tav), the last le…

Ten Commandments, The

(7 words)

[German Version] Decalogue

Tendai Shū

(363 words)

Author(s): Kleine, Christoph
[German Version] one of the major Buddhist denominations of Japan. The Chinese precursor of the Tendai Shū, the Tiantai zong, was founded in the 6th century by Zhiyi (538–597) on Mount Tiantai. With no immediate precursors in any Indian school of thought, it stands out as a decidedly Chinese interpretation of Mahāyāna Buddhism, with its culmination in the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka-sūtra (Lotus-Sūtra). In its ontology, metaphysics, and logic, it is based extensively on Mādhyamika philosophy, interpreted unconventionally. The teachings of Tiantai were introduc…


(201 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] ( Officium tenebrarum) is the special form combining Matins and Lauds (Liturgy of the hours) on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of Passion Week which was in use until 1970. One of the 15 candles burning on a special candelabra was extinguished after each psalm (three times three in Matins and five in Lauds) or after the Benedictus, so that the end of the service took place in tenebris, in the dark. In the Middle Ages, the Tenebrae had special concluding prayers and songs, including congregational hymns; according to the Roman use Ps 51(50), the Miserere, was sung again. …

Ten Lost Tribes of Israel

(272 words)

Author(s): Jacobs, Martin
[German Version] Since the tribal territories of Judah (Judah/Judea) and Benjamin lay within the biblical Southern Kingdom, it is generally assumed that ¶ ten of the 12 tribes of Israel lived in the Northern Kingdom. We read in 2 Kgs 17:6 and 18:11 that Sargon II deported the population of the Northern Kingdom in 722 bce and settled its members in various places in Assyria. According to the version of Chronicles (Chronicles, Books of; 1 Chr 5:26), in 733 bce Tiglath Pileser III had already carried off some tribes to the same places, where they lived “to this day.” Since Ez…

Tennant, Frederick Robert

(174 words)

Author(s): Fermer, Richard M.
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1866, Burslem, Staffordshire, UK – Sep 9, 1957, Cambridge, UK), scientist, priest, and from 1931 lecturer in theology at Trinity College, Cambridge. In his work Philosophical Theology (2 vols., 1928–1930) Tennant argues for an “empiricist” teleology. Examination of the “ordo cognoscendi” is the only way to a known “ordo essendi.” Ten-¶ nant was influenced not only by J. Locke and J. Butler but also the genetic psychology of his Cambridge contemporary James Ward. His method embarks from an examination of “the facts,” as deriv…
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