Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(407 words)

Author(s): Abdullaev, Evgeniy
[German Version] The Republic of Tajikistan, independent since Sep 9, 1991, is a nation in Inner Asia (Asia, see map), bordered by Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, and Afghanistan. Tajikistan occupies an area of 143,100 km2 with a population of about 6.8 million, dominated by the Persian-speaking Tajiks (80%). Tajiks originated from the Old Iranian tribes who settled in the northeast of the ancient Persian empires and, until the spread of Islam, had professed Zoroastrian (Zoroaster), Buddhist, Nestorian (Nestorianism), and Manich…

Takemitsu, Toru

(159 words)

Author(s): Scholz-Cionca, Stanca
[German Version] (Oct 8, 1930, Tokyo – Feb 20, 1996, Tokyo), Japanese composer and multi-media artist. Largely self-taught, Takemitsu was also interested in painting, literature, theater, and film. He made his debut in 1950 and gained international fame in 1957 with his Requiem for String Orchestra. His extensive and innovative oeuvre brought him international recognition (music for electronic media, film scores, mixed-media experiments). Besides the influence of Western avant-garde musicians (Claude Debussy, O. Messiaen, Karlheinz Stockhausen,…


(258 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
[German Version] (“caution, fear”) means concealment or denial of one’s affiliation with a particular school of Islam (II, 1), often heterodox; it can also mean active participation in the rituals of a majority religion on the part of a sectarian to protect against danger to life and limb. This dissimulation can go so far that secret adherents of the heterodox beliefs adopt names typical of the majority religion. Taḳiyya is especially significant in religio-social contexts in which the danger of persecution and obliteration of the religious minority is reinforce…

Takizawa, Katsumi

(259 words)

Author(s): Ogawa, Keiji
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1909, Utsunomia – Jun 26, 1984, Fukuoka), Japanese philosopher strongly influenced by Kitaro Nishida and K. Barth. His roots were in Zen (II) Buddhism. After basic studies, he decided to study law at the University of Tokyo but broke off his legal studies in 1927 and moved to the philosophical faculty of the University of Kyushu. There he became assistant professor and later full professor of philosophical ethics. He concentrated on Nishida’s Zen dialectics of nothingness.…

Takla Haymanot, Saint

(414 words)

Author(s): Haile, Getatchew
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1215?, Zorare/Bulga – Aug 20, 1313?, Dabra Asebo/Libanos, Ethiopia), popular saint of the Orthodox Church of Ethiopia. ¶ Born Fesseha Seyon (“Joy of Zion”), he experienced his transformation to Takla Haymanot (“Plant of Faith”) through an appearance of the archangel Michael during a hunting expedition with his entourage. He immediately traveled throughout Shewa in southern Ethiopia, preaching the gospel, performing miracles, and baptizing thousands. Although Abuna Takla Haymanot is famous throughout Christian Ethiopia, he is known preem…

Taku, Moses ben Hasdai

(178 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] (c. 1170–1230). Rabbi Moses Taku (the name probably relates to a town; it may be Dachau, or Tachau in Bohemia), was a prominent Tosafist (Tosafot) who wrote commentaries on some talmudic tractates and legal responsa and is frequently quoted in halakhic literature up to the 15th century. He may have served as a rabbi in Regensburg. ¶ In manuscript Paris H711 there is a copy of a part of Taku’s polemical work, Ketav Tamim ( A Book of Wholesomeness; publ. R. Kircheim, 3 vols., 1860, 54–99). The work is dedicated to an uncompromising attack on the rationalistic…


(9 words)

[German Version] Clothing and Vestments: II, 2.c

Tales and Legends

(3,589 words)

Author(s): Feistner, Edith | Wißmann, Hans | Arneth, Martin | Sellin, Gerhard | Roggenkamp, Antje
[German Version] I. Literary History 1. Unlike fairy tales, which are set in a fictional world that takes wonders for granted, tales (Ger. Sagen) and legends recount the irruption of miracles and wonders into the real world. Tales treat this irruption as a mysterious and terrifying experience, while legends embed it in a religiously structured explanatory context. 2. The etymology of the terms tale and legend points to two different forms of transmission: oral in the case of tales (“what is told”) and sagas (“what is said”), written in the case of legends (Lat. legenda, “what is to be re…


(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] was originally the name of the fortress and episcopal see founded to replace the Estonian fortress of Lyndanisse taken by the Danish king Valdemar II in 1219. In 1227 it was taken over by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword; this led c. 1230 to the founding of a German city based on an earlier trading post. Once more left to the Danes in 1238, Talinn was bought back by the Teutonic Order in 1346. The bishops of Talinn, never having had their own territory, were suffragan to the arc…


(3,214 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Otto, Eckart | Reeg, Gottfried | Krawietz, Birgit | Ogris, Werner
[German Version] I. Concept Talion is derived from the Roman lex talionis, in which it referred to a regulated act of retribution – in keeping with a legal norm that was meant to place limitations on self-administered justice. This stands in contradiction to the general understanding of talion as “doing as you are done by,” also in the sense of self-administered justice. In modern usage, talion is thus particularly understood in the sense of blood revenge or vendetta. The latter meaning is therefore focuse…


(171 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred
[German Version] The etymology of the word has not been explained satisfactorily (Sefrin, 163). In both popular and academic language, there is no precise difference in meaning or usage between a talisman and an amulet. A talisman is an artificial or natural object understood by the person who wears or uses it to be endowed with power (Mana). There is no visible distinction between a talisman and a piece of jewelry; as a result, there is a wide range of talismans in different cultures. Someone who uses a talisman expects either to be strengthened ¶ (and enabled to resist negative influenc…

Talleyrand, Charles Maurice

(232 words)

Author(s): Jordan, Stefan
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1754, Paris – May 15, 1838, Paris). Appointed bishop of Autun in 1789, as a supporter of the French Revolution he became a member of the Constitutional Assembly in the same year; in 1790 he became president of the National Assembly. When he swore to uphold the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1791, he was excommunicated by Pope Pius VI and was forced to resign from the episcopate. Suspected of royalist sympathies, he emigrated to England in 1792 and to the United States…

Tallis, Thomas

(161 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (c. 1505 – Nov 20 or 23, 1585, Greenwich, near London), English composer and organist. Having served as organist at the Benedictine abbey in Dover, St. Mary-at-Hill in London, the Augustinian Abbey of the Holy Cross in Waltham (Essex), and Canterbury Cathedral, around 1543 he was appointed gentleman of the Chapel Royal in London, where he served as organist until his death (a position shared with W. Byrd after 1572). Tallis was particularly noted for his skill at counterpoint. He …


(6 words)

[German Version] Prayer Shawl


(2,913 words)

Author(s): Stemberger, Günter
[German Version] I. Clarification of the Concept Talmud (derived from למד/ lamad, “to learn,” or limmad, “to teach”) signifies “study, instruction, teaching” (as first attested in Qumran: 4QpNah II 8), and more specifically the commentary on the Mishnah in the Talmud Bavli ( b; see below II) and the Talmud Yerushalmi ( y; see below III). The Talmud is made up of the Mishnah and the Gemara (Aram. גמר/ gemar, “to complete, to learn”), the “traditional teaching” or “completion” of the Mishnah in the interpretation of the Amoraim. II. Talmud Bavli Soon after the compiling of the Mishnah, …


(155 words)

Author(s): Baum, Wilhelm
[German Version] queen of Georgia (1184–1213). The great-granddaughter of the Georgian king David IV became co-regent with her father George III in 1178. The children of her second marriage, to the Ossetian prince David Soslan, succeeded to the throne as George IV and Russutuna. The Seljuks, who had invaded Asia Minor, were driven back. In 1204 Tamara joined the Fourth Crusade. Trebizond was taken by David Soslan; under his kinsman Alexius Comnenus, it was turned into a buffer state between Georgia and the Seljuks. The most important figu…

Tam/Rabbenu Tam

(9 words)

[German Version] Jacob ben Meir Tam


(5 words)

[German Version] Bible


(170 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (died 1115, Antwerp), itinerant ascetic preacher, probably a layman, for some time a member of the circle of Count Robert II of Flanders. In 1112 he is ¶ said to have been in Rome trying to have the islands at the mouth of the Scheldt (Zeeland) removed from the bishopric of Utrecht and placed under the bishopric of Thérouanne (under the archbishopric of Reims). On his return journey, he was imprisoned by the archbishop of Cologne and charged with heresy by the Utrecht cathedral clergy. The stereotyped accusa…


(5 words)

[German Version] Midrash
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