Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Teaching Office of the Church

(4,631 words)

Author(s): Pahud de Mortanges, Elke | Germann, Michael | Köhler, Wiebke | Herms, Eilert | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Law 1. Catholicism. Within the total structure of the church, the teaching office is the court of final authority for preserving, transmitting and interpreting the faith. The teaching office stands under the Word of God (Vatican II, DV 10: magisterium non supra verbum Dei, sed eidem ministrat), and perceives its task as constantly involved in interaction with the other ecclesiastical witnesses ( loci theologici) to the Word of God. Consonance with all other courts and organs of the church is shown in the church’s reception (II) of decisions…

Teaching of the Church

(380 words)

Author(s): Domsgen, Michael
[German Version] The teaching ministry of the church embraces the church’s whole program of instruction, including confirmation classes, Christian doctrine classes, and Sunday school. The concept, which is not clearly distinct from catechesis or instruction, appears in various contexts. C.A.G. v. Zezschwitzviewed the teaching ministry as part of the “total catechetical process” (9). In this sense, it is primarily instruction in questions of the faith and is therefore used as a term for confirmatio…

Teaching, Use of Media in

(563 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] The teaching media or tools discussed here include all non-personal, material means of instructional communication, from traditional tools like school Bibles, hymnals (V), and catechisms (V) through pictures (on paper, photos, slides, posters, or computer files), sound recordings, objects, film, and textbooks to the Internet and other media. Their didactic function consists primarily in bringing outside reality into the classroom vividly and sensuously. Traditionally such tools have been catego-¶ rized according to the senses involved (visual, audi…

Technical Colleges

(358 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] Technical colleges ( Fachschulen) were established in German-speaking Europe during the 19th century as a result of the “scientification of production” (Grüner, 248). Until c. 1890, senior technical colleges ( Fachhochschulen) could also be called technical colleges; since that time, the increasing differentiation of the educational system has narrowed the definition of technical colleges. The definition established on Oct 29, 1937, is still in effect: “Technical colleges are schools that provide training in a…

Technological Ethics

(252 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] is the branch of ethics that examines the advantages and disadvantages of technological development and applications of technology. Its central themes are: compatibility of the application of certain technologies with human dignity, the preferability of competing possibilities of technological development, questions of justice in the distribution of benefits and burdens generated by a technology, compatibility with the common good, especially in the long term, and the preferabilit…


(5,115 words)

Author(s): Berg, Christian | Meisinger, Hubert | Krüger, Oliver | Schmidt, Jan C. | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Definitions 1. Technique In antiquity, τέϰνη/ technē originally meant special skill in handwork; it also denoted competence in reasonable action in other practical, artistic and philosophical areas. For Aristotle it is reasonable behavior directed to the production of praxis and poiesis ; technē imitates natural events, being distinct from them but embedded in them. In the modern period ¶ (Modernity), with criticism of Aristotelian metaphysics, the understanding of technique also changed. Technique became a key concept of modern culture…

Technology Assessment

(510 words)

Author(s): Wachlin, Klaus Dietrich
[German Version] or TA is a consequence of recent technological developments (Technology): side-effects, sometimes dramatic, of technological advances lead to technological conflicts and problems of legitimation, control, and trust (the “experts’ dilemma”). At the interface between the executive and the legislature, between economists (Economics) and the public, there emerge demands to use technology assessment to manage the opportunities and risks of scientific and technological advances. The first governmental advisory TA institution was the Office of Techn…


(185 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] (1768, Old Piqua, OK – Oct 15, 1813, at the Thames river, Ontario, Canada), Shawnee Indian political leader of various Indian tribes (Native American Indians). By the early 1800s, Tecumseh formed an Indian confederacy. In 1805, Tecumseh’s brother, Lalawethika, sustained a religious experience and laid claims to a revitalization doctrine enjoining Shawnees to relinquish contacts with Americans. By 1808, Tecumseh began to transform the religious movement into a political alliance, u…

Te Deum

(316 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] The Te Deum is a liturgical chant comprising 29 lines of prose; in the Middle Ages, it was ascribed initially to Ambrose and Augustine of Hippo, later to Nicetas of Remesiana, although his authorship is still disputed. In vv.1–10, the church and the hosts of heaven extol God the Father, with the Sanctus being quoted in vv. 5–6. Verses 11–13, a later addition, praise the Trinity. Verses 14–23 extol Christ’s sovereignty and work of redemption (vv. 22f. from Ps 28:9). The concluding se…


(548 words)

Author(s): Kirn, Hans-Martin | König, Christopher
[German Version] 1. Willem (Jan 4, 1579, Zierikzee – Apr 8, 1629, Middelburg), Dutch Reformed theologian and devotional writer; the most important representative of the early Nadere Reformatie. After studying law at St. Andrews and Poitiers, he took up theology at Leiden in 1604. In 1606 he was appointed pastor in Haamstede and Burg and in 1613 in Middelburg, where initially F. Gomarus and A. Walaeus were among his colleagues. His decision to study theology was immediately due to his encounters with English Puritans in Br…


(5 words)

[German Version] Prayer


(5 words)

[German Version] Prayer


(326 words)

Author(s): Treusch, Ulrike
[German Version] former abbey and town on the lake Tegernsee in Upper Bavaria. The abbey, under the patronage of St. Quirinus, was founded c. 760 by two noble brothers, Otkar and Adalbert (who later became ¶ its first abbot); it was the most important Benedictine abbey in Bavaria. In the early 9th century, it was one of the wealthiest royal monasteries, with many private minsters and affiliated houses in Ilmmünster and Sankt Pölten (Lower Austria). In the 10th century, the abbey lost much of it wealth through secularization. The e…

Tegnér, Esaias

(334 words)

Author(s): Detering, Heinrich
[German Version] (Nov 13, 1782, Kyrkerud, Värmland – Nov 2, 1846, Växjö), the son of a pastor, was appointed professor of aesthetics at Lund in 1810; in 1812 he was appointed to the chair of Greek studies. After publication of patriotic poetry ( Svea, 1811), in 1818 he was made a member of the Swedish Academy, for which he wrote numerous works. After classicistic beginnings, along with reflections on aesthetics and verse narratives (including Nattvardsbarnen, 1820; ET: “Children of the Lord’s Supper,” by Longfellow, publ. in his Ballads and Other Poems in 1842; Axel, 1822; ET: Axel, 1915),…

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre

(549 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Jürgen
[German Version] (May 1, 1881, Sarcenat, near Clermont-Ferrand – Apr 10, 1955, New York), paleontologist and theologian. Teilhard joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1899. After studying philosophy in Jersey, he taught physics in Cairo. He studied theology in Hastings, in England, from 1908 to 1912 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1911. His acceptance of the theory of evolution and his attempt incorporate it into theology (as in La vie cosmique, 1916) met with hostility on the part of the order. His military service as a stretcher-bearer from 1914 to 1919 w…


(260 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar
[German Version] town in the hill country of Judah, on the boundary between settled areas and desert (2 Chr 20:20) and between Bethlehem and Hebron. Its location explains the presence of Calebite tribes (Tribes of Israel) from Hebron (1 Chr 2:24; 4:5). Though not mentioned in Josh 15, it appears as a district with Tekoa, Bethlehem, and other towns in Josh 15:59f. LXX. David’s warrior Ira was from Tekoa (2 Sam 23:26; cf. 1 Chr 27:9). Rehoboam is said to have had Tekoa fortified (2 Chr 11:5ff.), bu…

Telemann, Georg Philipp

(555 words)

Author(s): Hobohm, Wolf
[German Version] (Mar 14, 1681 [following the Julian Calendar], Magdeburg – Jun 25, 1767, Hamburg) was regarded by his contemporaries as a major composer of church music (IV, 4.a; annual cycles of church cantatas; oratorio-passions), passion oratorios (B.H. Brockes Passion, 1716; Seliges Erwägen [“Blessed Contemplation”], 1722; Der Tod Jesu [“The Death of Jesus”], 1755 [Passion music: IV; Oratorio]), operas ( Socrates, 1721; Pimpinone, 1728; Emma und Eginhard, 1728), instrumental music, and songs. Roughly 50 printed editions (including five annual cantata cycles and one Passio…

Teleological Ethics

(8 words)

[German Version] Ethics of Goods


(3,738 words)

Author(s): Evers, Dirk | Hewlett, Martinez J. | Angehrn, Emil | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. The Concept The word teleologia was a neologism coined in 1728 by C. Wolff ( Philosophia rationalis sive logica, 1728, §85) to denote the domain of natural philosophy that explains things on the basis of their end (Gk τέλος/ télos, “end, goal”; Ends and means); it was soon borrowed by other languages. In substance, however, the concept had an extensive prehistory. In the work of Aristotle, examination of phenomena on the basis of their “for-the-sake-of-which” (οὗ ἕνεκα/ hoú héneka) was one of the four forms of causality, which the Latin Middle Ages called causa finalis: …


(502 words)

Author(s): Hewlett, Martinez J.
[German Version] C.R. Darwin did not deny the existence of design in nature. In fact, it was the obvious ¶ presence of design that inspired his work. He wondered what the source of it could be. His answer, in contrast to the natural theology of W. Paley, was that all of the complexity in the living world could be explained by his theory of evolution (IV), invoking descent with modification from a common ancestor (Heredity), mediated by the force of natural selection. Of course, Paley had invoked the philosophical p…
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