Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Corneille, Pierre

(515 words)

Author(s): Siepe, Hans T.
[German Version] (1606, Rouen – 1684, Paris), along with J. Racine and J.B. Molière one of the greatest authors of French classicism. He obtained the foundations of his Christian-humanistic worldview in a Jesuit college; after studying law and a brief period of activity as a lawyer, he turned to the theater in 1629. Of his more than 30 pieces, the tragedy Le Cid (1637) set in the conflict between amour and honneur, the Roman dramas Horace (1640), rooted in the tension between individual and state, and Cinna (1640), and the martyr drama Polyeucte martyr (1641/42) changed the history of t…


(187 words)

Author(s): Haacker, Klaus
[German Version] In Acts 10:1–11:18 and 15:6–11, 14, the “God-fearing” centurion Cornelius (cf. 10:2, 4, 35) functions as a key figure in Acts for the divinely ordained transition of early Christian mission to non-Jewish target groups. A double revelation (Acts 10:3–6 and 9–16) leads Peter to preach in the house of Cornelius. The outpouring of the Spirit to the assembly, manifested in praise to God and speaking in tongues (Glossolalia), justifies on-the-sp…


(152 words)

Author(s): Haendler, Gert
[German Version] (bishop of Rome 251–253). In the persecution under Decius, Bishop Fabian was martyred in 250. One year later (251), a majority chose Cornelius bishop. In his community, 46 presbyters were active, caring for 1500 widows and needy persons. Novatian led a minority community. In contrast to Novatian, Cornelius espoused a community practice that permitted Christians who had fallen away in the persecution to return after appropriate penitence. Bishop Cyprian of Carthage supported Cornelius; Cyprian's anthology of letters contains two letters of Cornelius ( Ep. 49 and …

Cornelius a Lapide

(165 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Cornelis Cornelissen van den Steen, SJ [from 1592]; Dec 8, 1567, Bocholt near Liège – Mar 12, 1637, Rome), exegete. He was professor in Leuven from 1598–1616, thereafter in the Collegium Romanum. He was an important interpreter of Scripture who commented on the entire Bible (except Job and Psalms), both in the sense of the multiple senses of Scripture as well as with a view to the literal meaning. He was influential on into the 20th century. Heribert Smolinsky Bibliography BCJ 4, 1893, 1511–1526 G. Boss, Die Rechtfertigungslehre in den Bibelkommentären des …

Cornelius, Peter von

(181 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1783, Düsseldorf – Mar 6, 1867, Berlin), from 1795 a student at the Academy in Düsseldorf, became known to a larger public through his illustrations for Goethe's Faust (published 1816), which are regarded as the key work of Nazarene art. In Rome (after 1811), Cornelius, along with J.F. Overbeck, was one of the dominant figures in the Nazarene Lucas Brotherhood (Lukasbund). In Munich, where he was director of the Academy from 1824, on the commission of King Ludwig I he crea…

Cornutus, Lucius Annaeus

(172 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette
[German Version] (born in Leptis, North Africa) was active as a Stoic philosopher in Rome and was exiled under Nero between 63 and 65 ce. In addition to diverse scholarly commentaries, Cornutus authored an Overview of the Greek Doctrine of the gods (᾽Επιδρομὴ τῶν κατὰ τὴν ῾Ελληνικὴν ϑεολογίαν παραδεδομἑνων/ epidromḗ t#o->;n katà tḗn Hellēnikn theologían paradedoménôn). As ¶ an aid to elementary instruction in philosophy, the Overview offers a selection of the doctrines of the early philosophers. Cosmogony, important gods, their attributes and e…

Corona, Saint

(10 words)

[German Version] Victor and Corona, Saints


(1,065 words)

Author(s): Ott, Joachim
[German Version] I. Crown – II. Coronation – III. Coronation Orders I. Crown The c rown (etym.: Gk κορώνη/ korṓnē, curved object, then Latin corona, “wreath,” etc.) is, in the most common sense, a head adornment displaying the dignity of kings and queens, emperors and empresses (for the head covering of ecclesial potentates there is a specific vocabulary: primarily mitre, tiara; rarely: “papal tiara,” or such). Among insignia, the crown has long merited greatest attention f…

Coronati Quattuor

(186 words)

Author(s): Reinhard Seeliger, Hans
[German Version] (“Four Crowned”) is the customary designation since the 6th century for a group of martyrs of uncertain origin venerated in Rome. At the core, it includes the names Claudius, Nicostratus, Sempronianus (Symphorianus) and Castorius. The first three are already listed in the Depositio episcoporum/martyrum . In the 4th century, they were probably venerated in the Roman catacomb Inter duos lauros (Santi Marcellino e Pietro); since the end of the 6th century there has been a Roman titular church with the patronage of the group. The Passio (BHL 1836) from late 5th…

Corporate Culture

(307 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Josef
[German Version] Management and organizational theory understands corporate culture as a set of fundamental assumptions and values that belong to an organization. The corporate culture is the acquired knowledge of a corporation that unites its members affectively, guides their perception, and determines their behaviors by means of preferences (Schein, Bleicher). In the theory of transaction costs, corporate culture constitutes a component of the transactio…

Corporate Ethics

(10 words)

[German Version] Business Ethics, Economic Ethics

Corporate Identity

(232 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Josef
[German Version] This term originated in American management literature. It designates the identity of a company gained by setting out its self-image through a mission statement, which serves the purpose of self-assurance on a symbolic level (e.g. firm logo) and direction of behavior based on codified values. A distinction is made between performance values (e.g. customer orientation), interaction values (e.g. loyalty), and moral values (e.g. fairness), which are fixed in standards of behavior. Accordingly, corporate identity assumes that ¶ companies can be described as a …


(457 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] In general, the term “corporation” refers to activities regardless of type or purpose that involve a potential danger for those undertaking them. Thus, a risk is always associated with a corporation (synonyms: “company,” “enterprise”). From a commercial viewpoint, corporations are commercial units in a market-oriented economic system (Market economy) whose objective is the production and utilization of goods and services (Service sector). …

Corporation Act

(141 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] In December 1661, an Act was passed by the “Cavalier Parliament” which required all mayors, aldermen, councilors, and borough officials to swear loyalty to the king and take “the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the rites of the Church of England” during the twelve months prior to their election. Conscientious Dissenters were thus removed from office; those who were elected (but who refused to communicate) were fined. Though increasingly ineffective, the Act remained highly contentious; it became a cause célèbre in the Dissenting campaign to enact …

Corpus Catholicorum

(8 words)

[German Version] Corpus Evangelicorum

Corpus Christianum

(1,246 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] The term “corpus Christianum” refers to the medieval concept of a unity of church and “state,” of spiritual and secular dominion. According to it, sacerdotium and imperium, empire and papacy are two powers within a unified respublica Christiana encompassing all of Christianity, membership in which is mediated by baptism. The invisible, unifying head of this corpus mysticum is Jesus Christ; it is governed by emperor and pope as earthly heads. The unity of this corpus Christianum was an argument, in particular, for the curi…

Corpus Christi, Feast of

(434 words)

Author(s): Lamberts, Jozef
[German Version] In response to the urging of Juliana of Mont Cornillon (c. 1193–1258), Robert of Turotte, bishop of Liège, decreed Corpus Christi Day in the year 1246 in his diocese with the document Inter alia mira. Juliana had visions in which she saw the shimmering disk of the full moon from which a small piece was broken off. The moon represented the church, and the missing part stood for the lack of a unique feast in honor of the Eucharist. The feast was supposed to constitute a counterweight to t…

Corpus Christi mysticum

(314 words)

Author(s): Werbick, Jürgen
[German Version] Following Pauline discussion of the body (of Christ), theologians in Antiquity understood the church as a body effectively symbolized in the celebration of the Eucharist and nourished by it (cf. Leo I: “Our participation in the body and blood of Christ strives for nothing other than to change us into what we receive”; Sermo 63.7). The church here is the corpus vere nourished and renewed by the reception of the Eucharistic body ( corpus mysticum). The discussion concerning the Eucharistic real presence resulted in the fact that, conversely, the eucharistic figure was ¶ des…

Corpus Evangelicorum

(726 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Association of the Protestant imperial estates in the old empire. The Corpus Evangelicorum was presupposed in the Peace of Westphalia in the constitution of the empire. Here, in fact, art. V §52 of the Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugense (IPO, Osnabrück Peace Treaty) specifies that, in certain cases, the Imperial Diet will not decide by majority but only by amicable consensus ( amicabilis compositio) between the (Catholic and Protestant) estates of the empire. These cases include questions of religion and cases in which the two confessions separate “in duas partes” ( itio…

Corpus Iuris Canonici

(983 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] I. The Decretum Gratiani – II. The Liber Extra – III. The Liber Sextus – IV. The Clementines – V. The Extravagants Since the end of the 16th century, the term Corpus Iuris Canonici has referred to the comprehensive collection of Catholic church law that developed out of various mutually complementary legal collections from 1140 onward. The designation became prevalent after it was used in the 1580 brief of Pope Gregory XIII, Cum pro munere pastorali, issued on the occasion of the publication of an official edition of the Decretum Gratiani. The so-called Editio Romana


(440 words)

Author(s): Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (Gk ὀρϑότης/ orthótēs; Lat. rectitudo). Plato employed ὀρϑότης in the sense of correctness in epistemological (cf. Rep. 515 d), philological (cf. Kratylos, 384 b-d) and ethical (cf. Gorg. 506 d) mean- ing. Anselm of Canterbury gave correctness (rectitude) a fundamental role by defining truth and justice with the common superordinate concept of rectitudo. ¶ Thus, Anselm defines truth as “correctness comprehensible with the intellect alone” ( veritas est rectitudo mente sola perceptibilis – cf. De veritate, ch. 11). Anselm's discussion of correctness presu…

Correctores Romani

(234 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] This term refers to the members of a commission instituted after the Council of Trent by Pope Pius IV in 1566, who were entrusted with the preparation of an official edition of the Corpus Iuris Canonici . It included five cardinals and a large number of doctors of canon law. Gregory XIII approved the text of the Editio Romana in 1580 as authentic. His decree concerned only the authenticity of the text and in no way conferred the character of a law code on the Corpus Iuris Canonici. The Correctores Romani were to trace back in the Decretum Gratiani ( Corpus Iuris Canonici


(1,617 words)

Author(s): Miege, Frank | Feifel, Erich
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Dogmatics – III. Practical Theology I. Fundamental Theology While for E. Troeltsch correlation (interaction with the context, from Lat. conferre) was only a criterion for a theology reflecting its historicality and cultural location, the systematic theologian P. Tillich introduced correlation, with a broader resonance, to the 20th-century debate as a designation for his methodological program in his Systematic Theology. He demonstrated this by an ellipse with two foci, situation and Christian message, which are to be …

Correspondence Theory of the Truth

(10 words)

[German Version] Truth

Corrodi, Heinrich

(190 words)

Author(s): Hornig, Gottfried
[German Version] (Jul 31, 1752, Zürich – Sep 14, 1793, Zürich) studied theology in Halle and Leipzig, and from 1786 was professor of natural law and ethics at ¶ Zürich Gymnasium. As a student of J.S. Semler he supported a historical-critical theology, affirming the presence of myths in the Bible. Out of his own research there grew his Kritische Geschichte des Chiliasmus [Critical history of millenarianism] (initially anonymous, 2 vols. 1781; in 4 vols. 1794). Corrodi was the prime representative of Neology (Enlightenment: II, 4.c) in …

Cortés, Hernán

(226 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Jul 1485?, Medellín, Badajoz, Spain – Dec 2, 1547, Castilleja de la Cuesta, Seville), a Spanish conquistador in Mexico. He was from the lesser nobility; he did not finish his studies in Salamanca; in 1504, he was in Santo Domingo, and in 1511 in Cuba. Allied with Tlaxcalteks, he destroyed the Aztec empire (1519–1521). He conquered Tenochtitlán (now Mexico City) on Aug 13, 1521; in 1522, he became general captain and (until 1528) governor of “New…

Corvey Abbey,

(187 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] a Benedictine abbey near Höxter (Paderborn diocese). Founded in 822 by Corbie Abbey, Corvey experienced a rapid rise thanks to its favorable location on the ford of the Weser in Hellweg and its popularity with the Carolingians. The most important literary work written here was Widukind's Saxon history. Under Henry II of Germany, Corvey joined the Gorze Reform (Gorze), and under the influence ¶ of the Hirsau Reform (Hirsau), became a Gregorian center in the Investiture Controversy. In the so-called Osnabrück Tithe Controversy …

Corvinus, Antonius

(308 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut
[German Version] (Feb 27 or Apr 11, 1501, Warburg – Apr 5, 1553, Hannover). Dismissed from the Cistercian abbey in Riddagshausen in 1523 because of his sympathies for Luther, Corvinus …

Cosmas and Damian, Saints

(265 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (feast day: Sep 26). As probably the most beloved of the Anargyroi (“those ¶ who heal without payment”), this uncertain eastern hagiological tradition (Syr., Gk, Arab., Geo…

Cosmas Indicopleustes

(173 words)

Author(s): Moffett, Samuel Hugh
[German Version] (Cosmas, the traveler to India). The book by this 6th-century merchant and explorer about his journeys and the composition of the world, Christian Topography, is presumably the oldest credible document attesting to the existence of a Christian church in South Asi…

Cosmas of Jerusalem (Saint)

(195 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Lars M.
[German Version] (also Cosmas of Maiuma, Cosmas Hagiopolites, Cosmas the Melodist, Cosmas the Younger; 2nd half of the 8th cent. – c. 760), ¶ one of the most important hymnographers of the Byzantine church. His Vita displays markedly legendary elements and the typical hagiographical topoi. Accor…

Cosmas Presbyter

(136 words)

Author(s): Söllner, Konstanze
[German Version] ( Kozma Presviter; 2nd half of the 10th cent.), an Old-Bulgarian presbyter and author known only from his Beseda na novojavivščuju sja eres' Bogumilu (“Homily Concerning the Newly Arisen Heresy of Bogumil”). Most scholars date this extensive antiheretical tractate to the period shortly after the death of the Bulgarian tsar Petâr I (died c. 969/970). The Beseda


(6 words)

[German Version] Creation


(3,917 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Hülser, Karlheinz | Herrmann, Klaus | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Stoeger, William R.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II.#x2002;Ancient Near East and Old Testament – III.#x2002;Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. History of Modern Science I. Terminology Cosmology is a specific culture's orientation in space and time as conceived in words, images, and rituals. The orientation combines signs that can be perceived with signs that are set. Only in the complementarity of the construed other does the “natural” phenomenon acquire the meaning of a significant marke…


(531 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias
[German Version] (“world citizenship”), first attested in the cynic Diogenes of Sinope, who, asked about his origins, described himself as kosmopolitēs: citizen of the cosmos (from the Greek: κόσμος/ kósmos, “world,” and ¶ πολίτης/ polítēs, “citizen”; D. L. VI 63). Borrowed from the French cosmopolite (Ger. Weltbürger), it became a prog rammatic term of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, primarily through the work of C.M. Wieland. As a somewhat diffuse concept that requires a world-state or refers only to worldliness, the discontinuous history of the term offers sometimes conformist, sometimes more markedly pluralistic models. Among the pre-Socratics, the concept defines a rational world order, the same for all people (Cosmology: III), in which macrocosm, polis, and microcosm of the human being correspond structurally to Democritus's statement that the co…


(8 words)

[German Version] Chaos, Cosmology, World

Costa, Isaac da

(228 words)

Author(s): Vree, Jasper
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1798, Amsterdam – Apr 28, 1860, Amsterdam) came from a prominent Sephardic-Jewish family and was a lawyer in Amsterdam. In 1822 he was baptized – with …

Costa Rica,

(538 words)

Author(s): Picado, Miguel
[German Version] a republic in Central America with a surface area of 51,000 km2 and 3.43 million inhabitants (whites 87%, Asiatics 2%, Mestizos 7%, Mulattos 3%, others 1%), two-thirds of whom live in the region around San José, the capital city of Costa Rica. 97% of the population belon…

Côte d'Ivoire

(8 words)

[German Version] Ivory Coast

Cotton, John

(187 words)

Author(s): McDermott, Gerald R.
[German Version] (Dec 4, 1584, Derby, England – Dec 23, 1652, Boston, MA), foremost preacher in the first ¶ generation of preachers in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Educated at Cambridge, Cotton won renown for his twenty years of powerful p…

Coughlin, Charles Edwards

(138 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ontario – Oct 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, MI), pioneer radio broadcaster, was ordained a Catholic priest in 1916. In order to raise money for his new aasignment at the parish in Royal Oak, MI, he took to the airwaves …


(4,467 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Schneider, Hans | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Puza, Richard | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law – III. Dogmatics I. Church History 1. Early Church Council (Lat. concilium, Gk σύνοδος [Lat. synodum]; the two terms were first differentiated in modern usage; see also synod) are meetings of bishops from various communities for binding clarification of disciplinary, organizational, or doctrinal questions, whose decisions, as inspired by the Holy Spirit, are not in principle revisable and claim validity for the whole church r…

Council for World Mission

(302 words)

Author(s): Prasad, Andrew
[German Version] (CWM) was formed in 1977 in the United Kingdom as the successor of the London Missionary Society (LMS) and the Commonwealth (previously Colonial) Missionary Society (CMS; founded 1836). The LMS was led mainly by Congregationalists, although they were a non-denominational society. In 1966 the LMS and CMS united to become th…

Council of Brethren

(797 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] ( Bruderrat), designation for the leadership bodies of the Confessing Church ( Bekennende Kirche) at all levels. At first prevalent in especially the (pietistic) community movement ( Gemeinschaftsbewegung), after 1933 it emanated from the emphasis on collegiality and from the ideal of a new kind of “collegial” leadership in opposition to the Führer-principle. I. From Oct 20, 1933, the executive committee of the Pastors' Emergency League was a “Council of Brethren” headed by M. Niemöller; the representative committees in the regional and provincial churches bore the same name, whence also the nascent Confessing Church adopted the designation. Its initial acting committee was appointed in Barmen on May 31, 1934, as the Council of Brethren of the Confessing Synods, and was empowered to implement all necess…

Council of Christian Churches in Germany

(281 words)

Author(s): Hüffmeier, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Christlicher Kirchen; ACK). Founded in 1948 by, then, seven member churches (Evangelical Church in Germany [EKD], Old Catholic Church and five Protestant free churches), the ACK corresponds in function to national Christian councils or ecumenical councils in other countries. Legallly, it is a registered association. Its tasks include the promotion of information exchange, the cooperation of its memb…

Council of Churches for Britain and Ireland

(564 words)

Author(s): Sheils, William J.
[German Version] (CCBI; founded 1942). The CCBI was originally founded in 1942 as the British Council of Churches, following the establishment in 1940 of the World Council Churches, in which W. Temple and W. Paton ¶ played leading roles. There were many reasons for such an ecumenical endeavor, but the move was accelerated by the need for a combined Christian response to the two atheistic ideologies of Communism and fascism which were advancing in Europe, and by the common threat to humanity presented by war. T…

Council of Indio-Missions

(11 words)

[German Version] CIMI (Conselho Indigenista Missionario)

Council of the Indies

(11 words)

[German Version] Consejo de Indias


(536 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don
[German Version] This discussion will deal with counseling in the context of the modern pastoral counseling movement, which synthesized insights from the secular psychotherapies, especially of psychoanalysis, of the non-directive methods of C.R. Rogers and of object-relations theory with the church's tradition of pastoral care. “Pastoral Counseling” stands for a counseling style performed by congregational ministers and priests or in counseling centers est…

Counsels of Perfection

(1,275 words)

Author(s): zur Mühlen, Karl-Heinz
[German Version] On the basis of 1 Cor 7:25, Catholic moral theology distinguishes between evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection ( consilia) and evangelical precepts ( praecepta) as guidelines for a Christian life. According to Catholic canon law ( CIC 1983, cc. 573–586), the counsels of perfection represent a vocation of particular individuals (c. 574 §1) to radical discipleship (c. 577). As norms of a Christian life made possible by grace, the counsels are a charismatic expression of Christian perfection (c. 573 §1), beyond the precepts given to all. I. Catholic exeg…


(3,371 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Political and Legal Aspects; Spread – III. Characteristics I. Terminology The term was originally used mostly in the plural to denote individual legal and political measures taken against the Protestants by Roman Catholic rulers on the basis of the ius reformandi . In the singular, as Gegenreformation (cf. Fr. contreréforme, Ital. controriforma) in L. v. Ranke's Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (1839–1847), it underwent a major historiographical transformation, becoming the designation of the perio…

Court, Antoine

(160 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1695, Villeneuve-de-Berg – Jun 13, 1760, Lausanne). While still a young man, Court resolved to become an itinerant preacher for the purpose of consolidating southern French Protestantism, which had been greatly weakened by the persecution of the Huguenots. In order to achieve this goal, the synodal constitution and church discipline, but also the regular formation of theologians were to be reestablished. On Aug 21, 1715, he c…

Court Preacher

(495 words)

Author(s): Köhler, Wiebke
[German Version] The senior clergymen at Protestant courts (Germany until 1919, the Netherlands, Scandinavia) bear the official title of court preacher (with distinctions of rank bet…

Couturier, Marie-Alain

(168 words)

Author(s): Metzinger, Jörg
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1897, Montbrison – Feb 8, 1954, Paris), OP. As a young artist, Couturier was decisively influenced by M. Denis's Atéliers d'Art Sacré. He entered the Dominican order in 1925 and assumed the joint editorship of the journal


(6,223 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Gertz, Jan Christian | Backhaus, Knut | Sanders, E.P. | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity I. History of Religions Immediate and comprehensive solidarity appertains only in the most elementary form of human society (in the “family,” which can be variously structured according to culture); all other forms of solidarity are “artificial,” determined by more or less explicit rules; one can subsume this under the term “covenant,” in which the purposes, realms of social…


(357 words)

Author(s): Ryken, Philip Graham
[German Version] The Covenanters were militant Scottish Presbyterians who swore allegiance to the Scottish National Covenant (1638) and Solemn League and Covenant…

Covenant People

(533 words)

Author(s): Fergusson, David
[German Version] The political significance of the concept of the “covenant people” is most marked in the emergence of federal theology (Covenant theology) in the Reformed tradition. Drawing on the biblical concept of covenant, Zwingli and H. Bullinger perceived Reformed Zürich as a covenant community. As in ancient Israel the covenant determined all of society, so in Zürich the church was to be viewed as co-terminous with the civil community. The covenan…

Covenant Theology

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Historical Development – III. Results I. Terminology Covenant theology or federal theology (Ger. Föderaltheologie), an old Reformed doctrinal system whose origins are to be sought in Zürich, Heidelberg and Herborn…


(249 words)

Author(s): Mosig, Jörg
[German Version] is an Anglican diocese in central England, reestablished in 1918 in response to a massive increase in population. Coventry already had the status of an episcopal city in the Middle Ages in the dual diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, but was placed under the eccle…

Coverdale, Miles

(261 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (c. 1488, York – Jan 20, 1569, London), OSA in 1514, studied philosophy and theology at Cambridge. In 1528 Coverdale left the order under the impact of Luther's theology, which had been taught him by Robert Barnes. In 1534–1535 Coverdale published the first English complete Bible (Bible translationsβ : II, 1.b.). From 1540 Coverdale lived under the pseudonym of Michael Anglus on the continent, in Tübingen and elsewhere and as pastor in Bergzabern from 1543–1547. Coverdale returned to England …


(6 words)

[German Version] Animals

Cowper, William

(128 words)

Author(s): Erlebach, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1731, Great Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire – Apr 25, 1800, East Dereham, Norfolk), English pre-Romantic poet of great sensitivity, inclined to melancholy. His poems show a new, subjective and lyrical ability of expression in his representation of nature, its God-given soul and the influence of both on personal human development. In this regard Cowper paved the way for Robert Burns and W. Wordsworth. Tossed about between awareness of …

Cowper, William Macquarie

(186 words)

Author(s): Treloar, Geoffrey R.
[German Version] (Jul 3, 1810, Sydney – Jun 14, 1902, Sydney), the first native-born Anglican clergyman in New South Wales and first dean of Sydney. Educated privately and at Oxford (1828–1832), he was ordained in 1833 and served as a curate in Dartmouth 1833–1835 before returning to New South Wales in 1836 to become chaplain to the Australian Agricultural Company in Stroud. In 1855 he moved to Sydney, where bishop Barker appointed him acting principal of Moore C…

Crafts and Artifacts

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Lambacher, Lothar
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Art History I. Archaeology The term “crafts” refers to the production of objects and implements of all kinds – in other words, what are now usually called the “practical arts.” In the ancient Near East, there was no terminology for crafts, nor were there explicit theories concerning art. Sometimes mythology attributed crafts to culture heroes (Gen 4:22; 6; cf. Philo of Byblos) or some deity or patron like the later figures of Joseph, the …


(866 words)

Author(s): John, Peter
[German Version] I. Production of goods and provision of services (Service sector) by skilled craftsmen is closely associated with the development of humankind and the human economic and social order. In the urban economy of the Middle Ages, it made up the sum total of commercial production in the local economy. As industrial means of production multiplied, there emerged criteria identifying crafts as an autonomous and self-contained economic sector. Crafts are ch…

Cramer, Daniel

(158 words)

Author(s): Gummelt, Volker
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1568, Reetz, Neumark – Oct 5, Stettin), a Lutheran theologian, studied in Rostock, Wittenberg and elsewhere, worked as a teacher in Stettin from 1595, as well as court preacher at St. Marien, Stettin from 1597, and administered the General Superintendency of Pomerania-Stettin from 1613 to 1618. Cramer authored the first complete Lutheran church history of Pomerania ( Das Grosse pomrische Kirchen-Chronicon, 1602, suppl. ed. 1628). Important for Protestant edifying literature (II, 2) are his sometimes polyglot emblematic works ( Emblemata Sacra, 1617/24,…

Cramer, Johann Andreas

(301 words)

Author(s): Jakubowski-Tiessen, Manfred
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1723, Jöhstadt, Saxony – Jun 12, 1788, Kiel), theologian, lyricist, and song-writer. After attending the princes' school in Grimma, Cramer studied theology in Leipzig and became pastor in Kröllwitz, Saxony in 1748, high court preacher and consistorial counselor in Quedlinburg in 1750, and court preacher in Copenhagen in 1754 on the recommendation of F.G. Klopstock; from 1765, furthermore, he was professor of theology there, in 1771 super…

Cramer, Wolfgang

(175 words)

Author(s): Dierken, Jörg
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1901, Hamburg – Apr 2, 1974, Frankfurt am Main), professor of philosophy in Frankfurt from 1951. Cramer's work combined (a) a transcendental ontology of subjectivity classified as category theory with (b) a speculative theory of the absolute. The former (a), starting from the individual subject, answers the “fundamental question” of the ¶ object of knowledge, an object known to be non-posited, with a “monadological” (G.W. Leibniz) and original productivity of consciousness. The latter (b) supplies the q…

Cram, Ralph Adams

(179 words)

Author(s): Howes, Graham
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1863, Hampton Falls, NH – Sep 22, 1942, Boston, MA), the most eminent and influential American ecclesiastical architect of the early 20th century. A passionate medievalist, he worked primarily in the Gothic Revival style for a variety of denominations and educational institutions. His acknowledged masterpieces are St. Thomas, Fifth Avenue (1906–1914), the Cathedral of St. John the Divine (1914–1941), both in New York City, and Princeton …

Cranach, Lucas, the Elder

(514 words)

Author(s): Vinzent, Jutta
[German Version] (1471, Kronach – Oct 16, 1553, Weimar), painter, copper etching and wood engraving artist, has gone down in history as Saxon court artist in Wittenberg, friend, and de facto official portrait-painter of Luther. Before he was called by elector Frederick the Wise to Wittenberg as court painter in 1504, he spent a number of years in Vienna. His first documented painting is the Crucifixion (1503, Munich, Alte Pinakothek), which displays characteristics of the Danube School. In Wittenberg he was quick to open a studio (in 1507 the fi…

Cranmer, Thomas

(375 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Jul 2, 1489, Aslockton, Nottinghamshire – Mar 21, 1556, Oxford), an English reformer who made a significant contribution to the formation of the via media of the Anglican Church. Stemming from the lower landed gentry, Cranmer studied from 1503 in Cambridge. After his M.A., he was elected in 1515 as a fellow in the Jesus College (consecrated to the priesthood c. 1520); he concluded his studies in 1526 as a D.D. (Doctor of Divinity). In these years, Cranmer was concerned…

Crasselius, Bartholomäus

(181 words)

Author(s): Miersemann, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1667, Wernsdorf near Glauchau, Saxony – Nov 10, 1724, Düsseldorf). In 1688 Crasselius entered the University of Leipzig, where he joined the Pietistic movement. In the course of anti-Pietist repression he followed his teacher A.H. Francke to Erfurt in 1690 and to Halle later. After a time in East Prussia working as a collector for the Halle orphanage, he began a clerical ministry in 1702 as deacon in Nidda (Wetterau). From 1708 until his…

Crato von Crafftheim

(201 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Johannes Kraft; Nov 20, 1519, Breslau – Oct 19, 1585, Breslau) came to Wittenberg to study in 1535 and lived with Luther for six years, though he did not participate in the transmission of the table-talks. From 1543 he studied medicine in Leipzig, and in 1546 in Padua and Bologna (1549 In 1550 he became city physician in Breslau and served in the fight against the plague. As a supporter of Melanchthon in his doctrine of the Eucharist (…

Creamer, David

(168 words)

Author(s): Leaver, Robin A.
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1812, Baltimore, MD – Apr 8, 1887, Baltimore, MD), a Methodist and the earliest American hymnologist. Between 1832 and 1857 he was a partner in the family timber merchant business and from 1861 to 1879 he held minor positions in the federal government in Baltimore. He wrote poetry, articles for journals, and was the co-editor (1836–1838) of the weekly newspaper Baltimore Monument. Creamer developed an interest in hymnody, especially the hymns of Methodism. Through contacts with booksellers in England Creamer assembled a…


(367 words)

Author(s): Peters, Ted
[German Version] is the term for the teaching that the human soul is brought to life by means of a direct act of God. This view follows from the assumption of a noncorporeal or spiritual nature of the soul. Creatianism differs from traducianism (Tertullian, An. XVIII), according to which the soul of the parents is passed on physically to their children through reproduction. Since the soul is noncorporeal, however, it cannot be subject to such a physical generation. Creatianism is at odds with metempsychosis or transmi…

Creatio continua

(566 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian
[German Version] (“continuous creation”) aims to express the idea that the created world is dependent at each moment in its temporal existence on the active presence of God for its maintenance and subsistence. ¶ The term interprets the conservatio and at the same time shifts it in the closest conceivable proximity of the concept of initial creation (VI): “For God, creation and maintenance are one and the same thing” (Luther). If creation is not to remain a speculative idea, of no consequenc…

Creatio ex nihilo

(1,915 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter | Link, Christian
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Dogmatics I. Bible 1. Hebrew Bible Older interpretations (most recently: Copan) of Gen 1:1, 2, that God created the tohuwabohu, etc. from nothing (Creation; Chaos: II) in order subsequently to shape it in the six days of creation have been abandoned. However one assesses the syntax of Gen 1:1–3, the consensus maintains: the framework of Gen 1:1+2:4a speaks of the creation of the ordered world of life, but Gen 1:2 mentions (de-mythologizing Me…


(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences for any society. But reality also includes the danger that this world may be imperiled or perilous. Chaos and death are part …

Creation, Christ as Agent of

(684 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] The doctrine of Christ as the agent of creation relates God's actions in the con¶ texts of creation and redemption to one another and opposes an understanding of creation that is not associated with Jesus Christ as well as a conception of redemption that bears no relationship to creation. The concept of the agent of creation is defined in reference to 1 Cor 8:6: all things are through Jesus Christ. The notion that the second person of the Trinity created the world is also attested in Col 1:15–17; Heb 1:3; John 1:3, 10; Rev 3:14. In…


(274 words)

Author(s): Maddox, Marty Miller
[German Version] refers broadly to the view that the origin of life corresponds to a literal understanding of the Bible, especially of Genesis 1 and 2. Creationists represent the opinion that God, in accordance with the infallible, authoritative Scripture, directly and supernaturally created the natural world and the various biological species in it by means of special procedures that are no longer operative. They often refer to the flood as the universal, catast…

Creation, Order of

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics The revelation (V) of Christ discloses to faith that the meaning and truth of Jesus' life for human life in the present is creation in the process of realizing its goal, the consummation of God's kingdom. At the same time, it discloses the mystery of Jesus' person as the incarnate Logos of the Creator and thus the true nature of his work, grounded in the Creator's eternal will for ¶ communion, reconciliation, and consummation (Dogmatics: II): the work of creation that provides human life in the present. Its purpose …


(1,697 words)

Author(s): Stoellger, Philipp | Martin, Gerhard Marcel | Lukas, Josef
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Psychology I. Philosophy of Religion Creativity became an issue in the Judeo-Christian context with regard to the Creator. In contrast to the Platonic demiurge or to the Aristotelian unmoved mover, the triune God is creative. The (re-)assigning of creativity to the human being should be understood against this background. It applies to the human only in a limited way. From the perspective of the philosophy of religion, creativity exhibits different accentuat…


(6 words)

[German Version] Creation

Creator Spiritus

(356 words)

Author(s): Wainwright, Geoffrey
[German Version] designates the third person of the Holy Trinity in his capacity as “Creator Spirit.” In the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit) is confessed as “sovereign, life- giving.” Traditional Christian theology sees an OT witness to the presence and operation of the Spirit at the beginning of creation (Gen 1:2; cf. Ps 33:6, “by the breath of his mouth”), and in the renewal of “the face of the earth” (Ps 104:29–30) and of “the house of Israel” (Ezek 37:1–14). In the NT the Holy Spirit is the …


(757 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] Insight into the createdness of the world and human beings is rooted in the Christian belief in the triune God as Creator of the world (Creation). The confession of God as Creator must thus be formulated as a statement about one's own creatureliness: “I would believe that God has created me together with all creatures” (Luther, Short Catechism, art. 1, BSLK 510). Human experience of oneself and of the world is interpreted entirely in the horizon of one's relationship to God. Thus the structures of the experience of life ar…


(391 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] A credit establishes an in personam relationship between a credit-giver (creditor) and a credit-receiver (debtor). The creditor lends the debtor an amount of money fixed by contract. In return, the debtor takes on the obligation to repay the entire amount to the creditor at the end of the term of the credit. As a fee for the credit, a specified interest rate (Interest) is agreed upon which the debtor must pay the creditor within a defined period for t…


(932 words)

Author(s): Marthaler, Berard L. | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The Creed (Confession [of faith]) has always had a prominent part in the liturgy. It had its beginnings in the liturgy in the three-part interrogations that asked those to be baptized: “Do you believe in God the Father… Do you believe in Jesus Christ… Do you believe in the Holy Spirit…?” By the end of the 2nd century, the declaratory form that is common today had begun to develop. By the 4th century it was customary i…

Creed of Union 433 CE

(14 words)

[German Version] Ephesus, Council of, Nestorian Controversy


(281 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | de Groot, Aart
[German Version] 1. Johann (Crellius; Jul 26, 1590, Hellmitzheim, Franconia – Jun 11, 1633, Rákow, Poland) attended school in Nuremberg from 1600 to 1603, then until 1605 in Stolberg in the Harz mountains; in Nov 1607 he began his studies at Altdorf, where he served as alumni superintendent. There he came in contact with the crypto-Socinians around the physician E. Soner. In Dec 1612 he fled to Rákow, where he became professor of Greek and served as rector from 1616 to 16…

Crell, Nikolaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; 1552, Leipzig – Oct 9, 1601, Dresden) attended school in Grimma 1568–1571, studied in Leipzig 1571–1576, received the M.A. on Jan 25, 1576, the Baccalaureus iurium on Jun 17, 1576, traveled to France in 1577, and may have received the Dr.iur. in Valence. He established contact with François Hotman in Geneva, married Margarete Grieben from Leipzig on Aug 4, 1577, lectured in Leipzig (?), and became counselor to the court in Dresden on Feb …

Crell, Paul

(145 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; Feb 2, 1531, Eisleben – May 24/27, 1579, Meißen) began studies in Wittenberg in November 1548, received the M.A. on Feb 22, 1552, ordained on Sep 29, 1556, was preacher in the palace chapel in Wittenberg, received the Dr.Theol. on Dec 7, 1559, ¶ became professor of theology in Wittenberg in January 1560 and rector of the University in the summer of 1563, transferred to the consistory of Meißen on Jun 20, 1569, professor at Wittenberg once again from June 1574 to spring 1577, and transferred back …


(934 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Richard | de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] I. History and Law – II. Practical Theology I. History and Law In antiquity, cremation was widespread. Christianity, however, following a Jewish model, preferred interment (Burial: V). By the middle of the third century ce, cremation disappeared almost entirely across the Roman Empire, and Charlemagne prohibited it in 785. For the next millennium cremation remained the exception, surfacing in circumstances of mass deaths. Only under the influence of the Enlightenment was it reintroduced. …

Cremer, August Hermann

(773 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1834, Unna – Oct 4, 1903, Greifswald), Protestant theologian. A graduate of the Gütersloh Protestant Gymnasium, from simple origins and shaped by the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), he studied in Halle from 1853 with F.A.G. Tholuck and Julius Müller and in Tübingen from 1856 with J.T. Beck. Here he established a close friendship with M. Kähler. After a brief stay at the Wittenberg Seminary for Preachers, Cremer received the Lic.Theol. on the basis of his Die eschatologische Rede Jesu Christi Matthäi 24.25 (“The Eschatological Discou…


(108 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] term for the descendants of European migrants who settled in Latin America during the colonial period, or for the descendants of African slaves in the Caribbean. White Creoles played a crucial role in the independence movements that led to the establishment of the Latin American states. In addition, they formed the first indigenous clergy of the Catholic Church. The term “Creole languages” denotes local dialects that emerged within the slave comm…

Crescas, Hasdai ben Abraham

(141 words)

Author(s): Leicht, Reimund
[German Version] (1367, Barcelona – 1412, Zaragoza), as the leading personality among the Spanish Jews (Sephardim), Crescas devoted himself to the material and intellectual rebuilding of communities after the persecutions of 1391. His polemical work Bittul 'Iqqare ha-Nozrim also served this purpose. In his chief philosophical work, Or Adonai (also known as Or ha-Shem), he proposed, against the Aristotelianism of M. Maimonides the possibility of the infinity of space, time, and causes, thus eliminating the foundations for Maimonides's…


(167 words)

Author(s): Kriegbaum, Bernhard
[German Version] was a Donatist layman and grammarian who defended Petilianus, the Donatist bishop of Constantina (Numidia), against Augustine in a fragmentarily preserved letter dating from c. 401. His work can only be inferred from Augustine's response (c. 405/406). Following personal attacks on Augustine, Cresconius proceeds to elaborate a justification of the customary rebaptism of converted Catholics in Donatism on the basis of Cyprian of Carthage's understanding of sacrament and church. He then insists on the necessity of separa¶ tion from the traditores (Persecu…

Crete, Church of

(442 words)

Author(s): Papaderos, Alexandros
[German Version] Cretans were present at Pentecost (Acts 2:11) and they evidently made the island the first gateway for the reception of the gospel on European soil. Scholarship has not yet given a consensus answer to the question of origins. The Epistle to Titus, the first apostle and bishop of Crete, imparts early information. Although the Cretans did not have a good name (probably because of the claim that Zeus died on Crete – his grave was even venerat…

Creuzer, Georg Friedrich

(217 words)

Author(s): Berner, Hans-Ulrich
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1771, Marburg – Feb 10, 1858, Heidelberg) began studying theology and philosophy in Marburg in 1789, but changed to philology and the history of literature in Jena. After returning to Marburg, he habilitated in ancient history and classical literature in 1799 and became assistant professor (1800) and then professor (1802) of Greek language and eloquence. In 1804, Creuzer went to Heidelberg to teach until he retired in 1845. He held membe…
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