Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Cotton, John

(187 words)

Author(s): McDermott, Gerald R.
[German Version] (Dec 4, 1584, Derby, England – Dec 23, 1652, Boston, MA), foremost preacher in the first ¶ generation of preachers in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Educated at Cambridge, Cotton won renown for his twenty years of powerful preaching in Boston, Lincolnshire, before he emigrated in 1630. He helped inspire the Great (Puritan) Migration to the New World by preaching that God was leading his flock to a place where they could practice freely “his holy Ordinances.” Cotton laid emph…

Coughlin, Charles Edwards

(138 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ontario – Oct 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, MI), pioneer radio broadcaster, was ordained a Catholic priest in 1916. In order to raise money for his new aasignment at the parish in Royal Oak, MI, he took to the airwaves (Radio and television). His programs were at first strictly religious, but after the stock market crash of 1929 he added political commentary. In 1936 he organized the National Union for Social Justice and so…


(4,467 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Schneider, Hans | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Puza, Richard | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law – III. Dogmatics I. Church History 1. Early Church Council (Lat. concilium, Gk σύνοδος [Lat. synodum]; the two terms were first differentiated in modern usage; see also synod) are meetings of bishops from various communities for binding clarification of disciplinary, organizational, or doctrinal questions, whose decisions, as inspired by the Holy Spirit, are not in principle revisable and claim validity for the whole church r…

Council for World Mission

(302 words)

Author(s): Prasad, Andrew
[German Version] (CWM) was formed in 1977 in the United Kingdom as the successor of the London Missionary Society (LMS) and the Commonwealth (previously Colonial) Missionary Society (CMS; founded 1836). The LMS was led mainly by Congregationalists, although they were a non-denominational society. In 1966 the LMS and CMS united to become the Congregational Council for World Mission (CCWM) which later became CWM. In a crucial consultation in Singapore in 1975, the directors of CCWM and leaders from associate (so called “younger”) churches met for the first time. The resolution of CWM Sha…

Council of Brethren

(797 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] ( Bruderrat), designation for the leadership bodies of the Confessing Church ( Bekennende Kirche) at all levels. At first prevalent in especially the (pietistic) community movement ( Gemeinschaftsbewegung), after 1933 it emanated from the emphasis on collegiality and from the ideal of a new kind of “collegial” leadership in opposition to the Führer-principle. I. From Oct 20, 1933, the executive committee of the Pastors' Emergency League was a “Council of Brethren” headed by M. Niemöller; the representative committees …

Council of Christian Churches in Germany

(281 words)

Author(s): Hüffmeier, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Christlicher Kirchen; ACK). Founded in 1948 by, then, seven member churches (Evangelical Church in Germany [EKD], Old Catholic Church and five Protestant free churches), the ACK corresponds in function to national Christian councils or ecumenical councils in other countries. Legallly, it is a registered association. Its tasks include the promotion of information exchange, the cooperation of its members, and the representation of …

Council of Churches for Britain and Ireland

(564 words)

Author(s): Sheils, William J.
[German Version] (CCBI; founded 1942). The CCBI was originally founded in 1942 as the British Council of Churches, following the establishment in 1940 of the World Council Churches, in which W. Temple and W. Paton ¶ played leading roles. There were many reasons for such an ecumenical endeavor, but the move was accelerated by the need for a combined Christian response to the two atheistic ideologies of Communism and fascism which were advancing in Europe, and by the common threat to humanity presented by war. T…

Council of Indio-Missions

(11 words)

[German Version] CIMI (Conselho Indigenista Missionario)

Council of the Indies

(11 words)

[German Version] Consejo de Indias


(536 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don
[German Version] This discussion will deal with counseling in the context of the modern pastoral counseling movement, which synthesized insights from the secular psychotherapies, especially of psychoanalysis, of the non-directive methods of C.R. Rogers and of object-relations theory with the church's tradition of pastoral care. “Pastoral Counseling” stands for a counseling style performed by congregational ministers and priests or in counseling centers est…

Counsels of Perfection

(1,275 words)

Author(s): zur Mühlen, Karl-Heinz
[German Version] On the basis of 1 Cor 7:25, Catholic moral theology distinguishes between evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection ( consilia) and evangelical precepts ( praecepta) as guidelines for a Christian life. According to Catholic canon law ( CIC 1983, cc. 573–586), the counsels of perfection represent a vocation of particular individuals (c. 574 §1) to radical discipleship (c. 577). As norms of a Christian life made possible by grace, the counsels are a charismatic expression of Christian perfection (c. 573 §1), beyond the precepts given to all. I. Catholic exegesis f…


(6 words)

[German Version] Polyphony


(3,371 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Political and Legal Aspects; Spread – III. Characteristics I. Terminology The term was originally used mostly in the plural to denote individual legal and political measures taken against the Protestants by Roman Catholic rulers on the basis of the ius reformandi . In the singular, as Gegenreformation (cf. Fr. contreréforme, Ital. controriforma) in L. v. Ranke's Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (1839–1847), it underwent a major historiographical transformation, becoming the designation of the perio…

Court, Antoine

(160 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1695, Villeneuve-de-Berg – Jun 13, 1760, Lausanne). While still a young man, Court resolved to become an itinerant preacher for the purpose of consolidating southern French Protestantism, which had been greatly weakened by the persecution of the Huguenots. In order to achieve this goal, the synodal constitution and church discipline, but also the regular formation of theologians were to be reestablished. On Aug 21, 1715, he convened the first s…

Court Preacher

(495 words)

Author(s): Köhler, Wiebke
[German Version] The senior clergymen at Protestant courts (Germany until 1919, the Netherlands, Scandinavia) bear the official title of court preacher (with distinctions of rank between court deacon, court preacher and senior court preacher, in some regions also court chaplain). Their function and the legal status of their positions stand in the tradition of the court chaplains and private confessors (Confession) who are attested as far back as the Byzantine court (Co…

Couturier, Marie-Alain

(168 words)

Author(s): Metzinger, Jörg
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1897, Montbrison – Feb 8, 1954, Paris), OP. As a young artist, Couturier was decisively influenced by M. Denis's Atéliers d'Art Sacré. He entered the Dominican order in 1925 and assumed the joint editorship of the journal L'Art sacré in 1937, in collaboration with Pie-Raymond Régamey. After a period of exile in North America, he returned to France in 1945 and initiated a number of church building projects with the participation of prominent contemporary artists: Assy (George Rouault), Audin…


(6,223 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Gertz, Jan Christian | Backhaus, Knut | Sanders, E.P. | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity I. History of Religions Immediate and comprehensive solidarity appertains only in the most elementary form of human society (in the “family,” which can be variously structured according to culture); all other forms of solidarity are “artificial,” determined by more or less explicit rules; one can subsume this under the term “covenant,” in which the purposes, realms of social…


(357 words)

Author(s): Ryken, Philip Graham
[German Version] The Covenanters were militant Scottish Presbyterians who swore allegiance to the Scottish National Covenant (1638) and Solemn League and Covenant (1643). They sought to promote Reformed theology and Presbyterian church government by resisting the establishment of episcopacy under the Stuart kings of England. Their period of influence in Scotland and England stretched from 1637 to 1690. The Covenanters themselves were influenced not…

Covenant People

(533 words)

Author(s): Fergusson, David
[German Version] The political significance of the concept of the “covenant people” is most marked in the emergence of federal theology (Covenant theology) in the Reformed tradition. Drawing on the biblical concept of covenant, Zwingli and H. Bullinger perceived Reformed Zürich as a covenant community. As in ancient Israel the covenant determined all of society, so in Zürich the church was to be viewed as co-terminous with the civil community. The covenan…

Covenant Theology

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Historical Development – III. Results I. Terminology Covenant theology or federal theology (Ger. Föderaltheologie), an old Reformed doctrinal system whose origins are to be sought in Zürich, Heidelberg and Herborn, is the broad attempt to comprehend and portray as a unity the history of God with humanity attested in the OT and NT by means of the biblical covenant concept (Covenant). Correspondingly, the whole substance of dogma, from the creation…


(249 words)

Author(s): Mosig, Jörg
[German Version] is an Anglican diocese in central England, reestablished in 1918 in response to a massive increase in population. Coventry already had the status of an episcopal city in the Middle Ages in the dual diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, but was placed under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Worcester in 1836 after its cathedral had already been abandoned to decay during the Reformation and precedence in designation had been given to Lichfield during the …

Coverdale, Miles

(261 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (c. 1488, York – Jan 20, 1569, London), OSA in 1514, studied philosophy and theology at Cambridge. In 1528 Coverdale left the order under the impact of Luther's theology, which had been taught him by Robert Barnes. In 1534–1535 Coverdale published the first English complete Bible (Bible translationsβ : II, 1.b.). From 1540 Coverdale lived under the pseudonym of Michael Anglus on the continent, in Tübingen and elsewhere and as pastor in Bergzabern from 1543–1547. Coverdale returned to England …


(6 words)

[German Version] Animals

Cowper, William

(128 words)

Author(s): Erlebach, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1731, Great Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire – Apr 25, 1800, East Dereham, Norfolk), English pre-Romantic poet of great sensitivity, inclined to melancholy. His poems show a new, subjective and lyrical ability of expression in his representation of nature, its God-given soul and the influence of both on personal human development. In this regard Cowper paved the way for Robert Burns and W. Wordsworth. Tossed about between awareness of …

Cowper, William Macquarie

(186 words)

Author(s): Treloar, Geoffrey R.
[German Version] (Jul 3, 1810, Sydney – Jun 14, 1902, Sydney), the first native-born Anglican clergyman in New South Wales and first dean of Sydney. Educated privately and at Oxford (1828–1832), he was ordained in 1833 and served as a curate in Dartmouth 1833–1835 before returning to New South Wales in 1836 to become chaplain to the Australian Agricultural Company in Stroud. In 1855 he moved to Sydney, where bishop Barker appointed him acting principal of Moore C…

Crafts and Artifacts

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Lambacher, Lothar
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Art History I. Archaeology The term “crafts” refers to the production of objects and implements of all kinds – in other words, what are now usually called the “practical arts.” In the ancient Near East, there was no terminology for crafts, nor were there explicit theories concerning art. Sometimes mythology attributed crafts to culture heroes (Gen 4:22; 6; cf. Philo of Byblos) or some deity or patron like the later figures of Joseph, the …


(866 words)

Author(s): John, Peter
[German Version] I. Production of goods and provision of services (Service sector) by skilled craftsmen is closely associated with the development of humankind and the human economic and social order. In the urban economy of the Middle Ages, it made up the sum total of commercial production in the local economy. As industrial means of production multiplied, there emerged criteria identifying crafts as an autonomous and self-contained economic sector. Crafts are ch…

Cramer, Daniel

(158 words)

Author(s): Gummelt, Volker
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1568, Reetz, Neumark – Oct 5, Stettin), a Lutheran theologian, studied in Rostock, Wittenberg and elsewhere, worked as a teacher in Stettin from 1595, as well as court preacher at St. Marien, Stettin from 1597, and administered the General Superintendency of Pomerania-Stettin from 1613 to 1618. Cramer authored the first complete Lutheran church history of Pomerania ( Das Grosse pomrische Kirchen-Chronicon, 1602, suppl. ed. 1628). Important for Protestant edifying literature (II, 2) are his sometimes polyglot emblematic works ( Emblemata Sacra, 1617/24,…

Cramer, Johann Andreas

(301 words)

Author(s): Jakubowski-Tiessen, Manfred
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1723, Jöhstadt, Saxony – Jun 12, 1788, Kiel), theologian, lyricist, and song-writer. After attending the princes' school in Grimma, Cramer studied theology in Leipzig and became pastor in Kröllwitz, Saxony in 1748, high court preacher and consistorial counselor in Quedlinburg in 1750, and court preacher in Copenhagen in 1754 on the recommendation of F.G. Klopstock; from 1765, furthermore, he was professor of theology there, in 1771 super…

Cramer, Wolfgang

(175 words)

Author(s): Dierken, Jörg
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1901, Hamburg – Apr 2, 1974, Frankfurt am Main), professor of philosophy in Frankfurt from 1951. Cramer's work combined (a) a transcendental ontology of subjectivity classified as category theory with (b) a speculative theory of the absolute. The former (a), starting from the individual subject, answers the “fundamental question” of the ¶ object of knowledge, an object known to be non-posited, with a “monadological” (G.W. Leibniz) and original productivity of consciousness. The latter (b) supplies the q…

Cram, Ralph Adams

(179 words)

Author(s): Howes, Graham
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1863, Hampton Falls, NH – Sep 22, 1942, Boston, MA), the most eminent and influential American ecclesiastical architect of the early 20th century. A passionate medievalist, he worked primarily in the Gothic Revival style for a variety of denominations and educational institutions. His acknowledged masterpieces are St. Thomas, Fifth Avenue (1906–1914), the Cathedral of St. John the Divine (1914–1941), both in New York City, and Princeton …

Cranach, Lucas, the Elder

(514 words)

Author(s): Vinzent, Jutta
[German Version] (1471, Kronach – Oct 16, 1553, Weimar), painter, copper etching and wood engraving artist, has gone down in history as Saxon court artist in Wittenberg, friend, and de facto official portrait-painter of Luther. Before he was called by elector Frederick the Wise to Wittenberg as court painter in 1504, he spent a number of years in Vienna. His first documented painting is the Crucifixion (1503, Munich, Alte Pinakothek), which displays characteristics of the Danube School. In Wittenberg he was quick to open a studio (in 1507 the fi…

Cranmer, Thomas

(375 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Jul 2, 1489, Aslockton, Nottinghamshire – Mar 21, 1556, Oxford), an English reformer who made a significant contribution to the formation of the via media of the Anglican Church. Stemming from the lower landed gentry, Cranmer studied from 1503 in Cambridge. After his M.A., he was elected in 1515 as a fellow in the Jesus College (consecrated to the priesthood c. 1520); he concluded his studies in 1526 as a D.D. (Doctor of Divinity). In these years, Cranmer was concerned…

Crasselius, Bartholomäus

(181 words)

Author(s): Miersemann, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1667, Wernsdorf near Glauchau, Saxony – Nov 10, 1724, Düsseldorf). In 1688 Crasselius entered the University of Leipzig, where he joined the Pietistic movement. In the course of anti-Pietist repression he followed his teacher A.H. Francke to Erfurt in 1690 and to Halle later. After a time in East Prussia working as a collector for the Halle orphanage, he began a clerical ministry in 1702 as deacon in Nidda (Wetterau). From 1708 until his…

Crato von Crafftheim

(201 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Johannes Kraft; Nov 20, 1519, Breslau – Oct 19, 1585, Breslau) came to Wittenberg to study in 1535 and lived with Luther for six years, though he did not participate in the transmission of the table-talks. From 1543 he studied medicine in Leipzig, and in 1546 in Padua and Bologna (1549 In 1550 he became city physician in Breslau and served in the fight against the plague. As a supporter of Melanchthon in his doctrine of the Eucharist (…

Creamer, David

(168 words)

Author(s): Leaver, Robin A.
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1812, Baltimore, MD – Apr 8, 1887, Baltimore, MD), a Methodist and the earliest American hymnologist. Between 1832 and 1857 he was a partner in the family timber merchant business and from 1861 to 1879 he held minor positions in the federal government in Baltimore. He wrote poetry, articles for journals, and was the co-editor (1836–1838) of the weekly newspaper Baltimore Monument. Creamer developed an interest in hymnody, especially the hymns of Methodism. Through contacts with booksellers in England Creamer assembled a…


(367 words)

Author(s): Peters, Ted
[German Version] is the term for the teaching that the human soul is brought to life by means of a direct act of God. This view follows from the assumption of a noncorporeal or spiritual nature of the soul. Creatianism differs from traducianism (Tertullian, An. XVIII), according to which the soul of the parents is passed on physically to their children through reproduction. Since the soul is noncorporeal, however, it cannot be subject to such a physical generation. Creatianism is at odds with metempsychosis or transmi…

Creatio continua

(566 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian
[German Version] (“continuous creation”) aims to express the idea that the created world is dependent at each moment in its temporal existence on the active presence of God for its maintenance and subsistence. ¶ The term interprets the conservatio and at the same time shifts it in the closest conceivable proximity of the concept of initial creation (VI): “For God, creation and maintenance are one and the same thing” (Luther). If creation is not to remain a speculative idea, of no consequenc…

Creatio ex nihilo

(1,915 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter | Link, Christian
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Dogmatics I. Bible 1. Hebrew Bible Older interpretations (most recently: Copan) of Gen 1:1, 2, that God created the tohuwabohu, etc. from nothing (Creation; Chaos: II) in order subsequently to shape it in the six days of creation have been abandoned. However one assesses the syntax of Gen 1:1–3, the consensus maintains: the framework of Gen 1:1+2:4a speaks of the creation of the ordered world of life, but Gen 1:2 mentions (de-mythologizing Me…


(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences for any society. But reality also includes the danger that this world may be imperiled or perilous. Chaos and death are part …

Creation, Christ as Agent of

(684 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] The doctrine of Christ as the agent of creation relates God's actions in the con¶ texts of creation and redemption to one another and opposes an understanding of creation that is not associated with Jesus Christ as well as a conception of redemption that bears no relationship to creation. The concept of the agent of creation is defined in reference to 1 Cor 8:6: all things are through Jesus Christ. The notion that the second person of the Trinity created the world is also attested in Col 1:15–17; Heb 1:3; John 1:3, 10; Rev 3:14. In…


(274 words)

Author(s): Maddox, Marty Miller
[German Version] refers broadly to the view that the origin of life corresponds to a literal understanding of the Bible, especially of Genesis 1 and 2. Creationists represent the opinion that God, in accordance with the infallible, authoritative Scripture, directly and supernaturally created the natural world and the various biological species in it by means of special procedures that are no longer operative. They often refer to the flood as the universal, catast…

Creation, Order of

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics The revelation (V) of Christ discloses to faith that the meaning and truth of Jesus' life for human life in the present is creation in the process of realizing its goal, the consummation of God's kingdom. At the same time, it discloses the mystery of Jesus' person as the incarnate Logos of the Creator and thus the true nature of his work, grounded in the Creator's eternal will for ¶ communion, reconciliation, and consummation (Dogmatics: II): the work of creation that provides human life in the present. Its purpose …


(1,697 words)

Author(s): Stoellger, Philipp | Martin, Gerhard Marcel | Lukas, Josef
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Psychology I. Philosophy of Religion Creativity became an issue in the Judeo-Christian context with regard to the Creator. In contrast to the Platonic demiurge or to the Aristotelian unmoved mover, the triune God is creative. The (re-)assigning of creativity to the human being should be understood against this background. It applies to the human only in a limited way. From the perspective of the philosophy of religion, creativity exhibits different accentuat…


(6 words)

[German Version] Creation

Creator Spiritus

(356 words)

Author(s): Wainwright, Geoffrey
[German Version] designates the third person of the Holy Trinity in his capacity as “Creator Spirit.” In the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit) is confessed as “sovereign, life- giving.” Traditional Christian theology sees an OT witness to the presence and operation of the Spirit at the beginning of creation (Gen 1:2; cf. Ps 33:6, “by the breath of his mouth”), and in the renewal of “the face of the earth” (Ps 104:29–30) and of “the house of Israel” (Ezek 37:1–14). In the NT the Holy Spirit is the …


(757 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] Insight into the createdness of the world and human beings is rooted in the Christian belief in the triune God as Creator of the world (Creation). The confession of God as Creator must thus be formulated as a statement about one's own creatureliness: “I would believe that God has created me together with all creatures” (Luther, Short Catechism, art. 1, BSLK 510). Human experience of oneself and of the world is interpreted entirely in the horizon of one's relationship to God. Thus the structures of the experience of life ar…


(391 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] A credit establishes an in personam relationship between a credit-giver (creditor) and a credit-receiver (debtor). The creditor lends the debtor an amount of money fixed by contract. In return, the debtor takes on the obligation to repay the entire amount to the creditor at the end of the term of the credit. As a fee for the credit, a specified interest rate (Interest) is agreed upon which the debtor must pay the creditor within a defined period for t…


(932 words)

Author(s): Marthaler, Berard L. | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The Creed (Confession [of faith]) has always had a prominent part in the liturgy. It had its beginnings in the liturgy in the three-part interrogations that asked those to be baptized: “Do you believe in God the Father… Do you believe in Jesus Christ… Do you believe in the Holy Spirit…?” By the end of the 2nd century, the declaratory form that is common today had begun to develop. By the 4th century it was customary i…

Creed of Union 433 CE

(14 words)

[German Version] Ephesus, Council of, Nestorian Controversy


(281 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | de Groot, Aart
[German Version] 1. Johann (Crellius; Jul 26, 1590, Hellmitzheim, Franconia – Jun 11, 1633, Rákow, Poland) attended school in Nuremberg from 1600 to 1603, then until 1605 in Stolberg in the Harz mountains; in Nov 1607 he began his studies at Altdorf, where he served as alumni superintendent. There he came in contact with the crypto-Socinians around the physician E. Soner. In Dec 1612 he fled to Rákow, where he became professor of Greek and served as rector from 1616 to 16…

Crell, Nikolaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; 1552, Leipzig – Oct 9, 1601, Dresden) attended school in Grimma 1568–1571, studied in Leipzig 1571–1576, received the M.A. on Jan 25, 1576, the Baccalaureus iurium on Jun 17, 1576, traveled to France in 1577, and may have received the Dr.iur. in Valence. He established contact with François Hotman in Geneva, married Margarete Grieben from Leipzig on Aug 4, 1577, lectured in Leipzig (?), and became counselor to the court in Dresden on Feb …

Crell, Paul

(145 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; Feb 2, 1531, Eisleben – May 24/27, 1579, Meißen) began studies in Wittenberg in November 1548, received the M.A. on Feb 22, 1552, ordained on Sep 29, 1556, was preacher in the palace chapel in Wittenberg, received the Dr.Theol. on Dec 7, 1559, ¶ became professor of theology in Wittenberg in January 1560 and rector of the University in the summer of 1563, transferred to the consistory of Meißen on Jun 20, 1569, professor at Wittenberg once again from June 1574 to spring 1577, and transferred back …


(934 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Richard | de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] I. History and Law – II. Practical Theology I. History and Law In antiquity, cremation was widespread. Christianity, however, following a Jewish model, preferred interment (Burial: V). By the middle of the third century ce, cremation disappeared almost entirely across the Roman Empire, and Charlemagne prohibited it in 785. For the next millennium cremation remained the exception, surfacing in circumstances of mass deaths. Only under the influence of the Enlightenment was it reintroduced. …

Cremer, August Hermann

(773 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1834, Unna – Oct 4, 1903, Greifswald), Protestant theologian. A graduate of the Gütersloh Protestant Gymnasium, from simple origins and shaped by the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), he studied in Halle from 1853 with F.A.G. Tholuck and Julius Müller and in Tübingen from 1856 with J.T. Beck. Here he established a close friendship with M. Kähler. After a brief stay at the Wittenberg Seminary for Preachers, Cremer received the Lic.Theol. on the basis of his Die eschatologische Rede Jesu Christi Matthäi 24.25 (“The Eschatological Discou…


(108 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] term for the descendants of European migrants who settled in Latin America during the colonial period, or for the descendants of African slaves in the Caribbean. White Creoles played a crucial role in the independence movements that led to the establishment of the Latin American states. In addition, they formed the first indigenous clergy of the Catholic Church. The term “Creole languages” denotes local dialects that emerged within the slave comm…

Crescas, Hasdai ben Abraham

(141 words)

Author(s): Leicht, Reimund
[German Version] (1367, Barcelona – 1412, Zaragoza), as the leading personality among the Spanish Jews (Sephardim), Crescas devoted himself to the material and intellectual rebuilding of communities after the persecutions of 1391. His polemical work Bittul 'Iqqare ha-Nozrim also served this purpose. In his chief philosophical work, Or Adonai (also known as Or ha-Shem), he proposed, against the Aristotelianism of M. Maimonides the possibility of the infinity of space, time, and causes, thus eliminating the foundations for Maimonides's…


(167 words)

Author(s): Kriegbaum, Bernhard
[German Version] was a Donatist layman and grammarian who defended Petilianus, the Donatist bishop of Constantina (Numidia), against Augustine in a fragmentarily preserved letter dating from c. 401. His work can only be inferred from Augustine's response (c. 405/406). Following personal attacks on Augustine, Cresconius proceeds to elaborate a justification of the customary rebaptism of converted Catholics in Donatism on the basis of Cyprian of Carthage's understanding of sacrament and church. He then insists on the necessity of separa¶ tion from the traditores (Persecu…

Crete, Church of

(442 words)

Author(s): Papaderos, Alexandros
[German Version] Cretans were present at Pentecost (Acts 2:11) and they evidently made the island the first gateway for the reception of the gospel on European soil. Scholarship has not yet given a consensus answer to the question of origins. The Epistle to Titus, the first apostle and bishop of Crete, imparts early information. Although the Cretans did not have a good name (probably because of the claim that Zeus died on Crete – his grave was even venerat…

Creuzer, Georg Friedrich

(217 words)

Author(s): Berner, Hans-Ulrich
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1771, Marburg – Feb 10, 1858, Heidelberg) began studying theology and philosophy in Marburg in 1789, but changed to philology and the history of literature in Jena. After returning to Marburg, he habilitated in ancient history and classical literature in 1799 and became assistant professor (1800) and then professor (1802) of Greek language and eloquence. In 1804, Creuzer went to Heidelberg to teach until he retired in 1845. He held membe…


(578 words)

Author(s): Loos, Fritz
[German Version] I. The word crime appears in a wide range of contexts, both in technical (e.g. moral philosophy or history) and everyday usage; it is especially common in the usage of practical ethics. The term is defined more closely in the various fields of criminal law, both normative (criminal law dogmatics as the theory of positive criminal law, criminal policy) and empirical (criminology). II. Normative criminal law commonly distinguishes between formal and material concepts of crime, although the exact boundary between them is a matter of deba…

Criminal Law

(3,505 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Sellert, Wolfgang | Loos, Fritz | May, Georg | Krawietz, Birgit
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. History – III. German Criminal Law Today – IV. Penal Canon Law (Roman Catholic) – V. Islam I. Old Testament Old Testament law (Law and legislation: II) emerged from three sources: (1) it reinforced mutual expectations based on norms of behavior by means of criminal ¶ laws supporting general prevention of criminal conduct; (2) it minimized violence by regulating conflicts through casuistic law (Law and jurisprudence: III) as the precursor of modern civil law, and (3) it regulated int…

Cripps, Arthur Shearly

(432 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jun 10, 1869, Kent – Aug 1, 1952, Southern Rhodesia), Anglican priest, missionary and campaigner for African political and social rights in the settler-dominated society of colonial Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). An Anglo-Catholic (Anglo-Catholicism), 1901 Cripps was sent by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to Mashonaland. Later he acquired over 7000 acres of land, where he built a church named Maronda Mashanu (“…


(817 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten | Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] I. Ethics – II. Practical Theology I. Ethics The Greek noun κρίσις/ krísis originally denoted the action derived from the verb κρίνειν/ krínein: (a) “sepa¶ ration, quarrel”; (b) “selection”; (c) “decision, judgment, verdict”; (d) “turning point (in a battle or disease)” (cf. also criticism, kairology). The adoption of the forensic sense in the LXX added a theological dimension to the term. In the NT, krísis stands for the verdict of the judge, the court of judgment, and especially the eschatological Divine Judgment, the ultimate separ…

Crisis Cults

(350 words)

Author(s): Laubscher, Matthias Samuel
[German Version] Students of religion have accepted the ethnological term crisis cult, introduced by La Barre in 1971, as a systematic hypernym for movements in non-Western societies which earlier 20th-century ethnology treated under such headings as apocalypticism, cargo cults, millenarianism/chiliasm, deliverance movements, revival movements (Revival/Revival movements), ghost dance, collective hysteria, nativism, peyote cult, prophetic revival movements, …

Crispin and Crispinian, Saints

(118 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] The feast of St. Crispin and St. Crispinian is observed on Oct 15. The veneration of their burial place is attested by a 6th-century church in Soissons, where (according to the legendary Passio) they suffered martyrdom during the reign of Diocletian, after having made shoes for the poor without charge. In the 9th century, relics came to Osnabrück and they became that city's patron saints. Since the High Middle Ages, they have been venerated as the patron saints of shoemakers, tanners, and saddlers. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Sources: ActaSS Oct. XI, 1864, 495–540 Gre…

Cristiada, La

(293 words)

Author(s): Kruip, Gerhard
[German Version] (also known as the Cristero rebellion), an armed conflict (1926–1929) between the post-revolutionary Mexican government under Plutarco Elías Calles (1924–1928) and rebellious Catholics defending the freedom of the church against the state. They were called Cristeros on account of their battle-cry “Viva ¶ Cristo Rey!” (“Long live Christ the King!”). The bishops announced a strike in respect of church services in protest against the laws enacted in 1926 that implemented the anti-ecclesiastical revolutionary …


(500 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] is the theory (the epitome of statements) of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the (given) presence of distinctions. We need a criteriology to carry out our praxis of distinction deliberately and responsibly – both for appropriate apprehension of distinctions already made (either through our own praxis or through processes for which we are not responsible), in other words, for our actions that construct symbols, and for our own appropri…

Critical Rationalism

(510 words)

Author(s): Ruß, Hans Günther
[German Version] is a philosophy conceived by the Austrian philosopher K.R. Popper in the 1930s, initially as a theory of empirical epistemology, which was gradually expanded into an instrument of general rational problem solving. In it, Popper engaged critically with the epistemology (I) of I. Kant and with the Empiricism of the Vienna Circle. Characteristic for the critical-rational approach is the critique of the thesis that one can only speak of knowledge in the true sense if the object of knowledge in question is true with a cert…

Critical Theory

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Moxter, Michael | Junker-Kenny, Maureen
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Practical Theology I. Philosophy Critical theory is the designation for the philosophical program of the Frankfurt School, a group of philosophers and social scientists belonging to the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research) founded in 1923 in Frankfurt am Main. The term traces to an essay by M. Horkheimer, Traditionelle und kritische Theorie (1937; ET: “Traditional and Critical Theory,” in: idem, Critical Theory: Selected Essays, 1972) and was then adopted as the general c…


(467 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] from Greek κρίνειν/ krínein, “distinguish, decide, judge,” is methodical evaluation based on well-founded criteria. In everyday usage, the word is identified with negative assessment; in philosophical usage, however, it denotes the weighing of both positive and negative values and the discussion of validity claims. The ancient Greeks already distinguished epistemological, practical (political), and philological concepts of criticism (Pre-Socr…


(900 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] The Republic of Croatia covers an area of 56,542 km2; in 2004 it had an estimated population of 4,500,000. The 2001 census reported an ethnic makeup of 89.6% Croats, 4.5% Serbs, 0.5% Muslims (Bosniaks), 0.4% Hungarians, 0.3% Slovenians, and 4.7% from other minorities. Its capital is Zagreb. Dalmatia was home to Jewish communities from the time of the Romans into the modern period; in the rest of Croatia, this continuity was interrupted from the 15th to the 18th century until new communities formed as a result of …

Croce, Benedetto

(297 words)

Author(s): Volpi, Franco
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1866, Pescasseroli – Nov 20, 1952, Naples). Along with Giovanni Gentile, Croce was a leading representative of Italian neo-idealism. He served as Minister of Education in 1920/1921 and 1925 wrote an anti-fascist manifesto; from 1943 to 1947 he was president of the reestablished Italian Liberal Party. Following G.W.F. Hegel, Croce developed a “philosophy of spirit” that understands itself as absolute historicism and asserts that what is r…


(392 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] 1. Ludwig (Mar 29, 1586, Laasphe – Dec 7, 1655, Bremen). After studying at Herborn, Marburg, and Basel (Dr.theol. 1609), the Reformed theologian Ludwig Crocius became a pastor in Bremen and professor at the Gymnasium Illustre, of which he later became headmaster. With M. Martini and Heinrich Isselburg, he participated in the Synod of Dort as a delegate from the Bremen church. He was a prominent representative of the school of Bremen theologians fou…

Cromwell, Oliver

(577 words)

Author(s): Sheils, William J.
[German Version] (Apr 25, 1599, Huntingdon – Sep 3, 1658, London) was born into a relatively humble branch of a well-connected landholding family in Huntingdonshire and was elected MP for the county town in 1628. Following his defeat in a disputed election of a lecturer and preacher for the town Cromwell moved to nearby St. Ives, where he continued as a yeoman farmer during the 1630s. His career took off following the outbreak of the Civil Wars, when his military …

Cromwell, Thomas

(235 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485?, Putney – Jul 28, 1540, London). Born into humble circumstances, after a turbulent youth Cromwell acquired enough legal knowledge (probably self-taught) to find employment as a solicitor. Around 1520 he came to work for Cardinal T. Wolsey; in 1523 he became a member of Parliament. After Wolsey's fall in 1529, he continued to pursue his own career. Made a member of the royal council by Henry VIII in 1531, he consolidated his position…

Crosby, Frances Jane

(193 words)

Author(s): Blumhofer, Edith
[German Version] (Fanny; Mar 24, 1820, Southeast, NY – Feb 12, 1915, Bridgeport, CT), hymnwriter. Crosby was the only child of John and Mercy Crosby. Blinded in infancy, Crosby moved to New York City in 1835 into the home for the blind, where her poetic and musical talents were nurtured. After completing her education, Crosby became a teacher at the institution. In 1858, she resigned. After publishing three books of poetry as well as lyrics for cantatas and secul…


(4,480 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Taeger, Jens-Wilhelm | Köpf, Ulrich | Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Alex
[German Version] I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions – II. Crucifixion in Antiquity – III. The Crucifixion of Christ – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatic Theology – VI. The Cross in Modern Art I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions From prehistoric times to the present, various forms of the cross have appeared in many non-Christian cultures and religions, used both as a religious symbol and as an ornamental design (the boundaries are fluent). It is a primal human symbol. As such it is polysemous and has …

Cross, Exaltation of the

(359 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (also Triumph of the Cross). The liturgical observance of the Exaltation of the Cross, still celebrated in the Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church on Sep 14, goes back to the veneration of the relics (II, 3) of the cross after the “finding ¶ of the true cross” ( inventio verae crucis) at Calvary in the 4th century. The Itinerarium of the pilgrim Egeria (c. 384) describes an annual feast on Sep 14 in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Anastasis), commemorating the finding and exaltation of the cross at Golgotha. In the l…

Cross, Feasts of the

(266 words)

Author(s): Gerhards, Albert
[German Version] Most of the feasts of the cross recall the (putative) finding of the historical cross of Jesus, which was first celebrated on Sep 14, 335, at the consecration of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. There is evidence for a rite of the Exaltation of the Cross (Cross, Exaltation of the) in Byzantium as early as the 7th century. This rite was borrowed by the West in the same century, probably following the recapture of the cross by Emperor Heracl…

Crossley, Hugh T.

(111 words)

Author(s): Kee, Kevin B.
[German Version] (1850, King City, Ontario – May 2, 1934, Toronto, Ontario), Canadian Methodist minister. Crossley formed one half of what was probably – in terms of converts made – the most successful Canadian evangelistic team ever. Together with J. Hunter, Crossley conducted meetings in smaller communities throughout the USA and Canada. Altogether, Crossley ¶ led 400 revival campaigns over the course of his 26-year career. As a result of his preaching, over 200,000 people, including Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, professed a conversion to Christ. Kevin B.Ke…

Cross, Orders and Congregations of the Holy

(1,136 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Orders of Men – II. Orders of Women I. Orders of Men 1. Generally speaking, the terms Cruciferi, Crocigeri, and Cruciati refer to members of hospital orders (Hospitallers) and various other orders of knights (Knights, Orders of) whose clothing is adorned with the sign of the cross. More specifically, they are applied to the members of numerous congregations of canons regular that originated in the period of the Crusades, such as the Canons Regular of the…


(414 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund
[German Version] The construction, extension, and maintenance of roadway networks correlate with the emergence of settlements, towns, and cities (Town and city) and are among the early achievements of advanced civilizations. In ancient Greece, a dense and easily usable network of roads linked city states separated by impassable mountains. Crossroads were often marked by herms intended both to protect against the risks of travel and to serve as landmarks. The …

Crotus Rubeanus

(210 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Johann Jäger; 1480, Dornheim near Arnstadt, Thüringen – c. 1545, Halberstadt), German humanist. He enrolled at the University of Erfurt in 1498, where he joined the circle of humanists around Mutianus Rufus, and lived in the same students' hostel as Luther. He became the mentor of U. v. Hutten around 1503, and earned his M.A. in 1507. He was the principal author of the first section of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum , which was written in Fulda in 1515. In 1517, he completed his Dr. theol. in Bologna, where he became a…


(7 words)

[German Version] Insignia, Coronation

Crowther, Samuel Ajayi

(565 words)

Author(s): Ajayi, J.F. Ade.
[German Version] (c. 1806, Osogun, Nigeria – Dec 31, 1891, Lagos, Nigeria), the first black African bishop in modern times. Enslaved in 1821 at the age of about 15, he was on board a Brazilian brig for export when it was captured by the British anti-slavery squadron off the coast of Lagos. He arrived in Freetown in 1822, where he was educated by Church Missionary Society (CMS) missionaries. In 1841 he accompanied the British Niger Expedition and became known thro…


(6 words)

[German Version] Cross/Crucifixion


(268 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Caspar (the Elder; Jan 1, 1504, Leipzig – Nov 16, 1548, Wittenberg) studied in Leipzig (1513–1523) and Wittenberg, and became preacher and schoolmaster in Magdeburg in 1525. Returning to Wittenberg in 1528, he earned his doctorate in 1533. As professor of theology and collaborator of Luther (Bible revision, printing of sermons, edition of Luther's works) and Melanchthon (Disputations, Religious; Augsburg Interim), he ¶ sparked off a dispute over justification in 1536, when he called for repentance and good deeds. He played a part in the reformation of L…

Crüger, Johann

(414 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1598, Groß Breesen near Guben – Feb 23, 1662, Berlin) was the most important Protestant creator of song melodies. The history of the hymnal is also indebted to him for essential impulses. After studying theology and music in Wittenberg, he was cantor at the Nikolai Church in Berlin from 1622 until his death. In addition to writings on music theory ( Synopsis musica 1630, 21654), there are a considerable number of compositions (including settings of the Magnificat for two choirs and soloist parts accompanied by general bass: Meditationum musicarum Paradisus sec…


(4,060 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter | Düchting, Reinhard | Möhring, Hannes | Mentgen, Gerd
[German Version] I. History – II. Literature – III. From the Muslim Perspective – IV. Effects on the Jews I. History 1. Concept The Middle Ages did not develop a clear term for the crusades. The word itself is only documented at a late point. What research calls the crusades in the narrower sense of the word are the crusades which were begun at the end of the 11th century by Latin Christendom to reconquer or defend Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 by the Christ…

Crusius, Christian August

(183 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1715, Leuna – Oct 18, 1775, Leipzig) was appointed adjunct professor of philosophy in Leipzig in 1744 and professor of theology at the same university in 1750. As a philosopher, Crusius gave anti-Wolffianism (C. Wolff) its definitive form. By distinguishing between epistemic or ideal causes and real causes, he was able to contest the ontological proof of the existence of God, as well as Leibniz-Wolffian determinism and the notion of a preestablished harmony (G.W. Leibniz). As a theologian, ¶ Crusius was inspired by J. Cocceius and J.A. Bengel …

Cruz, Juana Inés de la

(179 words)

Author(s): Langenhorst, Annegret
[German Version] (Sor Juana; Dec 2, 1648/1651?, San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico – Apr 17, 1695, Mexico City), OSH. The Creole Juana Ramírez de Asbaje, born out of wedlock, rose, thanks to her outstanding intelligence, to become a lady at court. She had a close friendship with the viceroy Maria Luisa Manrique de Lara, who had Cruz's works published in Spain beginning in 1689. From 1669, the encyclopedically educated autodidact was able to give life to her extraordinar…


(352 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] is the name that was once given to those persons who originated from or were active in the areas dominated by the Lutheran confession and who, according to the judgment of confessionally Lutheran theologians of the late 16th century, advocated doctrinal views or practical approaches that were intented to undermine the status of the Lutheran denomination by secretly bringing it closer to Reformed or Calvinist positions. In scholarly publications, …


(1,016 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] is the largest, most westerly and most thickly populated island in the Caribbean. Cuba's location between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean gives the island strategic advantages. The republic encompasses 114,524 km2 with a population of 1,051,000. 70% of the total population are white, 17% are of mixed race, 12% black, and 1% Asiatic. Religious affiliation is difficult to ascertain: 39.6% are Catholics, 1.4% are Protestants (Anglicans, Methodists, Presbyterians, and Pentecostals), 48.7% b…

Cuius regio, eius religio

(231 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] (“whose region, his religion”) is the slogan-like abbreviation of the state-church system in the old Empire characterized by the ius reformandi for territorial princes created in the Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555). According to this, rulers are justified in determining the confession in their territories, although they were restricted to the Roman Catholic or the Augsburg Confession. In addition, there were a number of special regulations, for imperial cit¶ ies, for example. Those not of the regional confession were granted the right to emigrate ( Ius emigrand…

Cullmann, Oscar

(341 words)

Author(s): Prigent, Pierre
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1902, Strasbourg – Jan 16, 1999, Chamonix) was professor of New Testament studies and Early Church history and an ecumenicist. After studying and teaching in Strasbourg, Cullmann became professor of New Testament studies there in 1930. From 1938 to 1972, he held the chair of NT studies and Early Church history at Basel. In addition, he held professorships in Strasbourg (1945–1948) and Paris (1948–1968). In 1972, he was elected a member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques. After beginning as a literary critic with works on the pse…

Cult Authors

(489 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] I. The term cult authors refers to a group of authors who collected and explicated the primary documents of the cults of the Greeks and Romans (rituals, calendars, cultic laws, priestly regulations, protocols, etc.). The group, which cannot be easily differentiated from local historians, periegetes, antiquarians, and theologians, includes about 100 authors (5th cent. bce to the end of the 4th cent. ce). Their themes and titles are: a. On Days (Gk perí hēmerón), On Months, On Feasts; b. On Sacrifices (Gk perí thysión), On Mysteries, On Dedications, On Purification…

Cult-Historical Method

(7 words)

[German Version] Cult/Worship

Cult-Historical School

(561 words)

Author(s): Hjelde, Sigurd
[German Version] It is not really appropriate to speak of the cult-historical school as a single historical entity; at best, one can refer to various research milieus or working groups, which have translated leading motifs of the cult-historical method into practice on a broad basis and which have, thus, stamped scholarship in general. The closest to a clearly defined “school” are – apart from the Cambridge Ritualists of the early 20th century – those initiative…

Cultic Objects

(7 words)

[German Version] Temple
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