Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(242 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Lat. cumulatio; cumulare, “to accumulate”) occurs in Catholic canon law dealing with both penalties and offices. In canon penal law (Ecclesiastical penalties), the fundamental principle is to impose as many penalties as criminal offenses committed ( tot poenae quot delicta). In the event that the accumulation ¶ of all imposed individual penalties results in an excessive aggregate penalty, the judge may mitigate the penalty (cc. 1344, 1346 CIC/1983; cf. c. 2224 CIC/1917; c. 1409 §1, 30 CCEO). Cumulation applies in cases of repeated offense during a probat…


(6 words)

[German Version] Paleography

Cura religionis

(734 words)

Author(s): Heckel, Martin
[German Version] is a designation in Protestant theology and church law describing the responsibility of the secular authorities for guaranteeing the true confession and essence of the church. With cura religionis the role of the church's secular arm that medieval canonical law attributed to the authorities is overcome, but it is also distinguished from the rule over the church exercised by regional rulers in the late Middle Ages. It went through a profound metamorphosis during the onset of the modern era. Luther and Melanchthon based the cura religionis on their doctrine of the t…


(8 words)

[German Version] Pfarrvikar (Curate). seen

Curcellaeus, Stephanus

(157 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Etienne de Courcelle; May 2, 1586, Geneva – May 20, 1659, Amsterdam) was, alongside S. Episcopius, J. Clericus and P. van Limborch, one of the most important representatives of 17th century Arminian theology (Arminians). He studied in Zürich, Basel, Heidelberg, and was pastor in Fontainebleau, Amiens and Vitry from 1614; he moved to Amsterdam, where he was professor of theology in the Arminian Seminary after 1643. His position, following J. Acon…

Cureus, Joachim

(155 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 23, 1532, Kozuchów (Freystadt), Silesia, Poland – Jan 21, 1573, Glogów (Glogau), Silesia, Poland). After studying at Wittenberg from 1550 to 1554 and teaching in Freystadt, Cureus went to Padua and Bologna in 1557, where he received a medical degree (Dr. med.) in 1558. In 1559, he began working as a doctor in Glogau. He wrote medical, historical, and theological books, including the anonymous Exegesis perspicua et ferme intégra controversiae de sacra coena, published posthumously (in 1574), in which he argued that the Melanchthon School dev…

Curia, Roman

(8 words)

[German Version] Roman Curia

Curione, Celio Secondo

(160 words)

Author(s): Campi, Emidio
[German Version] (1503, Cirie, Piemont – 1569) accepted Reformation ideas in the course of his study of literature and jurisprudence at the University of Turin. His critique of traditional religion brought him into increasing conflict with the church authorities. In 1536, he was called as professor to the University of Pavia, but was already dismissed three years later under ¶ pressure from the Inquisition. He moved to Venice, Ferrara and Lucca, and enjoyed a friendship with Peter Martyr Vermigli and H. Zanchius until he had to flee …


(8 words)

[German Version] Blessing and Cursing

Custodia utriusque tabulae

(232 words)

Author(s): Heckel, Martin
[German Version] refers in Protestant theology and jurisprudence since Melanchthon to the obligation of Christian authorities to apply the Decalogue in the externa disciplina, i.e. the secular power's external maintenance of the world in the service of its redemption through the spiritual power's proclamation of the gospel. Consequently, the maintenance of the first tablet takes priority among the governing duties of the magistratus christianus, that is, care for the public dissemination of true evangelical doctrine, protection from blasphemous publi…

Custody of the Holy Land

(190 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Leonhard
[German Version] Francis of Assisi spent time in 1219/1220 in Egypt, Syria and Palestine and sent brothers to the Holy Land. The division of the order in 1217 into provinces created the province of Terra sancta. It was divided in 1263 into the custodies of Cyprus, Syria and the Holy Land. Here, in particular, Franciscans attend to many pilgrims even today. The Custody of the Holy Land is an independent province led by the custos (the “Guardian of Mount Zion”). The general leadership of the order chooses the custos for a term of six years. The Holy See must ratify the choice. Today, ¶ around …


(214 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Leander
[German Version] is a basic phenomenon of social life and manifests itself in regularly recurring ritualized sequences of social behavior. Within the group (community), custom as a social act is required by convention in the form of social imperatives. All significant steps and turning points in human life undergo a customary configuration in the rites of passage (transitional rites). Apart from the biological (birth, marriage, death) and social (neighborhood, co…
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