Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Conditio humana

(298 words)

Author(s): Adriaanse, Hendrik Johan
[German Version] The expression conditio humana can best be understood against the background of the philosophical anthropology that developed into an independent discipline in the course of the 20th century. It appears already in a non-technical sense in Cicero ( Tusc. I, 8, 15). B. Pascal describes the condition de l'homme as inconstancy, boredom, and anxiety ( Pensées [Lafuma] 20). The expression refers to human life or the human condition as such, its general character, raising the fundamental anthropological question: what makes hum…

Confederación Latinoamericana de Religiosos (CLAR)

(380 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] (CLAR) was founded on Mar 2, 1959 at the wish of the Apostolic See and the Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano (CELAM) with approbation of the statutes. It is subject to the papal Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life and consists of the national conferences of the leaders of the higher orders of the Latin American and Caribbean countries. The executive board consists of the president and three representatives. Th…

Conference of European Churches

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Linn, Gerhard
[German Version] I. Origin, Membership, and Goals – II. Development and Concerns – III. Expectations, Charta Oecumenica I. Origin, Membership, and Goals The Conference of European Churches (CEC) was founded on the initiative of Protestant church leaders from Germany, France, and the Netherlands as a platform for dialogue and cooperation among the churches of Europe on both sides of the Iron Curtain. After ¶ preparatory meetings in Brussels (1955) and Liselund, Denmark (1957), an invitation to a founding assembly of the CEC in Nyborg, Denmark, went …

Conference of German Protestant Labor Organizations

(108 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Friedhelm
[German Version] The Conference of German Protestant Labor Organizations was founded in Berlin in 1916 as a union of the institutions of social Protestantism, with the significant participation of the Home Missions. Its activities were restricted to practical fields of work, primarily in the moral sector. As the lobbying body of free Protestantism, it secured the latter's representation in the newly constituted self-administration boards of the Church. Its significance declined over the years, leading to its dissolution in 1933. Friedhelm Kraft Bibliography KJ 1916, 157–167 (…

Conference of Missionary Societies in Great Britain and Ireland (CBMS)

(177 words)

Author(s): Elliott, Donald W.
[German Version] Following the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910, the CBMS was founded on Jun 12, 1912. It drew on the experience of the London Secretaries' Association, founded in 1819 by four British missionary societies (English Missions). J.H. Oldham was its first salaried Secretary. The primary object was “the periodical consideration of matters relating to Foreign Missions” that is “among the peoples not professing the Christian religi…

Conferences, Church

(1,704 words)

Author(s): Lessing, Eckhard
[German Version] Church conferences are official or privately arranged gatherings for the discussion or negotiation, at an appropriate level, of issues that need to be decided or prepared for a decision, possibly because the committees in charge have not come to a decision or are unable to do so. The term indicates occupation with issues or organizational questions which are not clearly determined in a legal sense, even if the legal status of the church conference in …

Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil

(17 words)

[German Version] CNBB (Conferencia Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil)

Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil

(389 words)

Author(s): Beozzo, José Oscar
[German Version] (CNBB; National Conference of Brazilian Bishops) was established in Rio de Janeiro on Oct 14, 1952 to promote the unity of the Catholic episcopacy, to coordinate the pastoral activity of the 115 dioceses and prelatures, and to nurture relations between the Brazilian church (Brazil) and the Holy See, other bishops' conferences, and the organs of the state. The founder and first General Secretary (1952–1964) was the auxiliary bishop of Rio de Jane…

Confessing Church

(2,616 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] I. Background – II. Establishment – III. Fundamental Difference: Two Types – IV. Schism in the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche; BK). “Bekennende Kirche” was the self-designation of those who, from 1934, appeared alongside and in opposition to the administrative bodies dominated by the Deutsche Christen (“German Christians”) at the levels of the Reich, the state, and the community, with their own forms of organization suited to the confession. Depending on the respective legal sit…

Confessing Synods,

(666 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] the supreme administrative organs of the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche), which legitimized the creation of alternative church structures since the fall of 1934. In contrast to the national synods of the German Evangelical Church and to the administration of the church of the Reich under L. Müller, the first “Confessing Synod of the German Evangelical Church” in Barmen (May 29–31, 1934) declared itself the sole legal representative of the German Evangelical Church. (H. Asmussen probably coined the term “Confessing Synod” [ Bekenntnissynode]). Tensions in…

Confessio Augustana

(8 words)

[German Version] Augsburg Confession

Confessio Belgica

(9 words)

[German Version] Articles of Faith

Confessio Dosithei

(9 words)

[German Version] Articles of Faith

Confessio Gallicana (Confession de foi)

(12 words)

[German Version] Articles of Faith

Confessio Helvetica

(282 words)

Author(s): Bächtold, Hans Ulrich
[German Version] In the majority of cases, Confessio Helvetica doesn't refer to the Confessio Helvetica prior that originated in Basel in 1536, but to the more significant Confessio Helvetica posterior. Drawn up by H. Bullinger, this confession was published in 1566 – by request of Count Palatine Frederick III both in Latin and in German. It consists of 30 chapters arranged according to loci and deals with the Reformed doctrine of Zwingli as modified by Bullinger. Though pragmatically mild in tone, Bullinger remained adamant on crucial issues …

Confession

(2,836 words)

Author(s): Gerlitz, Peter | Ohst, Martin | Sattler, Dorothea | Root, Michael | Ivanov, Vladimir | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. Religious Studies Confession and absolution, expressive of the substantiality of guilt (I) and the impact of the spoken word with its magico-ritual power, are among the “most widespread means of structured confrontation of the ego with itself” (Hahn & Knapp, 7). They appear already in tribal societies (Kikuyu, Nuer, Acholi in East Africa) as part of purificati…

Confessional

(518 words)

Author(s): Lienhardt, Conrad | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Architecture – II. Liturgy and Practice I. Architecture A simple or throne-like, originally open, seat in the church as seating for the father confessor and the person making confession, the place for individual confession (Confession). Beginning in the 16th century, especially after the Council of Trent and the Instructiones of ¶ C. Borromeo, the originally simple wooden armchair underwent rich development. In general, from the early 17th century on, one finds the symmetrical three-part confessional, the central…

Confessional Age

(424 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] In its original usage by E. Troeltsch the term “confessional age” designated the 16th and 17th-century period of European history, distinct from the Middle Ages and the modern era, in which the “power of ecclesial culture,” in principle broken by Protestantism or the Reformation, continued to shape culture and society in the form of three “mutually exclusive and restrictive infallible churchdoms” ( HZ 1906, 29; 1911, 46); in the process of the “relative pulverization” ( ibid.) of the three confessions, the “modern world” arose. The concept of the …

Confessionalism

(636 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[German Version] The origins and the history of the concept have scarcely been investigated. The earliest known German attestations date from the Vormärz , around 1830. In terms of its conceptual history, confessionalism is thus a specifically modern phenomenon. It reflects upon dramatic processes of religio-cultural change. In many European societies, from c. 1780 onward, the drifting apart of state and society as well as a growing socio-cultural differentiation concided wit…

Confessionalization

(931 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] I. Research Paradigm – II. Recent Developments – III. 19th Century I. Research Paradigm Confessionalization is the forming of state, society, and culture as a result of the formation of a denomination in the sense of the construction of a dogmatic system of doctrine. Confessionalization is seen in association with the early-modern state and social discipline, the backgrounds of which are sought in church discipline. The starting point was the Reformation (Schilling, Konfessionskonflikt; Reformierte Konfessionalisierung). After criticism of the term …
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